1. Two groups of Friesian calves, one group of 10 reared on whole milk and the other group of 9 changed gradually from whole milk at 21 days of age to a full diet of reconstituted buttermilk powder at 29 days of age, were slaughtered at a live-weight of approximately 203 1b. Data obtained at slaughter showed a highly significantly heavier weight of omental fat from the calves of the whole milk group, and a significant difference in the weight of the unemptied intestinal tract in favour of the buttermilk group.
2. One side of each carcass was dissected by anatomical joints into the primary tissues; bone, muscle, fat, and tendon and waste. The absolute proportional weight of the dissectible fatty tissues and the weight of kidney and channel (pelvic) fat were statistically highly significantly heavier in the carcass sides of the calves reared on whole milk. The percentage of muscular tissue in the sides of the buttermilk reared calves was significantly higher than for the sides in the other group.
3. The chemical composition of the dissected muscular tissue revealed highly significant differences in fat (ether extract) and a significant difference in water percentage in favour of the carcass sides of the calves reared on whole milk.
4. The chemical composition of the dissected fatty tissue showed statistically highly significant differences in favour of the calves reared on whole milk for the items: water weight and percentage, fat weight and percentage, protein weight, and ash weight. The buttermilk group had in their dissectible fatty tissue a highly significantly greater proportion of water and protein.
5. The dissectible components of the individual joints showed: significantly heavier weight of fatty tissue from the leg, loin, pelvis, 9–10–11 rib cut, thorax, and shoulder of the left sides of the calves reared on whole milk. The weights of the dissectible muscular tissue of the loin and the rib cut were significantly heavier for the buttermilk-reared calves.
6. Cutting-out data on a limited number of sides showed no consistent differences between groups.
7. The meat trade did not differentiate against the buttermilk-fed calves despite their lower fat content. The high muscular tissue content at 65–68% makes veal a very desirable product.