Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home

Heterogeneity of variance and dairy cattle breeding

  • P. M. Visscher (a1) and W. G. Hill (a1)

Abstract

The effects of heterogeneity among herds in phenotypic variance (σ2p) and in heritability (h2) on the accuracy of evaluation of dairy sires and cows are discussed with reference to estimates from field data. It is argued that heterogeneity of σ2P can be accounted for by using a (Bayesian) regression procedure. While the same procedure could be used to correct for heterogeneity of h2, in most practical situations the sampling errors of the h2 estimates for individual herds are likely to be so large that regressed estimates of h2 will differ little from each other, so constant values can be assumed.

Copyright

References

Hide All
Boldman, K. G. and Freeman, A. E. 1990. Adjustment for heterogeneity of variances by herd production level in dairy cow and sire evaluation. Journal of Dairy Science 73: 503512.
Brotherstone, S. and Hill, W. G. 1986. Heterogeneity of variance amongst herds for milk production. Animal Production 42: 297303.
Carabañlo, M. J., Wade, K. M., and Van Vleck, L. D. 1990. Genotype by environment interaction for milk and fat production across regions of the United States. Journal of Dairy Science 73: 173180.
Dong, M. C. and Mao, I. L. 1990. Heterogeneity of (co)variance and heritability in different levels of intraherd milk-production variance and of herd average. Journal of Dairy Science 73: 843851.
Ducrocq, V., Boichard, D., Bonaiti, B., Barbat, A. and Briend, M. 1990. A pseudo-absorption strategy for solving animal-model equations for large data files. Journal of Dairy Science 73: 19451955.
Garrick, D. J. and Van Vleck, L. D. 1987. Aspects of selection for performance in several environments with heterogeneous variances. Journal of Animal Science 65: 409421.
Gianola, D., Foulley, J. L., Fernando, R. L., Henderson, C. R. and Weigel, K. A. 1992. Estimation of heterogeneous variances using empirical Bayes methods: theoretical considerations. Journal of Dairy Science In press.
Henderson, C. R., 1973. Sire evaluation and genetic trends. Proceedings of the animal breeding and genetics symposium honor of Dr. J. Lush, pp. 1041. American Society of Animal Science, American Dairy Science Association, American Poultry Science Association, Champaign, Illinois.
Hill, W. G. 1984. On selection among groups with heterogeneous variance. Animal Production 39: 473477.
Hill, W. G., Edwards, M. R., Ahmed, M.-K. A. and Thompson, R. 1983. Heritability of milk yield and composition at different levels and variability of production. Animal Production 36: 5968.
Jones, L. P., and Goddard, M. E. 1990. Five years experience with the animal model for dairy cattle evaluations in Australia. Proceedings of the fourth world congress on genetics applied to livestock production, Vol. XIII, pp. 382385.
Lofgren, D. L., Vinson, W. E., Pearson, R. E. and Powell, R. L. 1985. Heritability of milk yield at different herd means and variances for production. Journal of Dairy Science 68: 27372739.
Meuwissen, T. H. E. and Van der Werf, J. H. J. 1992. Impact of heterogeneous within herd variances on dairy cattle breeding schemes. Livestock Production Science In press.
Meyer, K. 1987. Estimates of variances due to sire × herd interactions and environmental covariances between paternal half-sibs for first lactation dairy production. Livestock Production Science 17: 95115.
Mirande, S. L. and Van Vleck, L. D. 1985. Trends in genetic and phenotypic variances for milk production. Journal of Dairy Science 68: 22782286.
Nicholas, F. W. and Smith, C. 1983. Increased rates of genetic changes in dairy cattle by embryo transfer and splitting. Animal Production 36: 341353.
Patterson, H. D. and Thompson, R. 1971. Recovery of interblock-information when block sizes are unequal. Biometrika 58: 545554.
Short, T. H., Blake, R. W., Quaas, R. L. and Van Vleck, L. D. 1990. Heterogeneous within-herd variance. 1. Genetic parameters for first and second lactation milk yields of grade Holstein cows. Journal of Dairy Science 73: 33123320.
Van Vleck, L. D. 1987. Selection when traits have different genetic and phenotypic variances in different environments. Journal of Dairy Science 70: 337344.
Van Vleck, L. D. and Dong, M. C. 1988. Genetic (co)variances for milk, fat, and protein yield in Holsteins using an animal model. Journal of Dairy Science 71: 30403046.
Vinson, W. E. 1987. Potential bias in genetic evaluations in from differences in variation within herds. Journal of Dairy Science 70: 24502455.
Visscher, P. M. 1992. Power of likelihood ratio tests for heterogeneity of intraclass correlation and variance in balanced half-sib designs. Journal of Dairy Science 75: 13201330.
Visscher, P. M. and Thompson, R. 1992. Comparisons between genetic variances estimated from different types of relatives in dairy cattle. Animal Production 55: 315320.
Visscher, P. M., Thompson, R. and Hill, W. G. 1991. Estimation of genetic and environmental variances for fat yield in individual herds and an investigation into heterogeneity of variance between herds. Livestock Production Science 28: 273290.
Wiggans, G. R., Misztal, I. and Van Vleck, L. D. 1988. Implementation of an Animal Model for genetic evaluation of dairy cattle in the United States. Journal of Dairy Science 71: suppl. 2, pp. 5469.
Wiggans, G. R. and VanRaden, P. M. 1991. Method and effect of adjustment for heterogeneous variance. Journal of Dairy Science 74: 43504357.

Keywords

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed