Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home

Dietary fat and climate alter food intake, performance of lactating sows and their litters and fatty acid composition of milk

  • R. Christon, G. Saminadin (a1), H. Lionet (a1) and B. Racon (a1)

Abstract

Two experiments were carried out simultaneously in a temperate environment (T), at Sourches (west France), with 24 Landrace X Large White sows and in a tropical environment (TRO), in Guadeloupe, France (16° latitude N, 61° longitude W), with 18 Large White sows, to study the effect of incorporating fat into the lactation diet on sow and litter performance. In each environment, multiparous sows were divided into three groups and given either a control diet (C) containing 20 g fat per kg, or the same diet enriched with a 50 : 50 peanut-rapeseed oil mixture, so as to obtain a fat content of 80 g/kg (medium fat, MF) or 140 g/kg (high fat, HF). A restricted experimental diet was supplied to the sows from day 105 of gestation until farrowing and then ad libitum throughout the 28-day lactation period. The piglets all had ad libitum access to solid food from day 21 to day 70. Milk samples were collected 24 h post partum (colostrum) and at day 21 of lactation. Chemical composition of milk was determined and fatty acid composition was assessed by capillary gas chromatography. Compared with T, the TRO sows showed an increase (P < 0⋅001) in rectal temperature and respiration rate but a decrease in food intake (P < 0·01), milk yield (P < 0⋅001) and litter weight gain from birth to weaning (P < 0⋅05) as well as from weaning to day 70, reaching 25 to 30 kg live weight (P < 0⋅05). However, as dietary fat level increased, the T sows showed a linear decrease (P < 0⋅01) in food intake and no significant change in metabolizable energy (ME) intake during the lactation period. In TRO, the MF diet led to a 0⋅22 proportional increase (P < 0⋅01) in ME intake through a change in nycthemeral feeding behaviour. Both environment and increased dietary fat level significantly affected the fat level and fatty acid composition of colostrum as well as mature milk, particularly n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid concentration in milk. In conclusion, the addition of fat to the lactating sow diet may be more beneficial under high ambient temperatures than in thermoneutral conditions.

Copyright

References

Hide All
Arbuckle, L.D. and Innis, S.M. 1993. Docosahexaenoic acid is transferred through maternal diet to milk and to tissues of natural milk-fed piglets. Journal of Nutrition 123: 16681675.
Association of Official Analytical Chemists. 1975. Official methods of analysis. AOAC, Washington, DC.
Azain, M.J. 1993. Effects of adding medium-chain triglycerides to sow diets during late gestation and early lactation on litter performance. Journal of Animal Science 71: 30113019.
Bischop, T.C., Stahly, T.S. and Cromwell, G.L. 1985. Effects of dietary additions of fat and triamcinolone for sows during late gestation on subsequent pig performance. Journal of Animal Science 61: 14671475.
Black, J.L., Mullan, B.P., Lorschy, M.L. and Giles, L.R. 1993. Lactation in the sow during heat stress. Livestock Production Science 35: 153170.
Christon, R. 1988. The effect of tropical ambient temperature on growth and metabolism in pigs. Journal of Animal Science 66: 31123123.
Christon, R., Belcadi Haloui, R. and Durand, G. 1995. Dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids modulate the age-dependent variations of the glutathione-related antioxidant system in rat liver. Journal of Nutrition 125: 30623070.
Christon, R., Lionet, H. and Cerneau, P. 1997. High environmental temperatures and dietary fat modify fatty acid composition of serum and colostrum in sows. Sixteenth international congress of nutrition, Montreal, Québec, Canada, 362, abstr. no. PR395.
Close, W.H. and Mount, L.E. 1978. The effects of plane of nutrition and environmental temperature on the energy metabolism of the growing pig. British Journal of Nutrition 40: 413421.
Coffey, M.T., Diggs, B.G., Handlin, D.L., Knabe, D.A., Maxwell, C.V. Jr, Noland, P.R., Prince, T.J. and Cromwell, G.L. 1994. Effects of dietary energy during gestation and lactation on reproductive performance of sows: a cooperative study. Journal of Animal Science 72: 49.
Dourmad, J.-Y. 1987. Intérêt des matières grasses. Revue de ľ Alimentation Animale 405: 3944.
Dourmad, J.-Y. 1993. Standing and feeding behaviour of the lactating sow: effect of feeding level during pregnancy. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 37: 311319.
Dourmad, J.-Y., Etienne, M. and Noblet, J. 1994. Les besoins énergétiques et protéiques de la truie reproductrice. Revue de Médecine Vétérinaire 145: 641649.
Folch, J., Lees, M. and Sloane-Standley, G.H. 1957. A simple method for the isolation and purification of total lipids from animal tissues. Journal of Biological Chemistry 226: 497506.
Fritsche, J.K., Huang, S. and Cassity, N.A. 1993. Enrichment of omega-3 acids in suckling pigs by maternal dietary fish oil supplementation. Journal of Animal Science 71: 18411847.
Ingram, D.L. 1977. Adaptations to ambient temperature in growing pigs. Pfluegers Archiven 367: 257264.
Liao, C.W. and Veum, T.L. 1994. Effects of dietary energy intake by gilts and heat stress from days 3 to 24 or 30 after mating on embryo survival and nitrogen and energy balance. Journal of Animal Science 72: 23692377.
Lynch, P.B. 1977. Effect of environmental temperature on lactating sows and their litters. Irish Journal of Agricultural Research 16: 123130.
Messias de Bragança, M., Quesnel, H., Mounier, A.M. and Prunier, A. 1995. Influence de la température ambiante sur les performances zootechniques et certains paramètres sanguins chez des truies Large White primipares. Journées de la Recherche Porcine en France 27: 3744.
Mount, L.E. 1968. The climatic physiology of the pig. Arnold, London.
Noblet, J. and Etienne, M. 1989. Estimation of sow milk nutrient output. Journal of Animal Science 67: 33523359.
O’Grady, J.F., Lynch, P.B. and Kearney, P.A. 1985. Voluntary food intake by lactating sows. Livestock Production Science 12: 355365.
Pettigrew, J.E. 1981. Supplemental fat for peripartal sows: a review. Journal of Animal Science 53: 107117.
Rozeboom, D.W., Pettigrew, J.E., Dial, G.D. and Wheaton, J.E. 1993. Effect of pre- and postbreeding dietary energy intake on ovulation rate (OR), embryo number (EM), and percent embryo survival (ES) in gilts. Journal of Animal Science 71: (suppl. 1) 67 (abstr.).
Schoenherr, W.D., Stahly, T.S. and Cromwell, G.L. 1989. The effects of dietary fat or fiber addition on yield and composition of milk from sows housed in a warm or hot environment. Journal of Animal Science 67: 482495.
Seerley, R.W., Snyder, R.A. and McCampbell, H.C. 1981. The influence of sow dietary lipids and choline on piglet survival, milk and carcass. Journal of Animal Science 52: 542550.
Shurson, G.C., Hogberg, M.G., DeFever, N., Radecki, S.V. and Miller, E.R. 1986. Effects of adding fat to the sow lactation diet on lactation and rebreeding performance. Journal of Animal Science 62: 672680.
Statistical Analysis Systems Institute. 1989. SAS/STAT user’s guide, version 6, fourth edition, vol. 2. Statistical Analysis Systems Institute Inc., Cary, NC.
Statistical Analysis Systems Institute. 1996. SAS/STAT software: changes and enhancements through release 6.11. Statistical Analysis Systems Institute Inc., Cary, NC.

Keywords

Dietary fat and climate alter food intake, performance of lactating sows and their litters and fatty acid composition of milk

  • R. Christon, G. Saminadin (a1), H. Lionet (a1) and B. Racon (a1)

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed