Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home

Influence of endemic goitre areas on thyroid hormones in horses

  • P. Medica (a1), E. Fazio (a1), C. Cravana (a1) and A. Ferlazzo (a1)

Abstract

The aim of this study was to investigate thyroid hormone levels in horses stabled in two different locations on the island of Sicily. The study was carried out on a total of 72 clinically healthy Sanfratellano horses ranging in age from 5 to 9 years and weighing 585 ± 40 kg. The results showed higher thyroxine values (P < 0.02) in horses stabled in an endemic goitre area (group II) than those observed in horses in a non-endemic area (group I). Unexpectedly, the T4/T3 and the fT4/fT3 rations were both lower in group I than in group II. The percentages of fT4 to T4 and of fT3 to T3 were both higher in group I than the percentages for group II. On the basis of gender, comparison between the two groups showed higher T4 (P < 0.01) and fT4 levels (P < 0.001) in males, and lower fT3 (P < 0.001) and fT4 levels (P < 0.005) in females stabled in the goitre endemic area. On the basis of age, younger horses (<7 years old) showed the highest thyroid hormone levels in both groups. Results suggest a physiological adaptive response of the equine species to an endemic goitre environment. The possibility that hypothyroidism is present in these horses is thus excluded and is supported not only by the lack of clinical signs, but also by the rarity of cases previously reported.

Copyright

Corresponding author

References

Hide All
Allen, AL, Fretz, PB, Card, CE, Doige, CE 1998. The effects of partial thyroidectomy on the development of the equine fetus. Equine Veterinary Journal 30, 5359.
Anderson, RR, Nixon, DA, Akasha, MA 1988. Total and free thyroxine and triiodothyronine in blood serum of mammals. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology (A) 89, 401404.
Baker, JR, Wyn-Jones, G, Eley, JL 1983. Case of equine goitre. The Veterinary Record 112, 407408.
Bird, JA, Clarke, L, Symonds, ME 1998. Influence of thyrotrophin-releasing hormone on thermoregulation in newborn lambs. Biology of the Neonate 73, 5259.
Breuhaus, BA 2002. Thyroid-stimulating hormone in adult euthyroid and hypothyroid horses. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine 16, 109115.
Chen, CL, Riley, AM 1981. Serum thyroxine and triiodothyronine concentrations in neonatal foals and mature horses. American Journal of Veterinary Research 42, 14151417.
Duckett, WM 1998. Thyroid gland. In Equine internal medicine (ed. SM Reed and WM Bayly), pp. 917923. Saunders, Philadelphia, USA.
Duckett, WM, Manning, JP, Weston, PG 1989. Thyroid hormone periodicity in healthy adult geldings. Equine Veterinary Journal 21, 123125.
Durham, AE 1995. Congenital goitre in two colt foals born to mares fed excess iodine during pregnancy. Equine Veterinary Education 7, 239241.
Fazio, E, Medica, P, Cravana, C, Messineo, C, Ferlazzo, A 2007. Total and free iodothyronines levels of growing Thoroughbred foals: effects of weaning and gender. Livestock Science 110, 207213.
Frank, N, Sojka, J, IVMesser, NT 2002. Equine thyroid dysfunction. Veterinary Clinics of North America: Equine Practice 18, 305319.
Graves, EA, IISchott, HC 2002. Thyroid function in horses with peripheral Cushing’s syndrome. Proceedings of the Annual Convention American Association Equine Practioners 48, 178180.
Helmreich, DL, Crouch, M, Dorr, NP, Parfitt, DB 2006. Peripheral triiodothyronine (T3) levels during escapable and inescapable footshock. Physiology & Behavior 87, 114119.
Hetzel, BS, Mano, MT 1989. A review of experimental studies of iodine deficiency during fetal development. Journal of Nutrition 119, 145151.
Irvine, CHG, Evans, MJ 1975. Post-natal changes in total and free thyroxine and triiodothyronine in foal serum. Journal of Reproduction and Fertility Supplement 23, 709715.
Kallfelz, FA, Lowe, JE 1970. Some normal values of thyroid function in horses. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 156, 18881891.
Komosa, M, Flisińska-Bojanowska, A, Gill, J 1990. Development of diurnal rhythm in some metabolic parameters in foals. Comparative Biochemistry Physiology – Part A: Physiology 95, 549552.
Long, DT, Voice, TC 2007. Role of exposure analysis in solving the mystery of balkan endemic nephropathy. Croatian Medical Journal 48, 300311.
Maberly, GF 1994. Iodine deficiency disorders: contemporary scientific issues. Journal of Nutrition 124, 1473S1478S.
Malinowski, K, Christensen, RA, Hafs, HD, Scanes, CG 1996. Age and breed differences in thyroid hormones, insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I and IGF binding proteins in female horses. Journal Animal Science 74, 19361942.
McGuire, MA, Beede, DK, Collier, RJ, Buonomo, FC, DeLorenzo, MA, Wilcox, CJ, Huntington, GB, Reynolds, CK 1991. Effects of acute thermal stress and amount feed intake on concentrations of somatotropin, insuline-like growth factor (IGF)-I and IGF-II, and thyroid hormones in plasma of lactating Holstein cows. Journal of Animal Science 69, 20502056.
Messer, NT, Johnson, PJ 2007. Evidence-based literature pertaining to thyroid dysfunction and Cushing’s syndrome in the horse. Veterinary Clinics of North America: Equine Practice 23, 329364.
Messer, NT, Ganjam, VK, Nachreiner, RF, Krause, GF 1995. Effect of dexamethasone administration on serum thyroid hormone concentrations in clinically normal horses. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 206, 6366.
Osame, S, Ichijo, S 1994. Clinicopathological observations on thoroughbred foals with enlarged thyroid gland. The Journal of Veterinary Medical Science 56, 771772.
Pugliese, M, Medica, P, Scardillo, A, Parisi, F, Fazio, E 2007. Thyroid function evaluation in Valle del Belice sheep affected by congenital hypotricosis. Proceedings 15th International Congress of Mediterranean Federation for Healthy and Production of Ruminants, Kuşadasi, Türkiye, pp. 244–249.
Ramirez, S, McClure, JJ, Moore, RM, Wolfsheimer, KJ, Gaunt, SD, Mirza, MH, Taylor, W 1998. Hyperthyroidism associated with a thyroid adenocarcinoma in a 21 year-old-gelding. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine 12, 475477.
Reap, M, Cass, C, Hightower, D 1978. Thyroxine and triiodothyronine levels in ten species of animals. Southwest Veterinarian 31, 3134.
Schantz, SL, Widholm, JJ 2001. Cognitive effects of endocrine-disrupting chemicals in animals. Environmental Health Perspectives 109, 11971206.
Sojka, JE 1995. Hypothyroidism in horses. Compendium on Continuing Education for the Practicing Veterinarian 17, 845852.
Sojka, JE, Johnson, MA, Bottoms, GD 1993. Serum triiodothyronine, total thyroxine, and free thyroxine concentrations in horses. American Journal of Veterinary Research 54, 5255.
Squatrito, S, Delange, F, Trimarchi, F, Lisi, E, Vigneri, R 1981. Endemic cretinism in Sicily. Journal Endocrinology Investigation 4, 295302.
Tan, RHH, Davies, SE, Crisman, MV, Coyle, L, Daniel, GB 2008. Propylthiouracil for treatment of hyperthyroidism in a horse. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine 22, 12531258.
Vermiglio, F, Finocchiaro, MD, Lo Presti, VP, La Torre, N, Nucifora, M, Trimarchi, F 1989. Partial beneficial effects of the so called “silent iodine prophylaxis” on iodine deficiency disorders (IDD) in Northeastern Sicily endemia. Journal Endocrinology Investigation 12, 123126.
Vermiglio, F, Sidoti, M, Finocchiaro, MD, Battiato, S, Lo Presti, VP, Benvenga, S, Trimarchi, F 1990. Defective neuromotor and cognitive ability in iodine-deficient schoolchildren of an endemic goiter region in Sicily. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism 70, 379384.
Vermiglio, F, Lo Presti, VP, Scaffidi Argentina, G, Finocchiaro, MD, Gullo, D, Squatrito, S, Trimarchi, F 1995. Maternal hypothyroxinaemia during the first half of gestation in an iodine deficient area with endemic cretinism and related disorders. Clinical Endocrinology 42, 409415.
Vigneri, R 1988. Studies on the goiter endemia in Sicily. Journal Endocrinology Investigation 11, 831843.

Keywords

Influence of endemic goitre areas on thyroid hormones in horses

  • P. Medica (a1), E. Fazio (a1), C. Cravana (a1) and A. Ferlazzo (a1)

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed