Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home

Evaluation of in situ valine production by Bacillus subtilis in young pigs

  • J. V. Nørgaard (a1), N. Canibe (a1), E. A. Soumeh (a1), B. B. Jensen (a1), B. Nielsen (a2), P. Derkx (a2), M. D. Cantor (a2), K. Blaabjerg (a1) and H. D. Poulsen (a1)...

Abstract

Mutants of Bacillus subtilis can be developed to overproduce Val in vitro. It was hypothesized that addition of Bacillus subtilis mutants to pig diets can be a strategy to supply the animal with Val. The objective was to investigate the effect of Bacillus subtilis mutants on growth performance and blood amino acid (AA) concentrations when fed to piglets. Experiment 1 included 18 pigs (15.0±1.1 kg) fed one of three diets containing either 0.63 or 0.69 standardized ileal digestible (SID) Val : Lys, or 0.63 SID Val : Lys supplemented with a Bacillus subtilis mutant (mutant 1). Blood samples were obtained 0.5 h before feeding and at 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6 h after feeding and analyzed for AAs. In Experiment 2, 80 piglets (9.1±1.1 kg) were fed one of four diets containing 0.63 or 0.67 SID Val : Lys, or 0.63 SID Val : Lys supplemented with another Bacillus subtilis mutant (mutant 2) or its parent wild type. Average daily feed intake, daily weight gain and feed conversion ratio were measured on days 7, 14 and 21. On day 17, blood samples were taken and analyzed for AAs. On days 24 to 26, six pigs from each dietary treatment were fitted with a permanent jugular vein catheter, and blood samples were taken for AA analysis 0.5 h before feeding and at 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6 h after feeding. In experiment 1, Bacillus subtilis mutant 1 tended (P<0.10) to increase the plasma levels of Val at 2 and 3 h post-feeding, but this was not confirmed in Experiment 2. In Experiment 2, Bacillus subtilis mutant 2 and the wild type did not result in a growth performance different from the negative and positive controls. In conclusion, results obtained with the mutant strains of Bacillus subtilis were not better than results obtained with the wild-type strain, and for both strains, the results were not different than the negative control.

Copyright

Corresponding author

References

Hide All
Alexopoulos, C, Georgoulakis, IE, Tzivara, A, Kritas, SK, Siochu, A and Kyriakis, SC 2004. Field evaluation of the efficacy of a probiotic containing Bacillus licheniformis and Bacillus subtilis spores, on the health status and performance of sows and their litters. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition 88, 381392.
Cantor, MD, Derkx, P, Knap, I, Knarreborg, A, Leser, TD and Lund, B 2013. A bile resistant bacillus composition secreting high levels of essential amino acids. European Patent 2 379 704 B1.
Chapman, LF 1972. Regulation of acetohydroxyacid synthetase in Bacillus subtilis . Molecular and General Genetics 117, 1418.
European Commission 1998. Commission Directive 98/64/EC of 3 September 1998 establishing community methods of analysis for the determination of amino-acids, crude oils and fats, and olaquindox in feedingstuffs and amending Directive 71/393/EEC. Official Journal of the European Communities. Retrieved on 5 March 2015 from http://eur-lex.europa.eu/homepage.html.
Gloaguen, M, Le Floc’h, N, Corrent, E, Primot, Y and van Milgen, J 2012. Providing a diet deficient in valine but with excess leucine results in a rapid decrease in feed intake and modifies the postprandial plasma amino acid and α-keto acid concentrations in pigs. Journal of Animal Science 90, 31353142.
Gloaguen, M, Le Floc’h, N, Corrent, E, Primot, Y and van Milgen, J 2014. The use of free amino acids allows formulating very low crude protein diets for piglets. Journal of Animal Science 92, 637644.
Hansen, MJ, Nørgaard, JV, Adamsen, APS and Poulsen, HD 2014. Effect of reduced crude protein on ammonia, methane, and chemical odorants emitted from pig houses. Livestock Science 169, 118124.
Heo, JM, Kim, JC, Hansen, CF, Mullan, BP, Hampson, DJ and Pluske, JR 2008. Effects of feeding low protein diets to piglets on plasma urea nitrogen, faecal ammonia nitrogen, the incidence of diarrhoea and performance after weaning. Archives of Animal Nutrition 62, 343358.
Hoch, SO, Roth, CW, Crawford, IP and Nester, EW 1971. Control of tryptophan biosynthesis by the methyltryptophan resistance gene in Bacillus subtilis . Journal of Bacteriology 105, 3845.
Holm, S 1979. A simple sequentially rejective multiple test procedure. Scandinavian Journal of Statistics 6, 6570.
Holtzclaw, WD and Chapman, LF 1975. Properties of some norvaline-resistant mutants of Bacillus subtilis . Journal of General Microbiology 88, 289294.
Just, A 1982. The net energy value of crude (catabolized) protein for growth in pigs. Livestock Production Science 9, 349360.
Kato, J, Kisumi, M, Takagi, T and Chibata, I 1977. Increase in arginine and citrulline production by 6-azauracil-resistant mutants of Bacillus subtilis . Applied and Environmental Microbiology 34, 689694.
Kisumi, M, Kato, J, Sugiura, M and Chibata, I 1971. Production of L-arginine by arginine hydroxymate-resistant mutants of Bacillus subtilis . Applied Microbiology 22, 987991.
Kristensen, NB, Nørgaard, JV, Wamberg, S, Engbaek, M, Fernandez, JA, Zacho, HD and Poulsen, HD 2009. Absorption and metabolism of benzoic acid in growing pigs. Journal of Animal Science 87, 28152822.
Link, R and Kovác, G 2007. Effect of high dose of probiotic preparation on some blood indices of suckling piglets. Medycyna Weterynaryjna 63, 171174.
Nemechek, JE, Tokach, MD, Dritz, SS, Goodband, RD and DeRouchey, JM 2014. Evaluation of standardized ileal digestible valine:lysine, total lysine:CP, and replacing fish meal, meat and bone meal, and poultry by-product meal with crystalline amino acids on growth performance of nursery pigs from seven to twelve kilograms. Journal of Animal Science 92, 15481561.
Nørgaard, JV, Canibe, N, Nielsen, B, Carlson, D, Knap, I, Cantor, MD and Poulsen, HD 2012. First studies on a new concept for amino acid provision through B. subtilis in situ valine production in young pigs. Livestock Science 147, 3339.
Nørgaard, JV, Hansen, MJ, Soumeh, EA, Adamsen, APS and Poulsen, HD 2014. Effect of protein level on performance, nitrogen utilisation and carcass composition in finisher pigs. Acta Agriculturae Scandinavica, Section A – Animal Science 64, 123129.
Rerat, A, Giusi-Perier, A and Vaissade, P 1993. Absorption balances and kinetics of nutrients and bacterial metabolites in conscious pigs after intake of maltose- or maltitol-rich diets. Journal of Animal Science 71, 24732488.
Soumeh, EA, van Milgen, J, Sloth, NM, Corrent, E, Poulsen, HD and Nørgaard, JV 2015. Requirement of standardized ileal digestible valine to lysine ratio for 8 to 14-kg pigs. Animal 9, 13121318.
Tybirk, P., Sloth, N.M. and Jørgensen, L. 2012. Nutrient requirement standards. 17th edition of the Danish nutrient standards. Pig Research Centre. Retrieved on 8 March 2013 from http://www.pigresearchcentre.dk/About%20us/Nutrient%20standards.aspx.
van der Meulen, J, Bakker, JGM, Smits, B and De Visser, H 1997. Effect of source of starch on net portal flux of glucose, lactate, volatile fatty acids and amino acids in the pig. British Journal of Nutrition 78, 533544.
Wang, Y, Cho, JH, Chen, YJ, Yoo, JS, Huang, Y, Kim, HJ and Kim, IH 2009. The effect of probiotic BioPlus 2B (R) on growth performance, dry matter and nitrogen digestibility and slurry noxious gas emission in growing pigs. Livestock Science 120, 3542.
Wellock, IJ, Fortomaris, PD, Houdijk, JGM and Kyriazakis, I 2008. Effects of dietary protein supply, weaning age and experimental enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli infection on newly weaned pigs: health. Animal 2, 834842.

Keywords

Evaluation of in situ valine production by Bacillus subtilis in young pigs

  • J. V. Nørgaard (a1), N. Canibe (a1), E. A. Soumeh (a1), B. B. Jensen (a1), B. Nielsen (a2), P. Derkx (a2), M. D. Cantor (a2), K. Blaabjerg (a1) and H. D. Poulsen (a1)...

Metrics

Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed