Skip to main content Accessibility help

A comparison of alternative index procedures for multiple generation selection on non-linear profit

  • A. F. Groen (a1), T. H. E. Meuwissen (a2), A. R. Vollema (a1) and E. W. Brascamp (a1)


Alternative index procedures for selection on non-linear profit are quadratic indices, desired gains indices, group or mate selection indices, or direct optimization of responses over multiple generations. In this study a multiple generation time horizon was considered and several linear, quadratic and desired gains indices were compared. Genetic and economic responses over multiple generations were calculated considering a quadratic profit function combining protein yield and days open.

Directly optimizing reponse over multiple generations was found to yield slightly higher economic responses (+ < l.5%) than stepwise (each generation) adjustment of a linear index. A constant linear index using base population averages and a quadratic index were found to be less efficient. The quadratic index was less efficient than the linear index when considering multiple generations. Desired gains indices allowed stabilization of base population average for days open, however, forcing considerable economic losses. Relative efficiencies of methods depended on the degree of non-linearity of the profit function.



Hide All
Allaire, F. R. 1977. Corrective mating methods in context of breeding theory. journal of Dairy Science 60: 17991806.
Allaire, F. R. 1980. Mate selection by selection index theory. Theoretical and Applied Genetics 57: 267272.
Brascamp, E. W. 1984. Selection indices with constraints. Animal Breeding Abstracts 52: 645654.
Bulmer, M. G. 1980. The mathematical theory of quantitative genetics.Oxford University Press, Oxford.
Cunningham, E. P. 1969. Animal breeding theory. Internordic licenciat course in quantitative genetics. Institute for Animal Genetics and Breeding, Agricultural College of Norway, As.
Dijkhuizen, A. A., Renkema, J. A. and Stelwagen, J. 1985. Economic aspects of reproductive failure in dairy cattle. I Financial loss at farm level. Preventive Veterinary Medicine 3: 251263.
Gibson, J. P. and Kennedy, B. W. 1990. The use of constrained selection indexes in breeding for economic merit. Theoretical and Applied Genetics 80: 801805.
Goddard, M. E. 1983. Selection indices for non-linear profit functions. Theoretical and Applied Genetics 64: 339344.
Groen, A. F. 1989. Economic values in cattle breeding. I Influences of production circumstances in situations without output limitations. Livestock Production Science 22: 116.
Groen, A. F. and Korver, S. 1989. The economic value of feed intake capacity of dairy cows. Livestock Production Science 22: 269281.
Hazel, L. N. 1943. The genetic basis for constructing selection indexes. Genetics, USA 28: 476490.
Hovenier, R., Brascamp, E. W., Kanis, E., Werf, J. H. J.der, van and Wassenberg, A. P. A. M. 1993. Economic values of optimum traits; the example of meat quality in pigs. Journal of Animal Science 71: 14291433.
Hovenier, R., Arendonk, J. A. M. van and Boer, W. de. 1988. Phenotypic and genetic association between fertility and production in dairy cows. Publication no. 9, Department of Animal Breeding, Wageningen Agricultural University, Wageningen.
Jansen, G. B. 1985. Selection and mating strategies to improve quadratic merit. Ph.D. thesis, Department of animal and Poultry Science, University of Guelph, Guelph.
Kempthorne, O. and Nordskog, A. W. 1959. Restricted selection indices. Biometrics 15: 1019.
NRS. 1992. Royal Dutch Cattle Syndicate, Jaarstatistieken 1991, Arnhem.
Pasternak, H. and Weller, J. I. 1993. Optimum linear indices for non-linear profit functions. Animal Production 56: 4350.
Press, W. H., Flannery, B. P., Teukolsky, S. A. and Vetterling, W. T. 1989. Numerical recipes. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
Smith, S. P. and Maki-Tanila, A. 1990. Genotypic covariance matrices and their inverses for models allowing dominance and inbreeding. Genetics Selection Evolution 22: 6591.
Vollema, A. R. 1993. De mogelijkheid en het nut van nietlineaire economische waarden in een selektie-index, uitgewerktloor “aantal open dagen” Scriptie Vakgroep Veefokkerij, Landbouwuniversiteit Wageningen, Wageningen.
Vries, A. G. de and Kanis, E. 1992. A growth model to estimate economic values for food intake capacity in pigs. Animal Production 55: 241246.
Wilmink, J. B. M. and de Graaf, F. M. 1986. Genetische parameters voor 305 dagen producties in de eerste lactatie en de bijstelling van de netto melkgeld index. Koninklijk Nederlands Rundvee Syndicaat, Arnhem.
Wilton, J. W., Evans, D. A. and Van Vleck, L. D. 1968. Selection indices for quadratic models of total merit. Biometrics 24: 937949.


A comparison of alternative index procedures for multiple generation selection on non-linear profit

  • A. F. Groen (a1), T. H. E. Meuwissen (a2), A. R. Vollema (a1) and E. W. Brascamp (a1)


Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed