Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home

Effects of plane of nutrition and environmental temperature on the growth and development of the early-weaned piglet 2. Energy metabolism

  • W. H. Close (a1) and M. W. Stanier (a1)

Abstract

1. Measurements of heat loss, energy and nitrogen balance were made on 18 groups of piglets weaned at 2 weeks, at environmental temperatures of 18, 23 and 28°C, and at three levels of feeding at each temperature.

2. From the experimental results, values of heat loss, energy retention, protein and fat deposition were derived for each temperature, at each of the three levels of metabolizable energy (kJ/kg M0·75 per day) intake: 550 (1·0MEm), 825 (1·5MEm) and 1100 (2·0MEm). The lowest of these levels was the calculated thermoneutral maintenance energy requirement (MEm).

3. From the results the following deductions were made, (a) Heat loss varies with both environmental temperature and metabolizable energy intake, and at an intake of 2·0MEm is minimal between 23 and 28°C. Energy retention varies in an inverse manner to heat-loss, and at 1·0MEm is negative at all environmental temperatures below 28°C. (b) Protein and fat deposition increase significantly with increase in metabolizable energy intake (P < 0·05), with fat deposition being more dependent on temperature than protein deposition. The mean increase in protein deposition per 1°C increase in environmental temperature is 2·05 kJ/kg M0·75 per day. Fat deposition is negative at all temperatures at l·0MEm; at l·5MEm it is zero at 23°C and negative at temperatures below this.

4. Critical temperature was calculated to decrease from 26·9°C at l·0MEm to 23·9°C at 2·0MEm.

5. The efficiency of energy utilization (k) was 0·58 at 18°C, 0·81 at 23°C and 0·74 at 28°C. The corresponding values of the maintenance energy requirements were 739, 615 and 550 kJ/kg M0·75 per day. Estimates of the energetic efficiency of protein deposition (kp) of 0·60 to 0·65, and of fat deposition (k/) of 0·82 to 0·86, were determined at 23 and 28°C.

Copyright

References

Hide All
Agricultural, Research Council. 1981. The Nutrient Requirements of Pigs. Commonwealth Agricultural Bureaux, Slough.
Blaxtkr, K. L. 1969. The Energy Metabolism of Ruminants. Butterworth, London.
Bohme, H., Gadekin, D. and Oslage, H. J. 1980. [Investigation into energy expenditure for protein and fat deposition in the early-weaned pig.] Landw. Forsch. 33: 261271.
Braude, R. and Newport, M. J. 1973. Artificial rearing of pigs. 4. The replacement of butter fat in a wholemilk diet by either beef-tallow, coconut oil or soyabean oil. Br. J. Nutr. 29: 447455.
Brouwer, E. 1965. Report of Sub-Committee on Constants and Factors. In Energy Metabolism (ed. Blaxter, K. L.), Publ. Eur. Ass. Ariim. Prod., No. 11.. pp. 441443. Academic Press, London.
Burlacu, G., Bāia, G., Ionii-Ā, D., Moisa, D., Taşcenco, V., Vişan, I. and Stoka, I. 1973. Efficiency of the utilization of the energy of food in piglets, after weaning. J. agric. Sci., Camb. 81: 295302.
Close, W. H. and Mount, L. E. 1975. The rate of heat loss during fasting in the growing pig. Br. J. Nutr. 34: 279290.
Close, W. H. and Mount, L. E. 1978. The effects of plane of nutrition and environmental temperature on the energy metabolism of the growing pig. 1. Heat loss and critical temperature. Br. J. Nutr. 40: 413422.
Close, W. H., Mount, L. E. and Brown, D. 1978. The effects of plane of nutrition and environmental temperature on the energy metabolism of the growing Pig. 2. Growth rate, including protein and fat deposition. Br. J. Nutr. 40: 423431.
Close, W. H. and Stanier, M. W. 1984. Effects of plane of nutrition and environmental temperature on the growth and development of the early-weaned piglet. 1. Growth and body composition. Anim. Prod. 38: 211220.
Dunkin, A. C. and Campbell, R. G. 1982. Some aspects of the partition of metabolisable energy in the young pig. In Energy Metabolism of Farm Animals (ed. Ekern, A. and Sundstøl, F.), Publ. Eur. Ass. Anim. Prod., No. 29, pp. 198201. Agricultural University of Norway, Aas-NLH.
Ewan, R. C. 1982. Energy metabolism of young pigs. In Energy Metabolism of Farm Animals (ed. Ekern, A. and Sundstøl, F.), Publ. Eur. Ass. Anim. Prod.. No. 29, pp. 194197. Agricultural University of Norway. Aas-NLH.
Fuller, M. F. 1965. The effect of environmental temperature on the nitrogen metabolism and growth of the young pig. Br. J. Nutr. 19: 531546.
Fuller, M. F. and Boyne, A. W. 1972. The effects of environmental temperature on the growth and metabolism of pigs given different amounts of food. 2. Energy metabolism. Br. J. Nutr. 28: 373384.
Gregg, V. A. and Milligan, L. P. 1982. In vitro energy costs of Na+, K+-ATPase activity and protein synthesis in muscles from calves differing in age and breed. Br. J. Nutr. 48: 6572.
Hoffmann, L., Jentsch, W., Klein, M. and Schiemann, R. 1977 [Utilization of feed energy by growing pigs. 1. Metabolism of energy and nitrogen in the early stage of growth.] Arch. Tierernähr. 27: 421438.
Kielanowski, J. 1965. Estimates of the energy cost of protein deposition in growing animals. In Energy Metabolism (ed. Blaxter, K. L.), Publ. Eur. Ass. Anim. Prod., No. II, pp. 1320. Academic Press. London.
Kielanowski, J. and Kotarbinska, M. 1970. Further studies on energy metabolism in the pig. In Energy Metabolism of Farm Animals (ed. Schiirch, A. and Wenk, C.). Publ. Eur. Ass. Anim. Prod.. No. 13 pp. 145148. Juris Druck and Verlag, Zurich.
Kirchgessnfr, M. and Mullfr, H. L. 1974. [Energy expenditure for growth and protein deposition by earlyweaned piglets with different dietary proteins.] Arch. Tierernähr. 24: 215225.
Le Dividich, J. 1981. Effects of environmental temperature on the growth rates of early-weaned piglets. Livestock Prod. Sci. 8: 7586.
Lf Dividich, J., Vermorfl, M., Nobiet, J., Bouvn, R. J. C. and Aumaitre, A. 1980. Effects of environmental temperature on heat production, energy retention, protein and fat gain in early weaned piglets. Br. J. Nutr. 44: 313323.
McCracken, K. J. and Caldwfll, B. J. 1980. Effect of temperature and energy intake on heat loss and energy retention of the early-weaned pig. In Energy Metabolism (ed. Mount, L. E.). Publ. Eur. Ass. Anim. Prod., No. 26, pp. 445448. Butterworth. London.
McCracken, K. J., Eddie, S. M. and Stevenson, W. G. 1980. Energy and protein nutrition of early weaned pigs. 2. Effect of energy intake and energy: protein on energy utilisation and body composition of pigs slaughtered at 32 d. Br. J. Nutr. 43: 305319.
Millward, D. J., Garikk, P. J. and Reeds, P. J. 1976. The energy cost of growth. Proc. Nutr. Soc. 35: 339350.
Mount, L. E. 1979. Adaptation to Thermal Environment: Man and his Productive Animals. Arnold, London.
Reeds, P. J., Cadenhead, A., Fuller, M. F., Lobley, G. E. and McDonald, J. D. 1980. Protein turnover in growing pigs. Effects of age and food intake. Br. J. Nutr. 43: 445455.
Stibic, J. 1982. Studies on energy efficiency in piglets as related to nitrogen retention. Z. Tierphysiol. Tierernähr. Futtermiuelk. 47: 131148.
Vakiiy, M. A. 1982. Artificial rearing of baby piglets: an incubation system for neonatal nurture. J. Phxsiol, Land. 322: 8P.
Verstfgen, M. W. A., Closh, W. H., Stari, I. B. and Mount, L. E. 1973. The effects of environmental temperature and plane of nutrition on heat loss, energy retention and deposition of protein and fat in groups of growing pigs. Br. J. Nutr. 30: 2135.

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed