Agricultural and Food Research Council. 1992. Technical Committee on Responses to Nutrients. Report no. 9. Nutritive requirements of ruminant animals: protein. Nutrition Abstracts and Reviews, Series B: Livestock Feeds and Feeding
Akin, D. E.
1988. Biological structure of lignocellulose and its degradation in the rumen. Animal Feed Science and Technology
Association of Official Analytical Chemists. 1980. Official methods of analysis, 13th edition.
Association of Official Analytical Chemists, Washington, DC.
Blackburn, W. E., Sinclair, L. A., Wilkinson, R. G. and Greenhalgh, J. F. D.
1998. Influence of the pattern of nutrient release from grass silage and the effect of supplementation on the voluntary food intake of growing lambs. Proceedings of the British Society of Animal Science, 1998,
Brown, A. J. and Williams, D. R.
1979. Sheep carcass evaluation — measurements of composition using a standardised butchery method. Memo no. 38, Meat Research Institute, Bristol, UK.
Chamberlain, D. G. and Choung, J. J.
1995. The importance of rate of ruminal fermentation of energy sources in diets for dairy cows. In Recent advances in animal nutrition (ed. Garnsworthy, P. C. and Cole, D. J. A.), pp. 3–27. Nottingham University Press.
Chen, G., Russell, J. B. and Sniffen, C. J.
1987. A procedure for measuring peptides in rumen fluid and evidence that peptide uptake can be a rate-limiting step in ruminai protein degradation. Journal of Dairy Science
Cheng, K. J., Stewart, C. S., Dinsdale, D. and Costerton, J. W.
1984. Electron microscopy of bacteria involved in the digestion of plant cell walls. Animal Feed Science and Technology
1986. The evaluation of dietary fibre. In Feedingstuffs evaluation, modern aspects, problems, future trends (ed. Livingstone, R. M.), pp. 1–10. Rowett Research Institute, Aberdeen, UK.
1990. Nutritional significance and nutritive value of plant polysaccharides. In Feedstuffs evaluation (ed. J. Wiseman and D. Cole, J. A.), pp. 179–195. Butterworths, London.
Cocimano, M. R. and Leng, R. A.
1967. Metabolism of urea in sheep. British Journal of Nutrition
Cone, J. W., Cliné-Theil, W., Malestein, A. and Klooster, A. Th. van’t. 1989. Degradation of starch by incubation with rumen fluid. A comparison of different starch sources. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
1980. Oxidation of butyrate to ketone bodies and C02 in the rumen epithelium, liver, kidney, heart and lung of Camel (Camelus dromedarius), sheep (Ovis aries) and goat (Capra hircus)
. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology
Forbes, J. M.
1995. Voluntary food intake and diet selection in farm animals.
CAB International, Wallingford, UK.
Galbraith, H., Mandebvu, P., Thompson, J. K. and Franklin, M. F.
1989. Effects of diets differing in the proportion of sugar-beet pulp and barley on growth, body composition and metabolism of entire male lambs. Animal Production
48: 652 (abstr.).
Goering, H. K. and Van Soest, P. J.
1970. Forage fiber analysis (apparatus, reagents, procedures and some applications). Agricultural handbook no. 379, Agricultural Research Service, US Department of Agriculture, Washington DC.
Henning, P. H., Steyn, D. G. and Meissner, H. H.
1993. Effect of synchronisation of energy and nitrogen supply on ruminai characteristics and microbial growth
Journal of Animal Science
Herrera-Saldana, R.E, Huber, J. T. and Poore, M. H.
1990. Dry matter, crude protein, and starch degradability of five cereal grains. Journal of Dairy Science
Huntingdon, J. A. and Givens, I.
1995. The in situ technique for studying the rumen degradation of feeds: a review of the procedure. Nutrition Abstracts and Reviews, Series B
Hussein, H. S., Jordan, R. M. and Stern, M. D.
1991. Ruminai protein metabolism and intestinal amino acid utilization as affected by dietary protein and carbohydrate sources in sheep. Journal of Animal Science
Johnson, R. R.
1976. Influence of carbohydrate solubility on non-protein nitrogen utilization in the ruminant. Journal of Animal Science
Kandylis, K. and Nikokyris, P.
1991. Reassessment of the nylon bag technique. World Review of Animal Production
Kyriazakis, I. and Oldham, J. D.
1997. Food intake and diet selection in sheep: the effect of manipulating the rates of digestion of carbohydrates and protein of the foods offered as a choice. British Journal of Nutrition
Lawes Agricultural Trust. 1987. Genstat 5 reference manual.
Oxford University Press, Oxford.
Lindsay, D. B.
1993. Metabolism of the portal drained viscera. In Quantitative aspects of ruminant digestion and metabolism (ed. Forbes, J. M. and France, J.), pp. 267–289. CAB International, Wallingford, UK.
Lobley, G. E., Connell, A., Lomax, M. A., Brown, D. S., Milne, E., Calder, A. G. and Farningham, D. A. H.
1995. Hepatic detoxification of ammonia in the ovine liver: possible consequences for amino acid catabolism. British Journal of Nutrition
McCarthy, R. D. Jr, Klusmeyer, T. H., Vivini, J. L., Clark, J. H. and Nelson, D. R.
1989. Effects of source of protein and carbohydrate on ruminai fermentation and passage of nutrients to the small intestine of lactation cows. Journal of Dairy Science
MacRae, J. C. and Lobley, G. E.
1986. Interactions between energy and protein. In Control of digestion and metabolism in ruminants (ed. L. P., Milligan, Grovum, W. L. and Dobson, A.), pp. 367–385. Prentice Hall, Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey.
MacRae, J. C., Walker, A., Brown, D. and Lobley, G. E.
1993. Accretion of total protein and individual amino acids by organs and tissues of growing lambs and the ability of nitrogen balance techniques to quantitate protein retention. Animal Production
Matras, J., Bartle, S. J. and Preston, R. L.
1991. Nitrogen utilization in growing lambs: effects of grain (starch) and protein sources with various rates of ruminai degradation. Journal of Animal Science
Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food. 1981. Reference booklet 427.
Her Majesty’s Stationery Office, London.
Nocek, J. E.
In situ and other methods to estimate ruminai protein and energy digestibility: a review. Journal of Dairy Science
Nocek, J. E. and Russell, J. B.
1988. Protein and energy as an integrated system. Relationship of ruminai protein and carbohydrate availability to microbial protein synthesis and milk production. Journal of Dairy Science
Oldham, J. D.
1987. Testing and implementing modern systems: UK. In Protein metabolism of ruminant feeds (ed. Alderman, G. and Jarrige, R.), pp. 261–281. Commission of European Communities, Luxembourg.
Ørskov, E. R. and Allen, D. M.
1966. Utilization of salts of volatile fatty acids by growing sheep. I. Acetate, propionate and butyrate as sources of energy for young growing lambs. British Journal of Nutrition
Ørskov, E. R., Grubb, D. A., Smith, J. S., Webster, A. J. F. and Corrigall, W.
1979. Efficiency of utilization of volatile fatty acids for maintenance and energy retention by sheep. British Journal of Nutrition
Ørskov, E. R. and McDonald, I.
1979. The estimation of protein degradability in the rumen from incubation measurements weighted according to rate of passage. Journal of Agricultural Science, Cambridge
Ørskov, E. R. and MacLeod, N. A.
1990. Dietary induced thermogenesis and feed evaluation in ruminants. Proceedings of the Nutrition Society
Pérez, J. F., Balcells, J., Guada, J. A. and Castrillo, C.
1997. Contribution of dietary nitrogen and purine bases to the duodenal digesta: comparison of duodenal and polyester-bag measurements. Animal Science
Pethick, D. W. and Dunshea, F. R.
1993. Fat metabolism and turnover. In Quantitative aspects of ruminant digestion and metabolism (ed. Forbes, J. M. and France, J.), pp. 291–311. CAB International, Wallingford, UK.
Rooney, L. W. and Pflugfelder, R. L.
1986. Factors affecting starch digestibility with special emphasis on sorghum and corn. Journal of Animal Science
Russell, J. B.
1986. Heat production by ruminal bacteria in continuous cultura and its relationship to maintenance energy. Journal of Bacteriology
Ryan, P. J.
1980. Determination of volatile fatty acids and some related compounds in ovine fluid, urine and blood by gas liquid chromatography. Analytical Biochemistry
Siddons, R. C., Paradine, J., Gale, D. L. and Evans, R. T.
1985. Estimation of the degradability of dietary protein in the sheep by in vivo and in vitro procedures. British Journal of Nutrition
Sinclair, L. A., Galbraith, H. and Scaife, J. R.
1991. Effect of dietary protein concentration and cimaterol on growth and body composition of entire male lambs. Animal Feed Science and Technology
Sinclair, L. A., Garnsworthy, P. C., Newbold, J. and Buttery, P. J.
1993. Effect of synchronizing the rate of dietary energy and nitrogen release on rumen fermentation and microbial protein synthesis in sheep. Journal of Agricultural Science, Cambridge
Sinclair, L. A., Garnsworthy, P. C., Newbold, J. and Buttery, P. J.
1995. Effects of synchronizing the rate of dietary energy and nitrogen release in diets with a similar carbohydrate composition on rumen fermentation and microbial protein synthesis in sheep. Journal of Agricultural Science, Cambridge
Sinclair, L. A. and McQuiston, G. C.
1995. Effects of level of concentrate on the eating behaviour and predicted hourly release of nutrients in the rumen of sheep fed grass silage. Animal Science
60: 531 (abstr.).
Sniffen, C. J., Russell, J. B. and Van Soest, P. J.
1983. The influence of carbon source, nitrogen source and growth factors on rumen microbial growth. In Proceedings of the Cornell nutrition conference, pp. 26–33. Ithaca, New York.
Stouthamer, A. H. and Bettenhaussen, C.
1973. Utilization of energy for growth and maintenance in continuous culture and batch cultures of micro-organisms. Biochemica et Biophysica Acta
Tamminga, S., Vuuren, A. M. van, Koelen, C. J. van der, Ketelaar, R. S. and Togt, P. L. van der. 1990. Ruminal behaviour of structural carbohydrates, non-structural carbohydrates and crude protein from concentrate ingredients in dairy cows. Netherlands Journal of Agricultural Science
Varvikko, Y. and Lindberg, J. E.
1985. Estimation of microbial nitrogen in nylon-bag residues by feed 15N dilution. British Journal of Nutrition
Wainman, F. W., Dewey, P. J. S. and Boyne, A. W.
1981. Compound feedingstuffs for ruminants. Third report of Feedingstuffs Evaluation Unit. Department of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food, Edinburgh.
Wallace, R. J.
1996. Biphasic breakdown of peptides by rumen bacteria. Animal Science
62: 687 (abstr.).