Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home

The effects of ensiling and supplementation with sucrose and fish meal on forage intake and milk production of lactating dairy cows

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  02 September 2010


T. W. J. Keady
Affiliation:
Teagasc, Moorepark Research Centre, Fermoy, Co. Cork, Republic of Ireland
J. J. Murphy
Affiliation:
Teagasc, Moorepark Research Centre, Fermoy, Co. Cork, Republic of Ireland

Get access

Abstract

The effect of ensiling grass and supplementing the resulting silage with water-soluble carbohydrate in the form of sucrose and undegradable dietary protein (UDP) in the form offish meal on forage intake and milk production and composition were evaluated in an experiment involving 63 mid-lactation Holstein-Friesian cows. Herbage from the primary growth of a predominantly perennial ryegrass sward was zero-grazed (ZG) from 19 April to 16 May 1993. The herbage was mown and picked up with a precision-chop harvester and offered as the sole diet, twice daily, to 18 cows which were on average 186 days into lactation. On 13 May, herbage from the same sward was harvested identically to the ZG herbage and ensiled, treated with formic acid at a rate of 2·85 lit grass. At 53 days after ensiling the silage was offered either as the sole diet (SO) or supplemented with sucrose at 10·3 g/kg fresh silage (SS) or supplemented with sucrose and fish meal each at 10·3 g/kg fresh silage (SSF) to 15 cows per treatment which were on average 164 days into lactation. The feeding period was 28 days for ZG and 21 days for the SO, SS and SSF treatments, and the last 7 days were the main recording interval. Prior to going on to the experimental diets all animals were offered a common silage ad libitum and supplemented with 5 kg of a 180 g/kg crude protein concentrate. Dry-matter intakes (DMI), milk yields and milk composition were recorded during the pre-experimental period and subsequently used as covariates in the statistical analysis. For diets ZG, SO, SS and SSF, forage DMI (kg/day), total DMI (kg/day), milk yields (kg/day), fat concentration (g/kg) and protein concentration (g/kg) were 14·4,14·0,13·7 and 13·9 (average s.e.d. = 0·55); 14·4,14·0,14·5 and 15·4 (average s.e.d. = 0·59); 15·4, 14·4, 14·5 and 16·7 (average s.e.d. = 0·42); 36·6, 38·6, 38·6 and 37·5 (average s.e.d. = 2·67); 33·0, 30·7, 32·2 and 32·8 (average s.e.d. = 0·75). Nitrogen (N) digestibility was higher on SO and SSF (P < 0·05) relative to ZG with SS being intermediate, otherwise treatment did not alter (P > 0·05) diet apparent digestibility. Ensilage increased the immediately soluble N fraction (a value) and degradability of N (P < 0·001) relative to ZG. It is concluded that ensilage had no effect on forage DMI but decreased milk yield and protein concentration relative to the parent herbage. The positive response in milk yield due to supplementation of the silage-based diet with sucrose and fish meal and the lack of response to sucrose supplementation alone suggests that nutrients absorbed from the digestive tract of cows offered silage-based diets are more limiting in protein or specific amino acids supplied by fish meal than in energy. The decrease in animal performance due to ensiling may be overcome by supplementation of silage-based diets with UDP at sufficient levels to equate that of the parent herbage.


Type
Research Article
Copyright
Copyright © British Society of Animal Science 1998

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below.

References

Agricultural and Food Research Council. 1990. Technical committee on responses to nutrients. Report no. 5. Nutritive requirements of ruminant animals: energy. Nutrition Abstracts and Reviews, Series B 60: 729804.Google Scholar
Agricultural and Food Research Council. 1993. Energy and protein requirements of ruminants. CAB International, Wallingford, UK.Google Scholar
Agricultural Research Council. 1984. The nutrient requirements of ruminant livestock. Supplement no. 1. Commonwealth Agricultural Bureaux, Oxford.Google Scholar
Al Attar, A., Evans, R. A. and Axford, R. F. E. 1976. The effect of frequency of feeding and of the dietary energy source upon microbial synthesis in the rumen of sheep. Proceedings of the Nutrition Society 35: 108A.Google ScholarPubMed
Broderick, G. A. 1992. Relative value of fishmeal versus solvent soyabean meal for lactating dairy cows fed alfalfa silage as sole forage. Journal of Dairy Science 75: 174183.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Chamberlain, D. G. 1987. The silage fermentation in relation to the utilisation of nutrients in the rumen. Process Biochemistry 22: 6063.Google Scholar
Chamberlain, D. G., Thomas, P. C., Wilson, W., Newbold, C. J. and MacDonald, J. C. 1985. The effects of carbohydrate supplements on ruminal concentrations of ammonia in animals given diets of grass silage. Journal of Agricultural Science, Cambridge 104: 331340.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Cushnahan, A. and Gordon, F. J. 1995. The effects of grass preservation on intake, apparent digestibility and rumen degradation characteristics. Animal Science 60: 429438.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Cushnahan, A., Gordon, F. J., Ferris, C. P. W., Chestnutt, D. M. B. and Mayne, C. S. 1994. The use of sheep as a model to predict the relative intakes of silages by dairy cattle. Animal Production 59: 415420.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Cushnahan, A. and Mayne, C. S. 1995. Effects of ensilage of grass on performance and nutrient utilization by dairy cattle. 1. Food intake and milk production. Animal Science 60: 337346.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Cushnahan, A., Mayne, C. S. and Unsworth, E. F. 1995. Effects of ensilage of grass on performance and nutrient utilization by dairy cattle. 2. Nutrient metabolism and rumen fermentation. Animal Science 60: 347359.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Dawson, J. M., Bruce, C. I., Buttery, P. J., Gill, M. and Beever, D. E. 1988. Protein metabolism in the rumen of silage-fed steers: effect of fishmeal supplementation. British Journal ofNutrition 60: 339353.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
De Boer, G., Murphy, J. J. and Kennelly, J. J. 1987. A modified method for determination of in situ rumen degradation of feedstuffs. Canadian Journal of Animal Science 67: 93102.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Dewar, W. A., McDonald, P. and Whittenburg, R. 1963. The hydrolysis of grass hemicelluloses during ensilage. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture 14: 411417.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
England, P. and Gill, M. 1985. The effect of fish meal and sucrose supplementation on the voluntary intake of grass silage and live-weight gain of young cattle. Animal Production 40: 259265.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Firkins, J. L., Berger, L. L., Merchen, N. R., JrFahey, G. C. and Nelson, D. R. 1986. Effects of feed intake and protein degradability on ruminal characteristics and site of digestion in steers. Journal of Dairy Science 69: 21112123CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Gibb, M. J. and Baker, R. D. 1992. The use of fish meal and monensin as supplements of grass silage and their effect on body composition changes in steers from 5 months of age to slaughter. Animal Production 55: 4757.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Gill, M. and Beever, D. E. 1982. The effect of protein supplementation on digestion and glucose metabolism in young cattle fed on silage. British Journal of Nutrition 48: 3747.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Gordon, F. J. and Small, J. C. 1990. The direct and residual effects of giving fish meal to dairy cows receiving differing levels of concentrate supplementation in addition to grass silage. Animal Production 51: 449460.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Huhtanen, P. 1987. The effects of intraruminal infusions of sucrose and xylose on nitrogen and fibre digestion in the rumen and intestines of cattle receiving diets of grass silage and barley. Journal of Agricultural Science in Finland 405424.Google Scholar
Huhtanen, P. 1993. The effects of concentrate energy source and protein content on milk production in cows given grass silage ad libitum. Grass and Forage Science 48: 347355.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Jaakkola, S. and Huhtanen, P. 1992. Rumen fermentation and microbial protein synthesis in cattle given intraruminal infusions of lactic acid with a grass silage based diet. journal ofAgricultural Science, Cambridge 119: 411418.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ready, T. W. J., Mayne, C. S. and Marsden, M. 1998. The effects of concentrate energy source on silage intake and animal performance with lactating dairy cows offered grass silages with differing intake characteristics. Animal Science In press.Google Scholar
Ready, T. W. J. and Murphy, J. J. 1993. The effects of ensiling on dry matter intake and animal performance. Irish Grassland and Animal Production Association Journal 27: 19Google Scholar
Ready, T. W. J. and Murphy, J. J. 1996. Effects of inoculant treatment on ryegrass silage fermentation, digestibility, rumen fermentation, intake and performance of lactating dairy cattle. Grass and Forage Science 51: 232241.Google Scholar
Ready, T. W. J. and Murphy, J. J. 1997. The effects of treating low dry matter herbage with a bacterial inoculant or formic acid on the intake and performance of lactating dairy cattle. Animal Science 64: 2536.Google Scholar
Ready, T. W. J., Murphy, J. J. and Harrington, D. 1996. The effects of ensiling on dry-matter intake and milk production by lactating dairy cattle given forage as the sole feed. Grass and Forage Science 51: 131141.Google Scholar
Ready, T. W. J. and O'Riely, P. 1996. An evaluation of the effects of nitrogen fertilisation of grassland on silage fermentation, in-silo losses, effluent production and aerobic stability. Grass and Forage Science 51: 350362.Google Scholar
Ready, T. W. J. and Steen, R. W. J. 1995. The effects of treating low dry-matter, low digestibility grass with a bacterial inoculant on the intake and performance of beef cattle, and studies on its mode of action. Grass and Forage Science 50: 217226.Google Scholar
Ready, T. W. J. and Steen, R. W. J. 1996. Effects of applying a bacterial inoculant to silage immediately prior to feeding on silage intake, digestibility, degradability and rumen volatile fatty acid concentrations in growing beef cattle. Grass and Forage Science 51: 155162.Google Scholar
Keady, T. W. J., Steen, R. W. J., Rilpatrick, D. J. and Mayne, C. S. 1994. Effects of inoculant treatment on silage fermentation, digestibility and intake by young growing cattle using a range of herbages. Grass and Forage Science 49: 284294.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Khalili, H. and Huhtanen, P. 1991a. Sucrose supplements in cattle given grass silage-based diets. 1. Digestion of organic matter and nitrogen. Animal Feed Science and Technology 247261.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Khalili, H. and Huhtanen, P. 1991b. Sucrose supplements in cattle given grass silage-based diets. 2. Digestion of cell wall carbohydrates. Animal Feed Science and Technology 33: 263273.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Krohn, C. C., Anderson, P. E. and Hvelplund, T. 1985. Increasing quantities of sugar beet molasses in complete fodder for milk cows. Meddelelse, Statens Husdyrbrugsforsøg, no. 568.Google Scholar
L'Estrange, J. L., Mayes, R. W. and Walsh, E. 1978. The effects of nitrogen and carbohydrate supplements on silage intake and utilisation by sheep. Proceedings of the fifth silage conference, Hannah Research Institute, Ayr, Scotland, pp. 2829.Google Scholar
McDonald, P., Henderson, A. R. and Heron, S. J. E. 1991. The biochemistry of silage. Chalcombe Publications, Buckinghamshire, UK.Google Scholar
Mayne, C. S. 1989. Effects of molasses and sodium bicarbonate on the performance of January-March calving cows offered low levels of a high protein supplement in addition of grass silage. Occasional publication of the British Grassland Society, No. 23, 681685.Google Scholar
Mertens, D. R. 1977. Dietary fibre components: relationship to the rate and extent of ruminal digestion. Federation Proceedings 36: 187192.Google ScholarPubMed
Nombekela, S. W. and Murphy, M. R. 1995. Sucrose supplementation and feed intake of dairy cows in early lactation. Journal of Dairy Science 78: 880885.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
O‘Kiely, P. and Flynn, A. V. 1984. Effect of appetizers on silage dry matter intake. An Foras Taluntais Animal Production Research Report, Dublin, p. 17.Google Scholar
Ørskov, E. R. and McDonald, I. 1979. The estimation of protein degradability in the rumen from incubation measurements weighed according to rate of passage. Journal ofAgricultural Science, Cambridge 92: 499503.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Owen, F. G., Rellogg, D. W. and Howard, W. T. 1967. Effect of molasses in normal and high grain rations on utilisation of nutrients for lactation. Journal of Dairy Science 50: 11201125.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Petit, H. V. and Flipot, P. M. 1992. Feed utilization of beef steers fed grass as hay or silage with or without nitrogen supplementation. Journal ofAnimal Science 70: 876883.Google ScholarPubMed
Phillip, L. E., Simpson, M. V. and Garino, H. 1991. Effects on growth performance of steers after adding sodium bicarbonate and fishmeal to grass silage produced in a heap silo. Animal Feed Science and Technology 33: 2939.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Sanderson, R., Thomas, C. and McAllen, A. B. 1992. Fish-meal supplementation of grass silage given to young growing steers: effect on intake, apparent digestibility and live-weight gains. Animal Production 55: 389396.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Steen, R. W. J. 1988. The effect of supplementing silage-based diets with soya-bean and fish meals for finishing beef cattle. Animal Production 46: 4351.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Steen, R. W. J. and Gordon, F. J. 1980. The effect of level and system of concentrate allocation to January / February calving cows on total lactation performance. Animal Production 30: 3951.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Steen, R. W. J., Gordon, F. J., Mayne, C. S., Foots, R. E., Rilpatrick, D. J., Unsworth, E. F., Barnes, R. J., Porter, M. G. and Pippard, C. J. 1995. Prediction of the intake of grass silage by cattle. In Recent advances in animal nutrition (ed. Garnsworthy, P. C. and Cole, D. J. A.), pp. 6789. Nottingham University Press.Google Scholar
Thomas, C., Gill, M. and Austin, A. R. 1980. The effect of supplements of fishmeal and lactic acid on voluntary food intake of silage by calves. Grass and Forage Science 35: 275279.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Wilkinson, J. M. and Stark, B. A. 1992. Silage in Western Europe — a survey of 17 countries. Chalcombe Publications, Buckinghamshire, UK.Google Scholar

Full text views

Full text views reflects PDF downloads, PDFs sent to Google Drive, Dropbox and Kindle and HTML full text views.

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 11 *
View data table for this chart

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between September 2016 - 4th December 2020. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Hostname: page-component-b4dcdd7-ppfm2 Total loading time: 0.366 Render date: 2020-12-04T09:31:57.760Z Query parameters: { "hasAccess": "0", "openAccess": "0", "isLogged": "0", "lang": "en" } Feature Flags last update: Fri Dec 04 2020 08:59:34 GMT+0000 (Coordinated Universal Time) Feature Flags: { "metrics": true, "metricsAbstractViews": false, "peerReview": true, "crossMark": true, "comments": true, "relatedCommentaries": true, "subject": true, "clr": false, "languageSwitch": true }

Send article to Kindle

To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

The effects of ensiling and supplementation with sucrose and fish meal on forage intake and milk production of lactating dairy cows
Available formats
×

Send article to Dropbox

To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

The effects of ensiling and supplementation with sucrose and fish meal on forage intake and milk production of lactating dairy cows
Available formats
×

Send article to Google Drive

To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

The effects of ensiling and supplementation with sucrose and fish meal on forage intake and milk production of lactating dairy cows
Available formats
×
×

Reply to: Submit a response


Your details


Conflicting interests

Do you have any conflicting interests? *