Skip to main content Accessibility help

Digestion and live-weight gain by beef cattle consuming bermudagrass supplemented with grain or different high-protein foodstuffs

  • A. L. Goetsch (a1), L. A. Forster (a1), G. E. Murphy (a1), E. W. Grant (a1), D. L. Galloway (a1) and C. P. West (a1)...


Two experiments were made to determine the effects on digestion characteristics and live-weight (LW) gain of cattle consuming bermudagrass of supplementing with ground maize, soya-bean meal or a maizegluten— blood meal mix alone or maize plus the protein supplements. Experiment 1 was a Latin-square design with 14-day periods using six beef cows fitted with rumen and duodenal cannulas (490 kg). Cows were given bermudagrass hay at 12·7 g/kg LW alone (control, C) or with 2·4 g/kg LW of ground maize (M), 0·98 g/kg LW of soya-bean meal (S), 0·53 g/kg LW of maize-gluten plus 0·17 g/kg (dry matter basis) of blood meal (GB), M plus S (M + S) or M plus GB (M + GB). Nitrogen (N) intake was 106, 123, 143, 148, 166 and 166 g/day; total N at the duodenum was 101, 124, 117, 126, 140 and 161 (s.e. 5·91) g/day; and post-ruminal N disappearance was 61, 77, 72, 84, 87 and 110 (s.e. 5·6) g/day for C, M, S, GB, M + S and M + GB, respectively. In experiment 2, 96 crossbred beef heifers (203 kg LW) implanted with 200 mg testosterone and 20 mg oestradiol benzoate were allotted to 12 groups by LW (two groups per treatment). Heifers grazed bermudagrass paddocks for 84 days in two 42-day periods and supplement treatments were those in experiment 1. A period × treatment interaction in LW gain was noted (P < 0·05). LW gain was 0·78, 0·81, 0·79, 0·76, 0·70 and 0·95 kg in period 1 and 0·46, 0·51, 0·56, 0·53, 0·64 and 0·61 kg in period 2 for C, M, S, GB, M + S and M + GB, respectively (s.e. 0·049). In conclusion, duodenal flow and post-ruminal disappearance of N were similar for the protein sources when offered singularly, but when given with maize values were greater for the mix of protein meals high in ruminal undegradable protein as compared with soya-bean meal. LW gain by heifer calves grazing bermudagrass was increased only by supplementation with ground maize plus the protein meal mix of low ruminal degradability.



Hide All
Andrews, R. P. and Ørskov, E. R. 1970. The nutrition of the early weaned lamb. I. The influence of protein concentration and feeding level on rate of gain in body weight. Journal of Agricultural Science, Cambridge 75: 1118.
Argyle, J. L. and Baldwin, R. L. 1989. Effects of amino acids and peptides on rumen rnicrobial growth yields. Journal of Dairy Science 72: 20172027.
Association of Official Analytical Chemists. 1975. Official Methods of Analysis. 12th ed. Association of Official Analytical Chemists, Washington, DC.
Bailey, C. B. 1989. Rate and efficiency of gain, from weaning to slaughter, of steers given hay, hay supplemented with ruminal undegradable protein, or concentrate. Canadian Journal of Animal Science 69: 691705.
Barry, T. N. 1981. Protein metabolism in growing lambs fed on fresh ryegrass (Lolium perenne)-clover (Trifolium repens) pasture ad libitum. 1. Protein and energy deposition in response to abomasal infusion of casein and methionine. British Journal of Nutrition 46: 521532.
Block, E., Kilmer, L. H. and Muller, L. D. 1981. Acid insoluble ash as a marker of digestibility for sheep fed corn plants or hay and for lactating dairy cattle fed hay ad libitum. Journal of Animal Science 52: 11641169.
Bowman, J. G. P. and Asplund, J. M. 1988. Nitrogen utilization, ruminal fermentation and abomasal nitrogen flow in sheep fed Caucasian bluestem hay supplemented with lucerne or urea. Animal Feed Science and Technology 20: 3344.
Brake, A. C., Goetsch, A. L., Hubbell, D. S., Hall, K. L., Landis, K. M. and Harrison, K. F. 1989. Intake, digestion and daily gain by cattle consuming bermudagrass hay and receiving concentrate supplements. Livestock Production Science 22: 255267.
Broderick, G. A. and Kang, J. H. 1980. Automated simultaneous determination of ammonia and total amino acids in ruminal fluid and in vitro media. Journal of Dairy Science 63: 6475.
Chapple, D. G. 1983. Protein supplementation for calves on silage diets. Animal Production 36: 513 (Abstr.).
Demeyer, D. I. 1981. Rumen microbes and digestion of plant cell walls. Agriculture and Environment 6: 295337.
Egan, A. R. 1977. Nutritional status and intake regulation in sheep. VIII. Relationships between the voluntary intake of herbage by sheep and the protein energy ratio in the digestion products. Australian Journal of Agricultural Research 28: 907915.
Ellis, W. C., C., LASCANO., Teeter, R. and Owens, F. N. 1982. Solute and particle flow markers. In Protein Requirements for Cattle (ed. Owens, F. N.), Miscellaneous Publication, Oklahoma Agricultural Experiment Station, No. 109, pp. 3756.
England, P. and Gill, M. 1985. The effect of fish meal and sucrose supplementation on the voluntary intake of grass silage and live-weight gain of young cattle. Animal Production 40: 259265.
Funk, M. A., Galyean, M. L. and Branine, M. E. 1987. Steers grazing blue grama rangeland throughout the growing season. II. Site and extent of digestion and microbial protein synthesis. Journal of Animal Science 65: 13541361.
Garstang, J. R. 1981. Silage supplements for calves. Animal Production 32: 355 (Abstr.).
Garstang, J. R., Thomas, C. and Gill, M. 1979. The effect of supplementation of grass silage with fish meal on intake and performance by British Friesian calves. Animal Production 28: 423 (Abstr.).
Gill, M. and Ulyatt, M. J. 1977. The effect of supplementation with protein, energy and L-methionine, on the digestion of silage by sheep. Journal of Agricultural Science, Cambridge 89: 4351.
Goering, H. K. and Van soest, P. J. 1970. Forage fiber analyses. Apparatus, reagents, procedures and some applications. Agricultural Handbook, United States Department of Agriculture, No. 379.
Goetsch, A. L. 1989. Daily gain by beef cattle consuming bermudagrass and supplemental concentrates. University of Arkansas Special Report 137, pp. 3944. University of Arkansas, Fayetteville.
Goetsch, A. L. and Galyean, M. L. 1983. Ruthenium phenanthroline, dysprosium and ytterbium as paniculate markers in beef steers fed an all-alfalfa hay diet. Nutrition Reports International 27: 171178.
Ha, J. K., Kennelly, J. J. and Berzins, R. 1986. Effect of dietary nitrogen source on microbial protein synthesis, dietary protein degradation and nutrient digestion in steers. Animal Feed Science and Technology 14: 117126.
Hall, K. L., Goetsch, A. L. and Forster, L. A. 1989. Effects of buffer or DL-methionine in different amounts of supplemental corn on feed intake and nutrient digestion by Holstein steers consuming bermudagrass hay. Journal of Animal Science 68: 16741682.
Hall, K. L., Goetsch, A. L., Landis, K. M., Forster, L. A. and Brake, A. C. 1990. Effects of a fat-ground maize supplement on feed intake and digestion by cattle consuming bermudagrass hay (Cynodon dactylon). Animal Feed Science and Technology In press.
Hardin, A. C., Goetsch, A. L., Landis, K. M., Murphy, G. E., Johnson, Z. B. and Hall, K. L. 1989. Intake, digestion and daily gain by cattle consuming bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon) and supplemented with different combinations of ground corn, vegetable oil, urea, and corn gluten and blood meals. Animal Feed Science and Technology 25: 99110.
Hiltner, P. and Dehority, B. A. 1983. Effect of soluble carbohydrates on digestion of cellulose by pure cultures of rumen bacteria. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 46: 642648.
Hoover, W. H. 1986. Chemical factors involved in ruminal fiber digestion. Journal of Dairy Science 69: 27552766.
Horn, G. W. and McCollum, F. T. 1987. Energy supplementation of grazing ruminants. Proceedings of the Grazing Livestock Nutrition Conference, University of Wyoming, Laramie, pp. 125136.
Jones, A. L., Goetsch, A. L., Stokes, S. R. and Colberg, M. 1988. Intake and digestion in cattle fed warm- or cool-season grass “hay with or without supplemental grain. Journal of Animal Science 66: 194203.
Kellaway, R. C. and Leibholz, J. 1983. Effects of nitrogen supplements on intake and utilization of lowquality forages. World Animal Review 48: 3337.
Kempton, T. J. 1982. Role of feed supplements in the utilisation of low protein roughage diets by sheep. World Review of Animal Production 18: (2), 714.
Kempton, T. J., Nolan, J. V. and Leng, R. A. 1977. Principles for the use of non-protein nitrogen and bypass proteins in diets of ruminants. World Animal Review 22: 210.
Landis, K. M., Goetsch, A. L., Forster, L. A. and Brake, A. C. 1989. Sites of digestion in beef steers fed bermudagrass hay and supplemented with highnitrogen feeds alone or with tallow. Archives of Animal Nutrition 40: 387401.
MacRae, J. C. and Lobley, G. E. 1982. Some factors which influence thermal energy losses during the metabolism of ruminants. Livestock Production Science 9: 447456.
Merchen, N. R. and Satter, L. D. 1983. Digestion of nitrogen by lambs fed alfalfa conserved as baled hay or as low moisture silage. Journal of Animal Science 56: 943951.
Oliver, W. M. 1975. Effect of monensin on gains of steers grazed on coastal bermudagrass. Journal of Animal Science 41: 9991001.
Ørskov, E. R., McDonald, I., Fraser, C. and Corse, E. L. 1971. The nutrition of the early weaned lamb. III. The effect of ad libitum intake of diets varying in protein concentration on performance and on body composition at different live weights. Journal of Agricultural Science, Cambridge 11: 351361.
Redman, R. G., Kellaway, R. C. and Leibholz, J. 1980. Utilization of low quality roughages: effects of urea and protein supplements of differing solubility on digesta flows, intake and growth rate of cattle eating oaten chaff. British Journal of Nutrition 44: 343354.
Robertson, J. B. and Van soest, P. J. 1977. Dietary fiber estimation in concentrate feedstuff. Journal of Animal Science 45: Suppl. 1, p. 254 (Abstr.).
Snedecor, G. W. and Cochran, W. G. 1967. Statistical Methods. 6th ed. Iowa State University Press, Ames, la.
Statistical Analysis Systems. 1985. SAS User's Guide: Statistics (Version 5 Edition). Cary, NC.
Steen, R. W. J. 1988a. The effect of supplementing silage-based diets with soya bean and fish meals for finishing beef cattle. Animal Production 46: 4351.
Steen, R. W. J. 1988b. The effect of implantation with hormonal growth promoters on the response in the performance of beef cattle to protein supplementation of a silage-based diet. Animal Production 47: 2128.
Stobbs, T. H., Minson, D. J. and McLeod, M. N. 1977. The response of dairy cows grazing a nitrogen fertilized grass pasture to a supplement of protected casein. Journal of Agricultural Science, Cambridge 89: 137141.
Thonney, M. L., Duhaime, D. J., Moe, P. W. and Reid, J. T. 1979. Acid insoluble ash and permanganate lignin as indicators to determine digestibility of cattle rations. Journal of Animal Science 49: 11121116.
Thonney, M. L., Palhof, B. A., Decarlo, M. R., Ross, D. A., Firth, N. L., Quaas, R. L., Perosio, D. J., Duhaime, D. J., Rollins, S. R. and Nour, A. Y. M. 1985. Sources of variation of dry matter digestibility measured by the acid insoluble ash marker. Journal of Dairy Science 68: 661668.
Uden, P. 1984. Digestibility and digesta retention in dairy cows receiving hay or silage at varying concentrate levels. Animal Feed Science and Technology 11: 279291.
Uden, P., Colucci, P. E. and Van soest, P. J. 1980. Investigation of chromium, cerium and cobalt as markers in digesta. Rate of passage studies. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture 31: 625632.
Van keulen, J. and Young, B. A. 1977. Evaluation of acid-insoluble ash as a natural marker in ruminant digestibility studies. Journal of Animal Science 44: 282287.
Van soest, P. J. 1982. Nutritional Ecology of the Ruminant. O and B Books, Corvallis, OR.
Zinn, R. A., Bull, L. S., Hemken, R. W., Button, F. S., Enlow, C. and Tucker, R. W. 1980. Apparatus for measuring and subsampling digesta in ruminants equipped with reentrant intestinal cannulas. Journal of Animal Science 51: 193201.
Zinn, R. A. and Owens, F. N. 1986. A rapid procedure for purine measurement and its use for estimating net ruminal protein synthesis. Canadian Journal of Animal Science 66: 157166.


Related content

Powered by UNSILO

Digestion and live-weight gain by beef cattle consuming bermudagrass supplemented with grain or different high-protein foodstuffs

  • A. L. Goetsch (a1), L. A. Forster (a1), G. E. Murphy (a1), E. W. Grant (a1), D. L. Galloway (a1) and C. P. West (a1)...


Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed.