Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home

Olfactory evaluation of boar taint: effect of factors measured at slaughter and link with boar taint compounds

  • E. Heyrman (a1) (a2), S. Millet (a1), F. A. M. Tuyttens (a1), B. Ampe (a1), S. Janssens (a2), N. Buys (a2), J. Wauters (a3), L. Vanhaecke (a3) and M. Aluwé (a1)...

Abstract

There is a commitment by the European pig sector to ban surgical castration of male piglets in the European Union in 2018. One alternative to castration is to raise entire male pigs, with an increased risk of boar taint. A field study was performed to: (1) evaluate inter- and intra-farm variation in boar taint prevalence, (2) investigate factors measured at slaughter influencing boar taint and (3) evaluate the relationship between sensorial scoring by a trained panel and the concentration of boar taint components. From 34 farms, neck fat samples were collected from all entire male pigs in at least two slaughter batches per farm (78 batches; 9167 animals). In addition to olfactory boar taint analysis, data were also collected on fresh skin lesions (score 0 to 3) at the slaughter line, slaughter weight, lean meat percentage, duration of transport, time spent in lairage, total delivery duration, day length, shortening of days and outdoor mean temperature. Using the hot iron method, neck fat samples were scored (eight-point scale) for boar taint. Average boar taint prevalence (score ≥3) was 5.6±2.5% and the mean difference between the maximum and minimum prevalence per farm was 4.3±3.2%. Androstenone (AND), skatole (SKA) and indole concentrations were measured for a subset (n=254) of the samples. According to binomial univariate mixed models, entire male pigs with a higher skin lesion score had higher odds of having boar taint (P=0.031), as did fatter entire male pigs (P<0.001). In the binomial multivariate mixed model lean meat percentage (P<0.001) and outdoor mean temperature (P=0.005) remained as only significant factors. Based on our results, we can conclude that these statistically significant at least partially influence the prevalence of boar taint. According to the binomial univariate mixed models SKA concentration in liquid fat seems a better predictor for boar taint than AND. There were no significant synergetic effects between boar taint compounds.

Copyright

Corresponding author

References

Hide All
Aluwé, M, Millet, S, Bekaert, KM, Tuyttens, FAM, Vanhaecke, L, De Smet, S and De Brabander, DL 2011. Influence of breed and slaughter weight on boar taint prevalence in entire male pigs. Animal 5, 12831289.
Aluwé, M, Tuyttens, FAM and Millet, S 2015. Field experience with surgical castration with anaesthesia, analgesia, immunocastration and production of entire male pigs: performance, carcass traits and boar taint prevalence. Animal 9, 500508.
Andersson, H, Rydhmer, L, Lundström, K, Wallgren, M, Andersson, K and Forsberg, M 1998. Influence of artificial light regimens on sexual maturation and boar taint in entire male pigs. Animal Reproduction Science 51, 3143.
Annor-Frempong, IE, Nute, GR, Whittington, FW and Wood, JD 1997a. The problem of taint in pork-I. Detection thresholds and odour profiles of androstenone and skatole in a model system. Meat Science 46, 4555.
Annor-Frempong, IE, Nute, GR, Whittington, FW and Wood, JD 1997b. The problem of taint in pork-II. The influence of skatole, androstenone and indole, presented individually and in combination in a model lipid base, on odour perception. Meat Science 47, 4961.
Babol, J, Squires, EJ and Gullett, EA 2002. Factors affecting the level of boar taint in entire male pigs as assessed by consumer sensory panel. Meat Science 61, 3340.
Bailey, MT, Dowd, SE, Galley, JD, Hufnagle, AR, Allen, RG and Lyte, M 2011. Exposure to a social stressor alters the structure of the intestinal microbiota: implications for stressor-induced immunomodulation. Brain, Behavior, and Immunity 25, 397407.
Bañón, S, Granados, MV, Cayuela, JM, Gil, MD, Costa, E and Garrido, MD 2000. Fat quality from lean pigs. In Anales de Veterinaria de Murcia, volume 16, pp. 7788. Facultad de Veterinaria, Universidad de Murcia, Murcia, Spain.
Bates, D, Maechler, M, Bolker, B and Walker, S 2015. Fitting Linear Mixed-Effects Models Using lme4. Journal of Statistical Software 67, 1–48.
Bekaert, KM, Aluwé, M, Millet, S, Goethals, K, Nijs, G, Isebaert, S, De Brabander, DL, Verheyden, K, De Brabander, HF, Vanhaecke, L and Tuyttens, FAM 2012a. Predicting the likelihood of developing boar taint: early physical indicators in entire male pigs. Meat Science 92, 382385.
Bekaert, KM, Bussche, JV, François, S, Tuyttens, FAM, De Brabander, HF, Vandendriessche, F and Vanhaecke, L 2012b. A validated ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled to high resolution mass spectrometry analysis for the simultaneous quantification of the three known boar taint compounds. Journal of Chromatography A 1239, 4955.
Borrisser-Pairó, F, Panella-Riera, N, Zammerini, D, Olivares, A, Garrido, MD, Martínez, B, Gil, M, García-Regueiro, JA and Oliver, MA 2016. Prevalence of boar taint in commercial pigs from Spanish farms. Meat Science 111, 177182.
Claus, R, Schopper, D and Wagner, HG 1983. Seasonal effect on steroids in blood plasma and seminal plasma of boars. Journal of Steroid Biochemistry 19, 725729.
Claus, R, Weiler, U and Herzog, A 1994. Physiological aspects of androstenone and skatole formation in the boar – a review with experimental data. Meat Science 38, 289305.
De Kock, HL, Heinze, PH, Potgieter, CM, Dijksterhuis, GB and Minnaar, A 2001. Temporal aspects related to the perception of skatole and androstenone, the major boar odour compounds. Meat Science 57, 6170.
Deslandes, B, Gariépy, C and Houde, A 2001. Review of microbiological and biochemical effects of skatole on animal production. Livestock Production Science 71, 193200.
Haberland, AM, Luther, H, Hofer, A, Tholen, E, Simianer, H, Lind, B and Baes, C 2014. Efficiency of different selection strategies against boar taint in pigs. Animal 8, 1119.
Hansen, LLj, Larsen, AE, Jensen, BB, Hansen-Møller, J and Barton-Gade, P 1994. Influence of stocking rate and faeces deposition in the pen at different temperatures on skatole concentration (boar taint) in subcutaneous fat. Animal Science 59, 99110.
Kempster, AJ, Dilworth, AW, Evans, DG and Fisher, KD 1986. The effects of fat thickness and sex on pig meat quality with special reference to the problems associated with overleanness 1. Butcher and consumer panel results. Animal Production 43, 517533.
Lanthier, F, Lou, Y and Squires, EJ 2007. Skatole metabolism in the intact pre-pubescent male pig: the relationship between hepatic enzyme activity and skatole concentrations in plasma and fat. Livestock Science 106, 145153.
Lean, IJ, Curran, MK, Duckworth, JE and Holmes, W 1972. Studies on Belgian Pietrain pigs 1. A comparison of Pietrain, Landrace and Pietrain Landrace crosses in growth, carcass characteristics and meat quality. Animal Production 15, 19.
Maksymchuk, O and Chashchyn, M 2012. The impact of psychogenic stressors on oxidative stress markers and patterns of CYP2E1 expression in mice liver. Pathophysiology 19, 215219.
Mathur, PK, Ten Napel, J, Bloemhof, S, Heres, L, Knol, EF and Mulder, HA 2012. A human nose scoring system for boar taint and its relationship with androstenone and skatole. Meat Science 91, 414422.
Meier-Dinkel, L, Gertheiss, J, Müller, S, Wesoly, R and Mörlein, D 2015. Evaluating the performance of sensory quality control: the case of boar taint. Meat Science 100, 7384.
Ministerial Decision 2013. Ministerieel besluit tot wijziging van diverse bepalingen van het ministerieel besluit van 23 januari 2004 tot vaststelling van de toepassingsvoorwaarden voor de indeling van geslachte varkens, Flemish Government, January 24. Retrieved on June 1, 2016, from http://www.ejustice.just.fgov.be/cgi_loi/change_lg.pl?language=nl&la=N&table_name=wet&cn=2013011418
Moe, M, Lien, Sr, Aasmundstad, T, Meuwissen, TH, Hansen, MH, Bendixen, C and Grindflek, E 2009. Association between SNPs within candidate genes and compounds related to boar taint and reproduction. BMC Genetics 10, 32.
Mörlein, D, Grave, A, Sharifi, AR, Bücking, M and Wicke, M 2012. Different scalding techniques do not affect boar taint. Meat Science 91, 435440.
Mörlein, D and Tholen, E 2015. Fatty acid composition of subcutaneous adipose tissue from entire male pigs with extremely divergent levels of boar taint compounds – an exploratory study. Meat Science 99, 17.
Moss, BW, Hawe, SM and Walker, N 1993. ‘Sensory thresholds for skatole and indole.’ Colloques de l’INRA, Paris, France.
National Centers for Environmental Information 2015. NOAA. Retrieved on 22 September 2015 from http://www.ncdc.noaa.gov/
Parois, SP, Prunier, A, Mercat, MJ, Merlot, E and Larzul, C 2015. Genetic relationships between measures of sexual development, boar taint, health, and aggressiveness in pigs. Journal of Animal Science 93, 37493758.
Prunier, A, Brillouët, A, Merlot, E, Meunier-Salaün, MC and Tallet, C 2013. Influence of housing and season on pubertal development, boar taint compounds and skin lesions of male pigs. Animal 7, 20352043.
R Core Team 2013. R: A Language and Environment for Statistical Computing. R Core Team, Vienna, Austria.
Rius, MA and García-Regueiro, JA 2001. Skatole and indole concentrations in Longissimus dorsi and fat samples of pigs. Meat Science 59, 285291.
Rius, M, Hortós, M and García-Regueiro, JA 2005. Influence of volatile compounds on the development of off-flavours in pig back fat samples classified with boar taint by a test panel. Meat Science 71, 595602.
Turner, SP, Farnworth, MJ, White, I, Brotherstone, S, Mendl, M, Knap, P, Penny, P and Lawrence, AB 2006. The accumulation of skin lesions and their use as a predictor of individual aggressiveness in pigs. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 96, 245259.
US Naval Observatory 2015. Naval Oceanography Portal. Retrieved on 22 September 2015 from http://www.usno.navy.mil/USNO/
Van den Broeke, A, Aluwé, M, Tuyttens, FAM, Ampe, B, Vanhaecke, L, Wauters, J, Janssens, S, Coussé, A, Buys, N and Millet, S 2015. An intervention study demonstrates effects of genotype on boar taint and performances of growing-finishing pigs. Journal of Animal Science 93, 934943.
van Wagenberg, CPA, Snoek, HM, van der Fels, JB, van der Peet-Schwering, C, Vermeer, HM and Heres, L 2013. Farm and management characteristics associated with boar taint. Animal 7, 18411848.
Walstra, P, Claudi-Magnussen, C, Chevillon, P, Von Seth, G, Diestre, A, Matthews, KR, Homer, DB and Bonneau, M 1999. An international study on the importance of androstenone and skatole for boar taint: levels of androstenone and skatole by country and season. Livestock Production Science 62, 1528.
Wesoly, R, Jungbluth, I, Stefanski, V and Weiler, U 2015. Pre-slaughter conditions influence skatole and androstenone in adipose tissue of boars. Meat Science 99, 6067.
Wood, JD, Enser, M, Fisher, AV, Nute, GR, Sheard, PR, Richardson, RI, Hughes, SI and Whittington, FM 2008. Fat deposition, fatty acid composition and meat quality: a review. Meat Science 78, 343358.
Zamaratskaia, G and Squires, EJ 2009. Biochemical, nutritional and genetic effects on boar taint in entire male pigs. Animal 3, 15081521.

Keywords

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed