1. Short cold exposures (2 hr at 18° or 8°C) were used to delay or block panting during subsequent heat stress in shorn Merino and Scottish Blackface sheep. The effect of previous acclimatization to cold upon the block to thermal panting was studied.
2. After acclimatization the block was reduced, but less in Merinos than in Blackfaces. In Blackfaces, the reduction effect was inconsistent after short periods of acclimatization, but became significant after prolonged (3 weeks) acclimatization.
3. Acclimatization produced elevations in heart rate and body temperature implying increased heat production. Variation in block reduction between breeds and between individuals was related to these presumed changes in heat production. Sheep with highly elevated metabolic rates showed complete block prevention. 4. After cold exposure ceased, elevated heat production disappeared within 8 days and the block returned.
5. It was concluded that elevated heat production resulting from acclimatization caused block prevention partly because increased heat storage cancelled the heat debt otherwise incurred during blocking treatment and partly because the increased requirement for heat dissipation overruled the respiratory centre block.