Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home

Intake, digestion, gastro-intestinal transit time and nitrogen balance in working oxen: studies in Costa Rica and Nepal

  • R. A. Pearson (a1) and P. R. Lawrence (a1)

Abstract

Experiments were carried out in Nepal and Costa Rica to compare voluntary dry-matter intake (DMI) by oxen of diets based on poor quality hay (Costa Rica) and rice straw (Nepal) supplemented with different levels of concentrate foods when the animals were working and not working. Values for the apparent digestibility of the diets, rates of passage of solid and liquid phases ofdigesta and nitrogen balance are also reported.

Amounts of work calculated to raise daily energy expenditure to 1·3 to 1·6 × maintenance were associated with the following effects. (1) A depression of proportionately 0·11 and 0·14 in the DMI of oxen given a diet based on rice straw plus 18 and 27 g/kg live weight of concentrate respectively during work. No depression of DMI was seen with the hay diets which had slightly higher metabolizable energy but less nitrogen than the rice straw diets. (2) An increase in intake in the weeks following work on both the hay and rice straw diets. (3) Variable effects on apparent digestibility of food probably related more to the changes in DMI. (4) A tendency for gastro-intestinal mean retention time to be increased in working weeks particularly on the more fibrous diets.

Copyright

References

Hide All
Agricultural Research Council. 1980. The nutrient requirements of ruminant livestock. Commonwealth Agricultural Bureaux, Slough.
Association of Official Analytical Chemists. 1990. Official methods of analysis of the Association of Analytical Chemists. 15th ed. Association of Official Analytical Chemists, Virginia, USA.
Bakrie, B., Murray, R. M., Hogan, J. P., Teleni, E. and Kartiarso, . 1989. Effect of load level on feed utilisation by working cattle and buffaloes. DAP Bulletin 8: 2326.
Bamualim, A. and Ffoulkes, D. 1988. Effect of work and level of feed intake on nutritional parameters and body weight change of swamp buffalo cows. DAP Bulletin 7: 28.
Clapperton, J. L. 1964. The effect of walking upon the utilisation of food by sheep. British Journal of Nutrition 18: 3946.
Ffoulkes, D., Bamualim, A. and Panggabean, T. 1987. Utilisation of fibrous feeds by working buffaloes. In Ruminant feeding systems utilising fibrous agricultural resources (ed. Dixon, R. M.), pp. 161169. FDP, Canberra, Australia.
Goering, H. K. and Van Soest, P. J. 1970. Forage fibre analyses. Agricultural handbook, US Department of Agriculture, no. 379.
Grovum, W. L. and Williams, V. J. 1973. Rate of passage of digesta in sheep. 4. Passage of marker through the alimentary tract and the biological relevance of rate constraints derived from the changes in concentration of marker in faeces. British Journal of Nutrition 30: 313–329.
Hutton, J. B. 1963. The effects of lactation on intake in the dairy cow. Proceedings of the New Zealand Society of Animal Production 23: 3952.
Kehar, N. D., Mukherjee, R., Murty, V. V. S. and Sen, K. C. 1943. Studies on protein metabolism. II. The effect of muscular work on endogenous protein catabolism in cattle. Indian Journal of Veterinary Science and Animal Husbandry 8: 263266.
Lawrence, P. R. and Pearson, R. A. 1985. Factors affecting the measurement of the draught force, work output and power of oxen. Journal of Agricultural Science, Cambridge 105: 703714.
Lawrence, P. R. and Stibbards, R. J. 1990. The energy costs of walking, carrying and pulling loads on flat surfaces by Brahman cattle and swamp buffalo. Animal Production 50: 2939.
Mathers, J. C., Baber, R. P. and Archibald, R. F. 1989. Intake, digestion and gastro-intestinal transit time in Asiatic buffaloes and Ayrshire cattle given two contrasting diets and housed at 20° and 33°C. Journal of Agricultural Science, Cambridge 113: 211222.
Nicholson, M. J. and Butterworth, M. H. 1985. A guide to condition scoring of Zebu cattle. International Livestock Centre for Africa, Addis Ababa.
Pearson, R. A. 1990. A note on live weight and intake and digestibility of food by draught cattle after supplementation of rice straw with the fodder tree Ficus auriculata. Animal Production 51: 635638.
Pearson, R. A., Lawrence, P. R. and Ghimire, C. 1989. Factors influencing the work done by draught oxen: a study in the eastern hills of Nepal. Animal Production 49: 345353.
Ryan, W. J. 1990. Compensatory growth in cattle and sheep. Nutrition Abstracts and Reviews 60: 653664.
Schneider, B. H. and Flatt, P. W. 1975. The evaluation of foods through digestibility experiments. University of Georgia Press, Athens, USA.
Wanapat, M. and Wachirapakorn, C. 1987. Effect of walking on feed intake and digestibility of rice straw by water buffaloes. In Proceedings of the fourth Australasian Association for Animal Production animal science congress, pp. 332.
Winugroho, M. 1990. The effect of work durations on voluntary feed intake and digestibility, liveweights and physiology of buffaloes fed a grass: rice straw diet. In Proceedings of the sixth congress of the Federation of Asian Veterinary Associations (FAVA), October 16–19, 1988, Denpasar, Bali.

Keywords

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed