Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home

Effects of dietary grape proanthocyanidins on the growth performance, jejunum morphology and plasma biochemical indices of broiler chicks

  • J. Y. Yang (a1), H. J. Zhang (a1), J. Wang (a1), S. G. Wu (a1), H. Y. Yue (a1), X. R. Jiang (a1) and G. H. Qi (a1)...

Abstract

Grape proanthocyanidins (GPCs) are a family of naturally derived polyphenols that have aroused interest in the poultry industry due to their versatile role in animal health. This study was conducted to investigate the potential benefits and appropriate dosages of GPCs on growth performance, jejunum morphology, plasma antioxidant capacity and the biochemical indices of broiler chicks. A total of 280 newly hatched male Cobb 500 broiler chicks were randomly allocated into four treatments of seven replicates each, and were fed a wheat–soybean meal-type diet with or without (control group), 7.5, 15 or 30 mg/kg of GPCs. Results show that dietary GPCs decrease the feed conversion ratio and average daily gain from day 21 to day 42, increase breast muscle yield by day 42 and improve jejunum morphology between day 21 and day 42. Chicks fed 7.5 and 15 mg/kg of GPCs show increased breast muscle yield and exhibit improved jejunum morphologies than birds in the control group. Dietary GPCs fed at a level of 15 mg/kg markedly increased total superoxide dismutase (T-SOD) activity between day 21 and day 42, whereas a supplement of GPCs at 7.5 mg/kg significantly increased T-SOD activity and decreased lipid peroxidation malondialdehyde content by day 42. A supplement of 30 mg/kg of GPCs has no effect on antioxidant status but adversely affects the blood biochemical indices, as evidenced by increased creatinine content, increased alkaline phosphatase by day 21 and increased alanine aminotransferase by day 42 in plasma. GPC levels caused quadratic effect on growth, jejunum morphology and plasma antioxidant capacity. The predicted optimal GPC levels for best plasma antioxidant capacity at 42 days was 13 to 15 mg/kg, for best feed efficiency during grower phase was 16 mg/kg, for best jejunum morphology at 42 days was 17 mg/kg. In conclusion, GPCs (fed at a level of 13 to 17 mg/kg) have the potential to be a promising feed additive for broiler chicks.

Copyright

Corresponding author

References

Hide All
Al-Habib, A, Al-Saleh, E, Safer, AM and Afzal, M 2010. Bactericidal effect of grape seed extract on methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). The Journal of Toxicological Sciences 35, 357364.
Andersen, G, Koehler, P and Somoza, V 2008. Postprandial glucose and free fatty acid response is improved by wheat bread fortified with germinated wheat seedlings. Current Topics in Nutraceutical Research 6, 1521.
Asfar, S, Abdeen, S, Dashti, H, Khoursheed, M, Al-Sayer, H, Mathew, T and Al-Bader, A 2003. Effect of green tea in the prevention and reversal of fasting-induced intestinal mucosal damage. Nutrition 19, 536540.
Avanzo, JL, Mendonca, CX, Pugine, SM and Cesar, MC 2001. Effect of vitamin E and selenium on resistance to oxidative stress in chicken superficial pectoralis muscle. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. C: Toxicology and Pharmacology 129, 163173.
Bagchi, D, Swaroop, A, Preussc, HG and Bagchi, M 2014. Free radical scavenging, antioxidant and cancer chemoprevention by grape seed proanthocyanidin: an overview. Mutation Research. Fundamental and Molecular Mechanisms of Mutagenesis 768, 6973.
Bagchi, M, Balmoori, J, Bagchi, D, Ray, SD, Kuszynski, C and Stohs, SJ 1999. Smokeless tobacco, oxidative stress, apoptosis, and antioxidants in human oral keratinocytes. Free Radical Biology and Medicine 26, 9921000.
Boka, J, Mahdavi, AH, Samie, AH and Jahanian, R 2014. Effect of different levels of black cumin (Nigella sativa L.) on performance, intestinal Escherichia coli colonization and jejunal morphology in laying hens. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition 98, 373383.
Bomser, JA, Singletary, KW, Wallig, MA and Smith, MAL 1999. Inhibition of TPA-induced tumor promotion in CD-1 mouse epidermis by a polyphenolic fraction from grape seeds. Cancer Letters 135, 151157.
Brenes, A, Viveros, A, Goñi, I, Centeno, C, Saura-Calixto, F and Arija, I 2010. Effect of grape seed extract on growth performance, protein and polyphenol digestibilities, and antioxidant activity in chickens. Spanish Journal of Agricultural Research 8, 326333.
Chedea, VS, Braicu, C and Socaciu, C 2010. Antioxidant/prooxidant activity of a polyphenolic grape seed extract. Food Chemistry 121, 132139.
Cheng, YH, Shen, TF, Pang, VF and Cheng, BJ 2001. Effects of aflatoxin and carotenoids on growth performance and immune response in mule duckling. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. C: Toxicology and Pharmacology 128, 1926.
Daba, MH and Abdel-Rahman, MS 1998. Hepatoprotective activity of thymoquinone in isolated rat hepatocytes. Toxicology Letters 95, 2329.
Demirkaya, EDE, Avci, AAA, Kesik, VK, Karslioglu, Y, Oztas, E, Kismet, E, Gokcay, E, Durak, I and Koseoglu, V 2009. Cardioprotective roles of aged garlic extract, grape seed proanthocyanidin, and hazelnut on doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity. Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology 87, 633640.
Déprez, S, Brezillon, C, Rabot, S, Philippe, C, Mila, I, Lapierre, C and Scalbert, A 2000. Polymeric proanthocyanidins are catabolized by human colonic microflora into low-molecular-weight phenolic acids. The Journal of Nutrition 130, 27332738.
Donsbough, AL, Powell, S, Waguespack, A, Bidner, TD and Southern, LL 2010. Uric acid, urea, and ammonia concentrations in serum and uric acid concentration in excreta as indicators of amino acid utilization in diets for broilers. Poultry Science 89, 287294.
Gao, J, Zhang, HJ, Wu, SG, Yu, SH, Yoon, I, Moore, D, Gao, YP, Yan, HJ and Qi, GH 2009. Effect of Saccharomyces cerevisiae fermentation products on immune functions of broilers challenged with Eimeria tenella . Poultry Science 88, 21412151.
Gu, L, Kelm, M, Hammerstone, JF, Beecher, G, Cunningham, D, Vannozzi, S and Prior, RL 2002. Fractionation of polymeric procyanidins from lowbush blueberry and quantification of procyanidins in selected foods with an optimized normal-phase HPLC-MS fluorescent detection method. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 50, 48524860.
Gu, L, Kelm, MA, Hammerstone, JF, Beecher, G, Holden, J, Haytowitz, D and Prior, RL 2003. Screening of foods containing proanthocyanidins and their structural characterization using LC-MS/MS and thiolytic degradation. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 51, 75137521.
Hanhineva, K, Törrönen, R, Bondia-pons, I, Pekkinen, J, Kolehmainen, M, Mykkänen, H and Poutanen, K 2010. Impact of dietary polyphenols on carbohydrate metabolism. International Journal of Molecular Sciences 11, 13651402.
Hassanpour, H, Zamani Moghaddam, AK, Yazdani, A and Bashi, CM 2010. Evaluation of intestinal morphology and nitric oxide metabolites in broiler chickens supplemented by green tea. Comparative Clinical Pathology 19, 4347.
Holt, S, Jong, VD, Faramus, E, Lang, T and Brand Miller, J 2003. A bioflavonoid in sugar cane can reduce the postprandial glycaemic response to a high-GI starchy food. Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition 12 (suppl.), S66.
Ignea, C, Dorobanţu, CM, Mintoff, CP, Branza-Nichita, N, Ladomery, MR, Kefalas, P and Chedea, VS 2013. Modulation of the antioxidant/pro-oxidant balance, cytotoxicity and antiviral actions of grape seed extracts. Food Chemistry 141, 39673976.
Klein, L, Lafferty, FW, Pearson, OH and Curtiss, PH 1964. Correlation of urinary hydroxyproline, serum alkaline phosphatase and skeletal calcium turnover. Metabolism 13, 272284.
Koga, T, Moro, K, Nakamori, K, Yamakoshi, J, Hosoyama, H, Kataoka, S and Ariga, T 1999. Increase of antioxidative potential of rat plasma by oral administration of proanthocyanidin-rich extract from grape seeds. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 47, 18921897.
Lambert, JD, Kennettb, MJ, Sangc, S, Reuhld, KR, Jue, J and Yang, CS 2010. Hepatotoxicity of high oral dose (−)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate in mice. Food and Chemical Toxicology 48, 409416.
Leeson, S and Summers, JD 2001. Scott’s Nutrition of the Chicken, 4th revised edition. University Books, Guelph, ON, Canada.
Luo, X, Yao, K, Jia, DY and He, Q 2006. Proanthocyanidins: absorption, metabolism and bioavailability. Chemistry and Industry of Forest Products 26, 109115.
Martino, GT, Nowak, FA and Pasapane, J 1993. Granular starch as a sunscreen agent in aqueous compositions. US Patent No. 5256404.
McDougald, LR, Hofacre, C, Mathis, G, Fuller, L and Hargrove, JL 2008. Enhancement of resistance to coccidiosis and necrotic enteritis in broiler chickens by dietary muscadine pomace. Avian Diseases 52, 646651.
Murga, R, Ruiz, R, Beltrán, S and Cabezas, JL 2000. Extraction of natural complex phenols and tannins from grape seeds by using supercritical mixtures of carbon dioxide and alcohol. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 48, 34083412.
National Research Council 1994. Nutrient Requirements of Poultry, 9th revised edition. National Academies Press, Washington, DC, USA.
Nazima, B, Manoharan, V and Miltonprabu, S 2015. Grape seed proanthocyanidins ameliorates cadmium-induced renal injury and oxidative stress in experimental rats through the up-regulation of nuclear related factor 2 and antioxidant responsive elements. Biochemistry and Cell Biology 93, 210226.
Nyachotti, CM, Atkinson, JL and Leeson, S 1997. Sorghum tannins: a review. World Poultry Science Journal 53, 521.
Oliveira, DA, Salvador, AA, Smânia, A Jr, Smânia, EF, Maraschin, M and Ferreira, SR 2013. Antimicrobial activity and composition profile of grape (Vitis vinifera) pomace extracts obtained by supercritical fluids. Journal of Biotechnology 164, 423432.
Ortiz, LT, Centeno, C and Treviño, J 1993. Tannin in faba bean seeds: effects on the digestion of protein and amino acids in growing chicks. Animal Feed Science and Technology 41, 271278.
Park, IJ, Cha, SY, Kang, GM, So, YS, Go, HG, Mun, SP, Ryu, KS and Jang, HK 2011. Effect of proanthocyanidin rich extract from Pinus radiata bark on immune response of specific-pathogen-free White Leghorn chickens. Poultry Science 90, 977982.
Pirgozliev, V, Beccaccia, A, Rose, SP and Bravo, D 2015. Partitioning of dietary energy of chickens fed maize- or wheat-based diets with and without a commercial blend of phytogenic feed additives. Journal of Animal Science 93, 16951702.
Puupponen-Pimiä, R, Nohynek, L, Hartmann-Schmidlin, S, Kähkönen, M, Heinonen, M, Määttä-Riihinen, K and Oksman-Caldentey, KM 2005. Berry phenolics selectively inhibit the growth of intestinal pathogens. Journal of Applied Microbiology 98, 9911000.
Shao, ZH, Becker, LB, Vanden Hoek, TL, Schumacker, PT, Li, CQ, Zhao, D, Wojcik, K, Anderson, T, Qin, Y, Dey, L and Yuan, CS 2003a. Grape seed proanthocyanidin extract attenuates oxidant injury in cardiomyocytes. Pharmacological Research 47, 463469.
Shao, ZH, Vanden Hoek, TL, Xie, J, Wojcik, K, Chan, KC, Li, CQ, Hamann, K, Qin, Y, Schumacker, PT, Becker, LB and Yuan, CS 2003b. Grape seed proanthocyanidins induce pro-oxidant toxicity in cardiomyocytes. Cardiovascular Toxicology 3, 331339.
Shi, J, Yu, J, Pohorly, PE and Kakuda, Y 2003. Polyphenolics in grape seed: biochemistry and functionality. Journal of Medicinal Food 6, 291299.
Tong, H, Song, X, Sun, X, Sun, G and Du, F 2011. Immunomodulatory and antitumor activities of grape seed proanthocyanidins. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 59, 1154311547.
Tseng, A and Zhao, Y 2013. Wine grape pomace as antioxidant dietary fibre for enhancing nutritional value and improving storability of yogurt and salad dressing. Food Chemistry 138, 356365.
Vaid, M, Singh, T, Prasad, R, Elmets, CA, Xu, H and Katiyar, SK 2013. Bioactive grape proanthocyanidins enhance immune reactivity in UV-irradiated skin through functional activation of dendritic cells in mice. Cancer Prevention Research 6, 242252.
Varel, VH, Robinson, IM and Pond, WG 1987. Effect of dietary copper sulfate, Aureo SP250, or clinoptilolite on ureolytic bacteria found in the pig large intestine. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 53, 20092012.
Viveros, A, Chamorro, S, Pizarro, M, Arija, I, Centeno, C and Brenes, A 2011. Effects of dietary polyphenol-rich grape products on intestinal microflora and gut morphology in broiler chicks. Poultry Science 90, 566578.
Wang, ML, Suo, X, Gu, JH, Zhang, WW, Fang, Q and Wang, X 2008. Influence of grape seed proanthocyanidin extract in broiler chickens: effect on chicken coccidiosis and antioxidant status. Poultry Science 87, 22732280.
Wyss, M and Kaddurah-daouk, R 2000. Creatine and creatinine metabolism. Physiological Reviews 80, 11071213.
Yamakoshi, J, Kataoka, S, Koga, T and Ariga, T 1999. Proanthocyanidin-rich extract from grape seeds attenuates the development of aortic atherosclerosis in cholesterol-fed rabbits. Atherosclerosis 142, 139149.
Yang, JY, Wang, J, Wu, S, Yue, HY, Qi, GH and Zhang, HJ 2014. Combination effects between grape procyanidins and wheat-based diet on the growth performance and immunity in broilers. Chinese Journal of Animal Nutrition 26, 22702280 (in Chinese).
Zhang, HJ, Jiang, XR, Mantovani, G, Valdez Lumbreras, AE, Comi, M, Alborali, G, Savoini, G, Dell’Orto, V and Bontempo, V 2014. Modulation of plasma antioxidant activity in weaned piglets by plant polyphenols. Italian Journal of Animal Science 13, 424430.
Zhang, HJ, Xu, L, Yue, HY, Wu, SG, Pan, YZ, Wei, SM and Wang, J 2012. Effect of grape procyanidins on growth performance and immune function in broilers. China Animal Husbandry & Veterinary Medicine 39, 99103 (in Chinese).

Keywords

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed