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Review: Proteomic approaches to control lactational parameters in dairy cows

  • P. D. Eckersall (a1) (a2)

Abstract

The use of a proteomic approach to investigate changes in the milk proteome is growing and has parralleled the increasing technological developments in proteomics moving from early investigation using a gel-based two-dimensional separation approach to more quantitative method of current focus applying chromatography and mass spectrometry. Proteomic approaches to investigate lactational performance have made substantial findings especially in the alterations in lactation during mastitis. An experimental model of Streptococcus uberis infection of the mammary gland has been used as a means to determine change not only in the milk proteome, but also in the peptidome and in the metabolome caused by the infection. Examination of the peptidome, that is the peptides of less than 25 kDa in molecular weight, demonstrated an increase in small peptides most of which were casein degradation products but also included small bioactive peptides such as mammary-associated serum amyloid A3 (MSAA3). The peptidome has also been shown to differ depending on the causative bacteria of naturally occuring mastitis. The use of a non-gel-based relative quantitative proteomic methodology has revealed major changes in the protein component of milk in mastitis. The S. uberis infection lead to increases in the concentrations of proteins such as cathelicidins, haptoglobin, MSAA3 and decreases milk content of proteins such as xanthine oxidase, butyrophilin and β-1,4-galactosyltransferase. Analysis of all protein change data identified the acute phase, coagulation and complement pathways as well as proteins related to bile acid metabolism as being most modified. Examination of the small molecular weight organic molecules of milk using a metabolomic approach identified an increase in the content in milk during mastitis of bile acids such as taurochenodeoxycholic acid. Notable changes were also found in metabolites responding to infection of the mammary gland. Carbohydrate and nucleic acid metabolites were reduced, whereas lipid and nitrogen containing metabolites were increased. The latter included increases in amino acids along with di and tri peptides, likely to be the result of casein degradation. The use of proteomics and other omic technology is in its infancy in investigation of lactational parameters, but can already provide additional insight into the changes involved in disease and will have further value in physiological and nutritional investigation of lactation.

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References

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Review: Proteomic approaches to control lactational parameters in dairy cows

  • P. D. Eckersall (a1) (a2)

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