Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home

Milk production from grass silage diets: effects of the composition of supplementary concentrates

  • K. Aston (a1), C. Thomas (a1), S. R. Daley (a1) and J. D. Sutton (a1)

Abstract

Thirty-six British Holstein-Friesian cows were offered 9 kg dry matter (DM) daily of one of 12 concentrates together with grass silage ad libitum in a cyclical change-over design experiment during lactation weeks 8 to 22. The carbohydrate source in the concentrates was either mainly starch, mainly digestible fibre or a 1:1 mixture. Each concentrate type was formulated to provide 120, 160, 200 or 240 g crude protein (CP) per kg DM and similar metabolizable energy concentration. Silage contained 142 g CP per kg DM, in vivo digestible organic matter was 0·690 kg/kg DM, pH 4·4 and ammonia-N 172·2 g/kg total nitrogen.

Silage intake increased as fibre replaced starch in the concentrate. Apparent digestibility of organic matter and energy were highest for starch-based concentrates, but there was no effect of carbohydrate source on yields of milk and milk solids. Milk protein concentration was depressed by feeding mixed or fibrous carbohydrates.

Silage intake increased on average by 0·13 kg DM per additional 10 g/kg CP in the concentrate. The digestibility of the diet was not affected by increasing CP except for nitrogen. Milk yield increased by 0·028 kg per additional g/kg CP in the concentrate and there were linear effects ofCP on yields of milk solids.

As CP increased, milk fat concentration tended to rise with starch but was depressed both overall and by offering mixed or fibrous carbohydrates. In contrast milk protein concentration increased with mixed and fibrous carbohydrates but not with starch.

It is concluded that when silage is given ad libitum with 9 kg/day concentrates, CP level has more effect than source of carbohydrate on milk production.

Copyright

References

Hide All
Agricultural Research Council. 1965. The nutrient requirements of farm livestock. No. 2. Ruminants. Agricultural Research Council, London.
Agricultural Research Council. 1980. The nutrient requirements of ruminant livestock. Commonwealth Agricultural Bureaux, Slough.
Aston, K., Thomas, C., Baker, R. D., Hughes, P. M. and Daley, S. R. 1992. The influence of carbohydrate source and concentration of crude protein in a concentrate given with grass silage ad libitum on the performance of autumn-calving Holstein-Friesian cows. Animal Production 54: 473 (abstr.).
Aston, K., Thomas, C., Daley, S. R., Sutton, J. D. and Dhanoa, M. S. 1994. Milk production from grass silage diets: effects of silage characteristics and the amount of supplementary concentrate. Animal Production 59: 3141.
Burgess, P. L., Muller, L. D., Varga, G. A. and Griel, L. C. 1987. Addition of calcium salts of fatty acids to rations varying in neutral detergent fibre content for lactating dairy cows. journal of Dairy Science 70: suppl. 1, p. 220 (abstr.).
Cammell, S. B., Beever, D. E., Sutton, J. D., Spooner, M. C. and Haines, M. J. 1992. Body composition and performance of autumn-calving Holstein-Friesian dairy cows during lactation: energy partition. Animal Production 54: 475 (abstr.).
Castle, M. E. and Watson, J. N. 1976. Silage and milk production: a comparison between barley and groundnut cake as supplements to silage of high digestibility. journal of the British Grassland Society 31: 191195.
Chamberlain, D. G., Thomas, P. C., Wilson, W. D., Kassem, M. E. and Robertson, S. 1984. The influence of the type of carbohydrate in the supplementary concentrate on the utilisation of silage diets for milk production. Proceedings of the seventh silage conference, Queen's University, Belfast (ed. Gordon, F. J. and Unsworth, E. F.), pp. 3738.
Davis, A. W. and Hall, W. B. 1969. Cyclical change-over designs. Biometrika 56: 283293.
Dowman, M. G. and Collins, F. C. 1982. The use of enzymes to predict the digestibility of animal feeds. journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture 33: 689696.
Genstat 5 Committee. 1987. Genstat 5 reference manual. Clarenden Press, Oxford.
Gordon, F. J. 1979. The effect of protein content of the supplement for dairy cows with access ad libitum to high digestibility, wilted grass silage. Animal Production 28: 183189.
McKendrick, E. and Hyslop, J. J. 1992. A comparison of distillers' dark grains with proprietary concentrate for milk production. Animal Production 54: 464 (abstr.).
Mayne, C. S. and Gordon, F. J. 1984. The effect of type of concentrate and level of concentrate feeding on milk production. Animal Production 39: 6576.
Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food. 1986. The analysis of agricultural materials. Reference book 427. Her Majesty's Stationery Office, London.
Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food, Department of Agriculture and Fisheries for Scotland and Department of Agriculture for Northern Ireland. 1975. Energy allowances and feeding systems for ruminants. Technical bulletin, Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food, no. 33. Her Majesty's Stationery Office, London.
Newman, G. 1989. Supplementing silage in practice. In Silage for milk production (ed. Mayne, C. S.), British Grassland Society occasional symposium no. 23, pp. 6166.
Oldham, J. D. and Smith, T. 1982. Protein-energy interrelationships for growing and for lactating cattle. In Protein contribution of feedstuffsfor ruminants (ed. Miller, E. L., Pike, I. H. and Es, A. J. H. van), pp. 103130. Butterworths, London.
Ørskov, E. R., Reid, G. W. and McDonald, I. 1981. The effects of protein degradability and food intake on milk yield and composition in cows in early lactation. British journal of Nutrition 45: 547555.
Phipps, R. H., Sutton, J. D., Weller, R. F. and Bines, J. A. 1987. The effect of concentrate composition and the method of silage feeding on intake and performance of lactating dairy cows. journal of Agricultural Science, Cambridge 109: 337343.
Rook, J. A. F. 1976. Nutritional influences on milk quality. In Principles of cattle production (ed. Swan, H. and Broster, W. H.), pp. 221236. Butterworths, London.
Rook, J. A. F. and Line, C. 1961. The effect of the plane of energy nutrition of the cow on the secretion in milk of the constituents of the solids-not-fat fraction and on the concentrations of certain blood-plasma constituents. British journal of Nutrition 15: 109119.
Sloan, B. K., Rowlinson, P. and Armstrong, D. G. 1988. Milk production in early lactation dairy cows given grass silage ad libitum: influence of concentrate energy source, crude protein content and level of concentrate allowance. Animal Production 46: 317331.
Small, J. C. and Gordon, F. J. 1990. A comparison of the responses by lactating cows given grass silage to changes in the degradability or quantity of protein offered in the supplement. Animal Production 50: 391398.
Spörndly, E. 1989. Effects of diet on milk composition and yield of dairy cows with special emphasis on milk protein content. Swedish journal of Agricultural Research 19: 99106.
Sutton, J. D. 1989. Altering milk composition by feeding. journal of Dairy Science 72: 28012814.
Sutton, J. D., Bines, J. A., Morant, S. V., Napper, D. J. and Givens, D. I. 1987. A comparison of starchy and fibrous concentrates for milk production, energy utilization and hay intake by Friesian cows. Journal of Agricultural Science, Cambridge 109: 375386.
Sutton, J. D., Morant, S. V., Bines, J. A., Napper, D. J. and Givens, D. I. 1993. Effect of altering the starch: fibre ratio in the concentrates on hay intake and milk production by Friesian cows. journal of Agricultural Science, Cambridge 120: 379390.
Tayler, J. C. and Aston, K. 1976. Milk production from diets of silage and dried forage. 1. Effects of methods of processing dried grass and of including barley in the supplementation of grass silage given ad libitum. Animal Production 23: 197220.
Terry, R. A., Tilley, J. M. A. and Outen, G. E. 1969. Effect of pH on cellulose digestion under in vitro conditions. journal of Hie Science of Food and Agriculture 20: 317320.
Thomas, C. 1980. Conserved forages. In Feeding strategies for dairy cows (ed. Broster, W. H., Johnson, C. L. and Tayler, J. C.), pp. 8.18.14. Agricultural Research Council, London.
Thomas, C., Aston, K., Daley, S. R. and Bass, J. 1986. Milk production from silage. 4. The effect of the composition of the supplement. Animal Production 42: 315325.
Thomas, C., Aston, K., Tayler, J. C., Daley, S. R. and Osbourn, D. F. 1981. Milk production from silage. 1. The influence of an additive containing formaldehyde and formic acid on the response of lactating heifers and cows to supplementary protein. Animal Production 32: 285295.
Thomas, C., Daley, S. R., Aston, K. and Hughes, P. M. 1981. Milk production from silage. 2. The influence of the digestibility of silage made from the primary growth of perennial ryegrass. Animal Production 33: 713.
Thomas, P. C. 1984. Feeding and milk protein production. In Milk compositional quality and its importance in future markets (ed. Castle, M. E. and Gunn, R. G.), occasional publication, British Society of Animal Production, no. 9, pp. 5367.
Thomas, P. C. and Robertson, S. 1987. The effect of lipid and fibre source and content on silage intake, milk production and energy utilisation. Proceedings of the eighth silage conference, Hurley, pp. 173174.
Thomas, P. C., Robertson, S., Chamberlain, D. G., Livingstone, R. M., Garthwaite, P. H., Dewey, P. J. S. and Cole, D. J. A. 1988. Predicting the metabolisable energy of compounded feeds for ruminants. In Recent advances in animal nutrition — 1988 (ed. Haresign, W. and Cole, D. J. A.), pp. 127146. Butterworths, London.
Tyrell, H. F. and Reid, J. T. 1965. Prediction of the energy value of cow's milk. Journal of Dairy Science 48: 12151223.
Van Soest, P. J. 1982. Nutritional ecology of the ruminant, p. 40. O and B Books Inc.
Visser, H. de and Groot, A. A. M. de. 1981. The influence of the starch and sugar content of concentrates on food intake, rumen fluid, production and composition of milk. In Metabolic disorders in farm animals (ed. Geisecke, D., Dirksen, G. and Stangassinger, M.), pp. 4148. Veterinary Faculty of the University of Munich.
Waldo, D. R. 1978. The use of direct acidification in silage production. In Fermentation of silage — a review (ed. McCullough, M. E.), pp. 117179. National Feed Ingredients Association, Iowa.

Keywords

Milk production from grass silage diets: effects of the composition of supplementary concentrates

  • K. Aston (a1), C. Thomas (a1), S. R. Daley (a1) and J. D. Sutton (a1)

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed