Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home

Quantification of changes in body weight and body condition scores during lactation by modelling individual energy balance and total net energy intake

  • R. Schwager-Suter (a1), C. Stricker (a1), D. Erdin (a1) and N. Künzi (a1)

Abstract

Individual energy balances (EB) and total net energy intake (NEI) were modelled to quantify the energy content of the explanatory variables body-weight change corrected for gut fill (BWC) and body condition-score change (BCSC). A total of 6147 records from 213 lactating dairy cows, 71 Holstein-Friesians, 71 Jerseys and 71 HolsteinJersey F1-crosses was analysed (1st, 2nd and >2nd lactation). Data were collected during 210 days of lactation, from calving to week 30. Individual EB were calculated as total energy for lactation (MJ NEL) minus estimated energy necessary for maintenance and production. Body-weight changes were calculated as differences between weekly means of body weight corrected for gut fill (BWCw) as well as from polynomial regression (BWCp). BCSC were differences between assessed body condition scores. The study included analyses of 1- and of 4-week periods for BWCw and BWCp, of differences between measuring periods for BCSC as well as separate analyses of data from cows in either negative or positive energy balance.

Analysis of repeated measurements were performed applying mixed model theory. Models for EB contained type of dairy cow, lactation and type of roughage as fixed effects, week of lactation and either BWCw, BWCp or BCSC. Models for NEI contained type of dairy cow, lactation and quality of roughage as fixed effects, week of lactation as well as energy corrected milk, metabolic body weight and either BWCw, BWCp or BCSC as covariates.

Most plausible energy contents per unit body tissue change were estimated for BWCp from weekly data with either EB (with energy partitioned into milk production and maintenance fixed) or NEI (no restrictions concerning partitioning) as the response variable. The estimated energy contents for BWCp were 15·40 and 10·47 MJ NEL, respectively.

Copyright

References

Hide All
Armsby, H. P. 1917. The nutrition of farm animals. MacMillan, New York.
Bath, D. L., Ronning, M., Meyer, J. H. and Lofgreen, G. P. 1965. Caloric equivalent of liveweight loss of dairy cattle. Journal of Dairy Science 48: 374380.
Bickel, H. and Landis, J. 1978. Feed evaluation for ruminants. III. Proposed application of the new system of energy evaluation in Switzerland. Livestock Production Science 5: 671677.
Buttazzoni, L. and Mao, I. L. 1989. Genetic parameters of estimated net energy efficiencies for milk production, maintenance, and body weight. Journal of Dairy Science 72: 671677.
Chi, E. M. and Reinsel, G. C. 1989. Models for longitudinal data with random effects and AR(1) errors. Journal of the American Statistical Association 84: 452459.
Chilliard, Y., Cissé, M., Lefaivre, R. and Rémond, B. 1991. Body composition of dairy cows according to lactation stage, somatotropin treatment, and concentrate supplementation. Journal of Dairy Science 74: 31033116.
Edmonson, A. J., Lean, I. J., Weaver, L. D., Farver, T. and Webster, G. 1989. A body condition scoring chart of holstein dairy cows. Journal of Dairy Science 72: 6878.
Enevoldsen, C. and Kristensen, T. 1997. Estimation of body weight from body size measurements and body condition scores in dairy cows. Journal of Dairy Science 80: 19881995.
Es, A. J. H. van. 1978. Feed evaluation for ruminants. I. The systems in use from May 1977 onwards in the Netherlands. Livestock Production Science 5: 331345.
Ferguson, J. D. and Otto, K. A. 1989. Managing body condition in dairy cows. Proceedings of the Cornell nutritional conference of feed manufacturers, Syracuse, NY, p. 75.
Gibb, M. J., Ivings, W. E., Dhanoa, M. S. and Sutton, J. D. 1992. Changes in body components of autumn-calving Holstein-Friesian cows over the first 29 weeks of lactation. Animal Production 55: 339360.
Kirchgessner, M. 1987. Tierernährung, Leitfaden für Studium, Beratung und Praxis, seventh edition. DLG-Verlag, Frankfurt (Main), Germany
Kirchgessner, M. 1997. Tierernährung, Leitfaden für Studium, Beratung und Praxis, tenth revised edition. DLG-Verlag, Frankfurt (Main), Germany.
Komaragiri, M. V. S. and Erdman, R. A. 1997. Factors affecting body tissue mobilisation in early lactation dairy cows. 1. Effect of dietary protein on mobilisation of body fat and protein. Journal of Dairy Science 80: 929937.
Littell, R. C., Henry, P. R. and Ammermann, C. B. 1998. Statistical analysis of repeated measures data using SAS procedures. Journal of Animal Science 76: 12161231.
McDonald, P., Edwards, R. A., Greenhalgh, J. F. D. and Morgan, C. A. 1995. Animal Nutrition, fifth edition. Longman, Harlow, UK.
MathSoft. 1996. S-Plus, version 3·4 for Unix, Supplement. Data Analysis Products Division, MathSoft Incorporation, Seattle, Washington, USA.
Ngwerume, F. and Mao, I. L. 1992. Estimation of residual energy intake for lactating cows using an animal model. Journal of Dairy Science 75: 22832287.
Patterson, H. D. and Thompson, R. 1971. Recovery of interblock information when block sizes are unequal. Biometrika 58: 545554.
Pinheiro, J. C. and Bates, D. M. 1998. Version 3·0 of NLME: software for mixed-effects models. http://cm.bell-labs.com/stat/NLME or http://nlme.stat.wisc.edu.
Schwager-Suter, R. 1999. Efficiency of dairy cows differing in body size when feed quality is varied. Ph.D. thesis, no. 13368 Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, ETH, Zürich, Switzerland.
Schwager-Suter, R., Stricker, C., Erdin, D. and Künzi, N. 2000. Relationship between body condition scores and ultrasound measurements of subcutaneous fat and m. longissimus dorsi in dairy cows differing in size and type. Animal Science 71: 465470.
Swiss Federal Research Station for Animal Production Posieux. 1994. [Recommended feeding standards and feed composition tables for ruminants, third edition.] LmZ, Zollikofen, Switzerland.
Tamminga, S., Luteijn, P. A. and Meijer, R. G. M. 1997. Changes in composition and energy content of liveweight loss in dairy cows with time after parturition. Livestock Production Science 52: 3138.
Veerkamp, R. F. and Emmans, G. C. 1995. Sources of genetic variation in energetic efficiency of dairy cows. Livestock Production Science 44: 8797.
Walter, P. W. and Mao, I. L. 1989. Modelling net energy efficiencies as quantitative characteristics in lactating cows. Journal of Dairy Science 72: 23622374.
Waltner, S. S., McNamara, J. P., Hillers, J. K. and Brown, D. L. 1994. Validation of indirect measures of body fat in lactating cows. Journal of Dairy Science 77: 25702579.

Keywords

Quantification of changes in body weight and body condition scores during lactation by modelling individual energy balance and total net energy intake

  • R. Schwager-Suter (a1), C. Stricker (a1), D. Erdin (a1) and N. Künzi (a1)

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed