Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home

Examination of the persistency of milk fatty acid composition responses to plant oils in cows given different basal diets, with particular emphasis on trans-C18:1 fatty acids and isomers of conjugated linoleic acid

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  09 March 2007

A. Roy
Affiliation:
Herbivore Research Unit, INRA-Theix, 63122 St-Genes Champanelle, France
A. Ferlay
Affiliation:
Herbivore Research Unit, INRA-Theix, 63122 St-Genes Champanelle, France
K. J. Shingfield
Affiliation:
Animal Production Research, MTT Agrifood Research Finland, FIN 31600, Jokioinen, Finland
Y. Chilliard
Affiliation:
Herbivore Research Unit, INRA-Theix, 63122 St-Genes Champanelle, France
Corresponding
Get access

Abstract

It is well established that plant oils reduce milk saturated fatty acid content and enhance concentrations of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) and trans C18:1 in milk fat, but there is increasing evidence to suggest that milk fat CLA responses are often transient and decline over time. It is probable that time dependent adaptations in ruminal biohydrogenation and changes in milk fatty acid composition to lipid supplements are, at least in part, related to the composition of the basal diet. To test this hypothesis, 18 Holstein cows were used in a continuous randomized block design to examine changes in milk fatty acid composition over time in response to plant oils included in diets of variable composition. Cows were randomly allocated to one of three basal diets containing (g/kg dry matter (DM)) maize silage (267) and concentrates (733) (diet C); maize silage (332), grass hay (148) and concentrates (520) (diet M), or grass hay (642) and concentrates (358) (diet H). Basal rations were offered for 21 days, after which diets were supplemented with 50 g sunflower per kg DM (diets C-S and M-S) or 50 g linseed oil per kg DM (diet H-L). Oils were included in all rations incrementally over a five day period (days 0–4), and responses to 50 g/kg DM of the respective oils were evaluated for 17 days (days 4 to 20). Milk fatty acid composition was intensively monitored from days −2 to 20. In contrast to the H-L diet, both C-S and M-S treatments decreased (P<0·05) DM intake, milk fat content and yield, while the C-S diet also reduced (P<0·05) milk yield. Milk fat cis-9, trans-11 CLA and trans-11 C18:1 contents were enhanced on the C-S and M-S treatments but the increases were transient reaching the highest concentrations between days 4 and 6 (cis-9, trans-11 CLA: 1·94 and 2·18 g per 100 g total fatty acids; trans-11 C18:1: 4·88 and 6·23 g per 100 g total fatty acids, respectively) but declined thereafter. In marked contrast, concentrations of cis-9, trans-11 CLA and trans-11 C18:1 in milk from the H-L diet increased gradually over time, responses that were maintained until the end of the experiment (2·89 and 7·49 g per 100 g total fatty acids, respectively).Decreases in milk fat cis-9, trans-11 CLA and trans-11 C18:1 after day 6 on the M-S and C-S diets were associated with concomitant increases in milk fat trans-10 C18:1 content reaching 7·22 and 18·62 g per 100 g total fatty acids on day 18, respectively, whereas concentrations of trans-10 C18:1 in milk on the H-L diet remained low throughout the experiment (0·70 g per 100 g total fatty acids on day 18). Furthermore, milk fat trans-11, cis-13 CLA, trans-11, trans-13 CLA and trans-12, trans-14 CLA contents were all enhanced on the H-L diet, while the M-S and C-S diets increased trans-8, cis-10 CLA, trans-10, cis-12 CLA and trans-9, cis-11 CLA concentrations. Across all diets, decreases in milk fat content were associated with increases in milk trans-10 C18:1, trans-10, cis-12 and trans-9, cis-11 CLA concentrations (r2=0·93, 0·88 and 0·89, respectively). In conclusion, the relative abundance of trans C18:1 and CLA isomers in milk fat were dependent on the composition of the basal diet, type of plant oil and duration of lipid supplementation, highlighting the challenges in developing nutritional strategies for the production of milk highly enriched with CLA over an extended period of time.

Type
Research Article
Copyright
Copyright © British Society of Animal Science 2006

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below.

References

AbuGhazaleh, A. A., Schingoethe, D. J., Hippen, A. R. and Kalscheur, K. F. 2004. Conjugated linoleic acid increases in milk when cows fed fish meal and extruded soybeans for an extended period of time. Journal of Dairy Science 87: 17581766.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Association of Official Analytical Chemists. 1997. Official methods of analysis, 16th edition. AOAC Internation, Gaithersburg, MD.Google Scholar
Bauman, D. E., Barbano, D. M., Dwyer, D. A. and Griinari, J. M. 2000. Technical note: production of butter with enhanced conjugated linoleic acid for use in biomedical studies with animal models. Journal of Dairy Science 83: 24222425.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Bauman, D. E., Corl, B. A. and Perterson, D. G. 2003. The biology of conjugated linoleic acids in ruminants. In Advances in conjugated linoleic acid research, vol. 2 (ed. Sébédio, J. L., Christie, W. W., Adlof, R. O.), pp. 146173, AOCS Press, Champaign, IL.Google Scholar
Bell, J. A., Griinari, J. M. and Kennelly, J. J. 2006. Effect of safflower oil, flaxseed oil, monensin, and vitamin E on concentration of conjugated linoleic acid in bovine milk fat. Journal of Dairy Science 89: 733748.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Chilliard, Y. and Ferlay, A. 2004. Dietary lipids and forages interactions on cow and goat milk fatty acid composition and sensory properties. Reproduction, Nutrition, Development 44: 467492.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Chilliard, Y., Ferlay, A. and Doreau, M. 2001. Effect of different types of forages, animal fat or marine oils in cow's diet on milk fat secretion and composition, especially conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) and polyunsaturated fatty acids. Livestock Production Science 70: 3148.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Christie, W. W., Juanéda, P. and Sébédio, J. L. 2001. A practical guide to the analysis of conjugated linoleic acid. Inform 12: 147152.Google Scholar
Collomb, M., Sieber, R. and Butikofer, U. 2004. CLA isomers in milk fat from cows fed diets with high levels of unsaturated linoleic acids. Lipids 39: 355364.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Corl, B. A., Baumgard, L. H., Griinari, J. M., Delmonte, J. M., Morehouse, P., Yuraweczc, M. P. and Bauman, D. E. 2002. Trans-7, cis-9 CLA is synthesized endogenously by Δ (9)-desaturase in dairy cows. Lipids 37: 681688.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
De Veth, M. J., Griinari, J. M., Pfeiffer, A. M. and Bauman, D. E. 2004. Effect of CLA on milk fat synthesis in dairy cows: comparison of inhibition by methyl esters and free fatty acids, and relationships among studies. Lipids 39: 365372.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Delmonte, P., Kataok, A., Corl, B. A., Bauman, D. E. and Yurawecz, M. P. 2005. Relative retention order of all isomers of cis/trans conjugated linoleic acid FAME from the 6, 8- to 13, 15-positions using silver ion HPLC with two elution systems. Lipids 40: 509514.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Dhiman, T. R., Satter, L. D., Pariza, M. W., Galli, M. P., Albright, K. and Tolosa, M. X. 2000. Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) content of milk from cows offered diets rich in linoleic and linolenic acid. Journal of Dairy Science 83: 10161027.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Emanuelson, M., 1989. Rapeseed products of double low cultivars to dairy cows. Effects of long-term feeding and studies on rumen metabolism. Ph.D. thesis, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences. Uppsala.Google Scholar
Ferlay, A., Capitan, P., Ollier, A. and Chilliard, Y. 2003. Interactions between nature of forage and oil supplementation on cow milk composition. 3. Effects on kinetics of percentages of milk CLA and trans fatty acids. In Book of abstracts of 54th annual meeting of European Association for Animal Production, Rome, 31 August to 3 September (ed.van der Nonig, Y.), Wageningen Academic Publishers, The Netherlands, pp. 120.Google Scholar
Folch, J., Lees, M. and Sloane Stanley, G. H. 1957. A simple method for the isolation and purification of total lipids from animal tissues. Journal of Biological Chemistry 226: 497509.Google ScholarPubMed
Griinari, J. M. and Bauman, D. E. 1999. Biosynthesis of conjugated linoleic acid and its incorporation into meat and milk in ruminants. In Conjugated linoleic acid: biochemical and nutritional, chemical, cancer and methodological aspects (ed. Yurawecz, M. P., Mossoba, M. M., Kramer, J. K. G., Nelson, G., Pariza, M. W.), pp. 180200, AOCS Press, Champaign, IL.Google Scholar
Griinari, J. M. and Bauman, D. E. 2003. Update on theories of diet-induced milk fat depression and potential applications. In Recent advances in animal nutrition–2003 (ed. Garnsworthy, P. C. and Wiseman, J.),pp. 115156. Nottingham University Press.Google Scholar
Harfoot, C. G. and Hazelwood, G. P. 1988. Lipid metabolism in the rumen. In The rumen microbial ecosystem (ed. Hobson, P. N.), pp. 285322. Elsevier Science Publishers B.V., Amsterdam.Google Scholar
Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique. 1989. Ruminant nutrition. Recommended allowances and feed tables (ed. Jarrige, R.), John Libbey, Paris.Google Scholar
Jurjanz, S., Monteils, V., Juanéda, P. and Laurent, P. 2004. Variations of trans octadecenoic acid in milk fat induced by feeding different starch-based diets to cows. Lipids 39: 1924.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Kalscheur, K. F., Teter, B. B., Piperova, L. S. and Erdman, R. A. 1997. Effect of dietary forage concentration and buffer addition on duodenal flow of trans-C18:1 fatty acids and milk fat production in dairy cows. Journal of Dairy Science 80: 21042114.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Loor, J. J., Ferlay, A., Ollier, A., Doreau, M. and Chilliard, Y. 2005a. Relationship among trans and conjugated fatty acids and bovine milk fat yield due to dietary concentrate and linseed oil. Journal of Dairy Science 88: 726740.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Loor, J. J., Ferlay, A., Ollier, A., Ueda, K., Doreau, M. and Chilliard, Y. 2005b. High-concentrate diets and polyunsaturated oils alter trans and conjugated isomers in bovine rumen, blood, and milk. Journal of Dairy Science 88: 39863999.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Loor, J. J., Ueda, K., Ferlay, A., Chilliard, Y. and Doreau, M. 2004. Biohydrogenation, duodenal flow, and intestinal digestibility of trans fatty acids and conjugated linoleic acids in response to dietary forage: concentrate ratio and linseed oil in dairy cows. Journal of Dairy Science 87: 24722485.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Loor, J. J., Ueda, K., Ferlay, A., Chilliard, Y. and Doreau, M. 2005c. Intestinal flow and digestibility of trans fatty acids and conjugated linoleic acids (CLA) in dairy cows fed a high-concentrate diet supplemented with fish oil, linseed oil, sunflower oil. Animal Feed Science and Technology 119: 203225.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Martin, S. A. and Jenkins, T. C. 2002. Factors affecting conjugated linoleic acid and trans-C18:1 fatty acid production by mixed ruminal bacteria. Journal of Animal Science 80: 33473352.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Perfield, J. W. II, Lock, A. L., Sæbø, A., Griinari, J. M. and Bauman, D. E. 2005. Trans-9, cis-11 conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) reduces milk fat synthesis in lactating dairy cows. Journal of Dairy Science 88: (suppl. 1) 211, (abstr.).Google Scholar
Peterson, D. G., Matitashvili, E. A. and Bauman, D. E. 2003. Diet-induced milk fat depression in dairy cows results in increased trans-10, cis-12 CLA in milk fat and coordinate suppression of mRNA abundance for mammary enzymes involved in milk fat synthesis. Journal of Nutrition 133: 30983102.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Piperova, L. S., Teter, B. B., Bruckental, I., Sampugna, J., Mills, S. E., Yurawecz, M. P., Fritsche, J., Ku, K. and Erdman, R. A. 2000. Mammary lipogenic enzyme activity, trans fatty acids and conjugated linoleic acids are altered in lactating dairy cows fed a milk fat-depressing diet. Journal of Nutrition 130: 25682574.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Piperova, L. S., Moallem, U., Teter, B. B., Sampugna, J., Yurawecz, M. P., Morehouse, K. M., Luchini, D. and Erdman, R. A. 2004. Changes in milk fat in response to dietary supplementation with calcium salts of trans-18:1 or conjugated linoleic fatty acids in lactating dairy cows. Journal of Dairy Science 87: 38363844.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Ryhänen, E. L., Tallavaara, K., Griinari, J. M., Jaakkola, S., Mantere-Alhonen, S. and Shingfield, K. J. 2005. Production of conjugated linoleic acid enriched milk and dairy products from cows receiving grass silage supplemented with a cereal-based concentrate containing rapeseed oil. International Dairy Journal 15: 207217.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Shingfield, K. J., Ahvenjärvi, S., Toivonen, V., Ärölä, A., Nurmela, K. V. V., Huhtanen, P. and Griinari, J. M. 2003. Effect of dietary fish oil on biohydrogenation of fatty acids and milk fatty acids content in cows. Animal Science 77: 165179.Google Scholar
Shingfield, K. J., Reynolds, C. K., Hervás, G., Griinari, J. M., Grandison, A. S. and Beever, D. E. 2006. Examination of the persistency of milk fatty acid composition responses to fish oil and sunflower oil in the diet of dairy cows. Journal of Dairy Science 89: 714732.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Shingfield, K. J., Reynolds, C. K., Lupoli, B., Toivonen, V., Yurawecz, M. P., Delmonte, P., Griinari, J. M., Grandison, A. S. and Beever, D. E. 2005. Effect of forage type and proportion of concentrate in the diet on milk fatty acid composition in cow given sunflower oil and fish oil. Animal Science 80: 225238.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Statistical Analysis Systems Institute. 2000. SAS version 8. SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC.Google Scholar
Sukhija, P. S. and Palmquist, D. L. 1988. Rapid method for determination of total fatty acid content and composition of feedstuffs and feces. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 36: 12021206.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Van Nevel, C. J. and Demeyer, D. I. 1996. Influence of pH on lipolysis and biohydrogenation of soybean oil by rumen contents in vitro. Reproduction, Nutrition, Development 36: 5363.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Wahle, K. W., Heys, S. D. and Rotondo, D. 2004. Conjugated linoleic acids: are they beneficial or detrimental to health? Progress in Lipid Research 43: 553587.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Wsowska, I. Maia, M., Niedźwiedzka, K. M., Czauderna, M., Ramalho Ribeiro, J. M. C., Devillard, E., Shingfield, K. J. and Wallace, R. J. 2006. Influence of fish oil on ruminal biohydrogenation of C18 unsaturated fatty acids. British Journal of Nutrition (In press).Google Scholar

Full text views

Full text views reflects PDF downloads, PDFs sent to Google Drive, Dropbox and Kindle and HTML full text views.

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 21 *
View data table for this chart

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between September 2016 - 27th January 2021. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Hostname: page-component-898fc554b-kxqz4 Total loading time: 0.317 Render date: 2021-01-27T18:03:08.180Z Query parameters: { "hasAccess": "0", "openAccess": "0", "isLogged": "0", "lang": "en" } Feature Flags: { "shouldUseShareProductTool": true, "shouldUseHypothesis": true, "isUnsiloEnabled": true, "metricsAbstractViews": false, "figures": false, "newCiteModal": false }

Send article to Kindle

To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

Examination of the persistency of milk fatty acid composition responses to plant oils in cows given different basal diets, with particular emphasis on trans-C18:1 fatty acids and isomers of conjugated linoleic acid
Available formats
×

Send article to Dropbox

To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

Examination of the persistency of milk fatty acid composition responses to plant oils in cows given different basal diets, with particular emphasis on trans-C18:1 fatty acids and isomers of conjugated linoleic acid
Available formats
×

Send article to Google Drive

To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

Examination of the persistency of milk fatty acid composition responses to plant oils in cows given different basal diets, with particular emphasis on trans-C18:1 fatty acids and isomers of conjugated linoleic acid
Available formats
×
×

Reply to: Submit a response


Your details


Conflicting interests

Do you have any conflicting interests? *