Skip to main content Accessibility help

Effect of phytase supplementation with two levels of phosphorus diets on ileal and faecal digestibilities of nutrients and phosphorus, calcium, nitrogen and energy balances in growing pigs

  • M. Z. Fan (a1), T. J. Li (a1), Y. L. Yin (a1), R. J. Fang (a1), Z. Y. Tang (a1), Z. P. Hou (a1), R. L. Huang (a1), Z. Y. Deng (a1), H. Y. Zhong (a1), R. G. Zhang (a1), J. Zhang (a1), B. Wang (a1) and H. Schulze (a2)...


The experiment was conducted to assess the effects of phytase supplementation to diets with two levels of phosphorus (P) on ileal and faecal digestibility of nutrients and phosphorus, calcium, nitrogen and energy balances in growing pigs. Fifteen Landrace × Large White × Chinese Black barrows, with an initial live weight of 22·2 kg fitted with a simple T-cannula at the distal ileum, were randomly allocated to one of the five diet treatments, according to a of cross-over design with two periods. The basal diet was typical of southern Asia with maize/rice and rapeseed/cottonseed meals. A normal (NP, supplemented with 4·8 g/kg of CaHPO4) and a low-P diet (LP, not supplemented with CaHPO4) were formulated. Both of the diets were supplemented with and without Natuphos® Phytase (500 phytase units (FTU) per kg diet). An enzyme hydrolysed casein (EHC) diet (diet 5) was also formulated to determine the flow of the ileal endogenous amino acids (AA). The results showed that both the higher level P treatment and phytase supplementation increased (P < 0·05) the apparent ileal digestibility (AID) of dry matter (DM), organic matter (OM), crude protein (CP) and energy. Phytase supplementation also increased (P < 0·05) the AID of Ca and P. Pigs given the higher level of P or the phytase diet increased apparent faecal digestibility (AFD) of DM, OM and energy. Phytase supplementation reduced (P < 0·01) faecal Ca output and increased (P < 0·05) proportional Ca retention. The higher level of P increased (P < 0·001) total P intake and P retention (P < 0·05) but did not affect the proportion of P retained (P > 0·05). Phytase supplementation did not affect P balance (P > 0·05). Pigs given the higher level P or the phytase diet had reduced (P < 0·05) faecal energy concentration, although there was no affect on urine energy output, digestible energy (DE) and metabolizable energy (ME). However, there were P × phytase effects on DE and ME (P < 0·05). There were no P × phytase effects (P > 0·05) on AID of AA except with isoleucine (P < 0·01). Phytase supplementation increased (P < 0·05) AID of histidine, isoleucine, threonine and glutamine and there was a numeric increase in AID for most of the other AA. There was P × phytase effect on AFD of histidine (P < 0·05), isoleucine (P < 0·05), methionine (P < 0·05) and threonine (P < 0·01). Phytase supplementation increased the AFD of isoleucine (P < 0·05), threonine (P < 0·01) and tended to increase AFD of tyrosine (P < 0·05). The level of MCP affected the AFD of lysine (P < 0·01), threonine (P < 0·05), aspartic acid (P < 0·05). Phytase supplementation increased true ileal digestibility of histidine (P < 0·05), isoleucine (P < 0·001), threonine (P = 0·001), glutamine (P < 0·01), respectively. These results indicate that phytase used in the present study was able to improve the utilization of DM, OM, CP, Ca, P, energy and amino acid in a maize/rice and rapeseed/cottonseed meal based diet and reduce total output of them in manure.


Corresponding author


Hide All
†Department of Animal and Poultry Science, University of Guelph, Guelph, Ontario N1 G 2W15, Canada.
‡Also member of staff: Department of Food Science Engineering, Nanchang University, Nanchang 330047, People's Republic of China.



Hide All
Adeola, O., Lawrence, B. V., Sutton, A. L. and Cline, T. R. 1995. Phytase-induced changes in mineral utilization in zinc-supplemented diets for pigs. Journal of Animal Science 73: 33843391.
Association of Official Analytical Chemists. 1990. Official methods of analysis (16th edition). Association of Official Analytical Chemists, Washington, DC.
Cosgrove, D. J. 1980. Inositol phosphates. Their chemistry, biochemistry and physiology. Elsevier Scientific, New York.
Cromwell, G. L. and Coffey, R. D. 1991. Phosphorus-a key essential nutrient, yet a possible major pollutant-its central role in animal nutrition. In Biotechnology in the feed industry (ed. Lyons, T. P.), pp. 133145. Alltech Technical Publications, Nicholasville, KY.
Cromwell, G. L., Stahly, T. S., Coffey, R. D., Monegue, H. J. and Randolph, J. H. 1993. Efficacy of microbial phytase in improving the availability of phosphorus in soybean meal and corn-soyabean meal diets for pigs. Journal of Animal Science 71: 1831.
Fenton, T. W. and Fenton, M. 1979. An improved procedure for the determination of chromic oxide in feed and feces. Canadian Journal of Animal Science 59: 631634.
Harper, A. F., Kornegay, E. T. and Schell, T. C. 1997. Phytase supplementation of low-phosphorus growing-finishing pig diets improves performance, phosphorus digestibility, and bone mineralization and reduces phosphorus excretion. Journal of Animal Science 75: 31743186.
Ketaren, P. P., Batterham, E. S., Dettmann, E. B. and Farrell, D. J. 1993. Phosphorus studies in pigs. 3. Effect of phytase supplementation on the digestibility and availability of phosphorus in soy-bean meal for grower pigs. British Journal of Nutrition 70: 289297.
Kies, A., Hemert, K. van, Selle, P. and Kemme, P. 1997. The protein effect of phytase. In Enzymes and organic acids in the Dutch feed industry. BASF symposium, Arnhem, The Netherlands, 03 1997.
Klis, J. D. van der and Versteegh, H. A. J. 1991. Ileal absorption of P in lightweight white laying hens using microbial phytase and various calcium content in laying hen feed. Spelderholt pub. no. 563. Het Spelderholt, Wageningen, The Netherlands.
Latta, M. and Eskin, M. 1980. A simple and rapid colorimetric method for phytate determination. Journal of Agricultural Food and Chemistry 28: 13131315.
Ledoux, D. R., Firman, J. D., Broomhead, J. N. and Li, Y. C. 1999. Effects of microbial phytase on apparent ileal digestibily of amino acids in turkey poults fed a corn-soybean meal diet formulated on an ideal protein basis. Journal of Poultry Science 78: (suppl. 1) 7475 (abstr. ).
Llames, C. R. and Fontaine, J. 1994. Determination of amino acids in feeds: Collaborative study. Journal of the Association Official Analysis Chemistry 77: 13621366.
Moughan, P. J. and Rutherfurd, S. M. 1990. Endogenous flow of total lysine and other amino acids at the distal ileum of the protein- or peptide-fed rat: the chemical labeling of gelatin protein by transformation of lysine to homoarginine, Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture 52: 179192.
Mroz, Z., Jongbloed, A. W. and Kemme, P. A. 1994. Apparent digestibility and retention of nutrients bound to phytate complexes as influenced by microbial phytase and feeding regimen in pigs. Journal of Animal Science 72: 126132.
Nasi, M. 1990. Microbial phytase supplementation for improving availability of plant phosphorus in the diet of the growing pigs. Journal of Agricultural Science in Finland 62: 435447.
National Research Council. 1988. Nutrient requirements of swine (ninth edition). National Academy Press, Washington, DC.
National Research Council. 1998. Nutrient requirements of swine (10th edition). National Academy Press, Washington, DC.
Nelson, T. S., Ferrara, L. W. and Storer, N. L. 1968. Phytate phosphorus content of feed ingredients derived from plants. Journal of Poultry Science 47: 3372.
Oberleas, D. 1973. Toxicants occurring naturally in food. National Academy of Science, Washington, DC.
O'Quinn, P. R., Knabe, D. A. and Gregg, E. J. 1997. Efficacy of Natuphos® in sorghum-based diets of finishing swine. Journal of Animal Science 75: 12991307.
Pallaut, J. G., Rimbach, S., Pippig, B. and Most, E. 1994. Effect of phytase supplementation to a phytate-rich diet based on wheat, barley and soya on the bioavailability of dietary phosphorus, calcium, magnesium, zinc and protein in piglets. Agribiology Reservation 47: 3951.
Ravindran, V., Bryden, W. L., Cabahug, S. and Selle, P. H. 1998. Impact of microbial phytase on the digestibility of protein amino acids, and energy in broiler. Proceedings of the Maryland nutrition conference for feed manufacturers, Baltimore, MD, pp. 156165.
Ravindran, V., Bryden, W. L. and Korengay, E. T. 1995. Phytates: occurrence, bioavailability and implications in poultry nutrition. Poultry Avian Biology Reservation 6: 125143.
Ravindran, V., Selle, P. H., Ravaindran, G., Morel, P. C. H., Kies, A. K. and Bryden, W. L. 2001. Microbial phytase improves performance, apparent metabolizable energy, and ileal amino acid digestibility of broiler fed a lysine-deficient diet. Journal of Poultry Science 80: 338344.
Reddy, N. R., Sathe, S. K. and Salunkhe, D. K. 1982. Phytates in legumes and cereals. In Advances in food research (ed. Chichester, C.O., Mrak, E. M. and Stewart, G. F.), pp. 192. Academic Press, New York.
Shim, Y. H., Chae, B. J. and Lee, J. H. 2003. Effects of phytase and carbohydrases supplementation to diet with a partial replacement of soybean meal with rapeseed meal and cottonseed meal on growth performance and nutrient digestibility of growing pigs. Asian-Australian Journal of Animal Science 16: 13391347.
Simons, P. C. M., Versteegh, H. A. J., Jongbloed, A. W., Kemme, P. A., Slump, P., Bos, K. D., Wolters, M. G. E., Beudeker, R. F. and Verschoor, G. J. 1990. Improvement of phosphorus availability by microbial phytase in broilers and pigs. British Journal of Nutrition 64: 525540.
Snow, J. L., Douglas, M. W. and Parsons, C. M. 2003. Phytase effect on amino acid digestibility in moulted laying hens. Journal of Poultry Science 82: 474477.
Statistical Analysis Systems Institute. 1990. SAS/STAT user's guide: statistics, release 6·04 edition. SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC.
Yang, S. 1979. Animal feeding experiment and animal feed analyses. Agricultural Press, Beijing.
Yi, Z., Kornegay, E. T. and Denbow, D. M. 1996. Effect of microbial phytase on nitrogen amino acid digestibility and nitrogen retention of turkey poults fed corn-soybean meal diets. Journal of Poultry Science 75: 979990.
Yin, Y. -L., Huang, R. -L., Zhong, H. -Y., Chen, C. -M. and Dai, H. 1991. Influence of different cannulation techniques on the pre-cecal digestibility of protein, amino acids and cell wall constituents from diets, containing different protein meal, in pigs. Journal of Animal Feed Science and Technology 35: 271281.
Yin, Y. L., McEvoy, J. D. G., Schulze, H. and McCracken, K. J. 2000. Studies on cannulation and alternative indigestible markers and the effect of food enzyme supplementation in barley-based diets in ileal and overall digestibility in pigs. Journal of Animal Science 70: 6372.
Young, L. G., Leunissen, M. and Atkinson, J. L. 1993. Addition of microbial phytase to diets of young pigs. Journal of Animal Science 71: 21472150.



Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed