Abbadi, SH and Strockbine, NA (2007). Identification of Escherichia coli flagellar types by restriction of the amplified fliC gene. Egyptian Journal of Medical Microbiology 16: 225–233.
Achtman, M and Pluschke, G (1986). Clonal analysis of descent and virulence among selected Escherichia coli. Annual Review of Microbiology 40: 185–210.
Akira, S, Uematsu, S and Takeuchi, O (2006). Pathogen recognition and innate immunity. Cell 124: 783–801.
Bastin, DA, Stevenson, G, Brown, AH and Reeves, PR (1993). Repeat unit polysaccharides of bacteria: a model for polymerization resembling that of ribosomes and fatty acid synthetase, with a novel mechanism for determining chain length. Molecular Microbiology 7: 725–734.
Batchelor, RA, Alifano, P, Biffali, E, Hull, SI and Hull, RA (1992). Nucleotide sequences of the genes regulating O-polysaccharide antigen chain length (rol) from Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhimurium: protein homology and functional complementation. Journal of Bacteriology 174: 5228–5236.
Beutin, L, Strauch, E, Zimmermann, S, Kaulfuss, S, Schaudinn, C, Männel, A and Gelderblom, HR (2005a). Genetical and functional investigation of fliC genes encoding flagellar serotype H4 in wildtype strains of Escherichia coli and in a laboratory E. coli K-12 strain expressing flagellar antigen type H48. BMC Microbiology 5: 4.
Beutin, L, Kong, Q, Feng, L, Wang, Q, Krause, G, Leomil, L, Jin, Q and Wang, L (2005b). Development of PCR assays targeting the genes involved in synthesis and assembly of the new Escherichia coli O174 and O177 O antigens. Journal of Clinical Microbiology 43: 5143–5149.
Bos, MP, Robert, V and Tommassen, J (2007). Biogenesis of Gram-negative bacterial outer membrane. Annual Review of Microbiology 61: 191–214.
Botkin, DJ, Galli, L, Sankarapani, V, Soler, M, Rivas, M and Torres, AG (2012). Development of a multiplex PR assay for detection of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli, enterohemorrhagic E. coli, and enteropathogenic E. coli strains. Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology 2: 8.
Bronner, D, Clarke, BR and Whitfield, C (1994). Identification of an ATP-binding cassette transport system required for translocation of lipopolysachharide O-antigen side-chains across the cytoplasmic membrane of Klebsiella pneumonia serotype O1. Molecular Microbiology 14: 505–519.
Bugarel, M, Beutin, L, Martin, A, Gill, A and Fach, P (2010). Micro-array for the identification of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) seropathotypes associated with hemorrhagic colitis and hemolytic uremic syndrome in humans. International Journal of Food Microbiology 142: 318–329.
Carvallo, F, DebRoy, C, Baeza, E, Hinckley, L and Gilbert, K (2010). Extraintestinal pathogenic Escherichia coli induced necrotizing pneumonia in a white tiger cub. Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation 22: 136–140.
Chafchaouni-Moussaoui, I, Novikov, A, Bhrada, F, Perry, MB, Filali-Maltouf, A and Caroff, M (2011). A new rapid and micro-scale hydrolysis, using triethylamine citrate, for lipopolysaccharide characterization by mass spectrometry. Rapid Communication in Mass Spectrometry 14: 2043–2048.
Cheng, J, Wang, Q, Wang, W, Wang, Y, Wang, L and Feng, L (2006). Characterization of E. Coli O24 and O56 O antigen gene clusters reveals a complex evolutionary history of the O24 gene cluster. Current Microbiology 53: 470–476.
Cheng, J, Liu, B, Bastin, DA, Han, W, Wang, L and Feng, L (2007). Genetic characterization of the Escherichia coli O66 antigen and functional identification of its wzy gene. Journal of Microbiology 45: 69–74.
Coimbra, RS, Grimont, F, Lenormand, P, Burguière, P, Beutin, L and Grimont, PAD (2000). Identification of Escherichia coli O-serogroups by restriction of the amplified O-antigen gene cluster (rfp-RFLP). Research in Microbiology 151: 639–654.
Daniels, C, Vindurampulle, C and Morona, R (1998). Overexpression and topology of Shigella flexneri O antigen polymerase (Rfc/Wzy). Molecular Microbiology 28: 1211–1222.
DebRoy, C, Roberts, E, Kundrat, J, Davis, MA, Briggs, CE and Fratamico, PM (2004). Detection of Escherichia coli serogroups O26 and O113 by PCR amplification of wzx and wzy genes. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 70: 1830–1832.
DebRoy, C, Fratamico, PM, Roberts, E, Davis, MA and Liu, Y (2005). Development of PCR assays targeting genes in O-antigen gene clusters for detection and identification of Escherichia coli O45 and O55 serogroups. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 71: 4919–4924.
DebRoy, C, Roberts, E, Jayarao, BM and Brooks, JW (2008). Bronchopneumonia associated with extraintestinal pathogenic Escherichia coli in a horse. Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigations 20: 661–664.
DebRoy, C, Roberts, E, Davis, MA and Bumbaugh, AC (2010). Detection of non-serotypable Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli strains derived from pigs by multiplex PCR assay. Foodborne Pathogens and Disease 7: 1407–1414.
DebRoy, C, Roberts, E and Fratamico, PM (2011a). Detection of O antigens in Escherichia coli. Animal Health Research Review 12: 169–185.
DebRoy, C, Roberts, E, Valadez, AM, Dudley, EG and Cutter, CN (2011b). Detection of Shiga toxin producing Escherichia coli O26, O45, O103, O111, O113, O121, O145, and O157 serogroups by multiplex PCR of the wzx gene of the O-antigen gene cluster. Foodborne Pathogens and Disease 8: 651–652.
DebRoy, C, Fratamico, PM, Yan, X, Baranzoni, GM, Liu, Y, Needleman, DS, Tebbs, R, O'Connell, CD, Allred, A, Swimley, M, Mwangi, M, Kapur, V, Raygoza Garay, JA, Roberts, EL and Katani, R (2016). Comparison of O-antigen gene clusters of all O-serogroups of Escherichia coli and proposal for adopting a new nomenclature for O-typing. PLoS ONE 11: e0147434. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0147434.
Delannoy, S, Beutin, L and Fach, P (2013). Discrimination of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) from non-EHEC strains based on detection of various combinations of type III effector genes. Journal of Clinical Microbiology 51: 3257–3262.
Dickinson, CE, Gould, DH, Davidson, AH, Avery, PR, Legare, ME, Hyatt, DR and DebRoy, C (2008). Hemolytic-uremic syndrome in a postpartum mare concurrent with encephalopathy in the neonatal foal. Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation 20: 239–242.
Doumith, M, Day, MJ, Hope, R, Wain, J and Woodford, N (2012). Improved multiplex PCR strategy for rapid assignment of the four major Escherichia coli phylogenetic groups. Journal of Clinical Microbiology 50: 3108–3110.
Ewing, WH (1986). The genus shigella. In: Edwards, PR and Ewing, WH (eds) Edwards and Ewing's Identification of Enterobacteriaceae, 4th edn. New York: Elsevier Science Publishing Co., Inc, pp. 135–172.
Feng, L, Wang, W, Tao, J, Guo, H, Krause, G, Beutin, L and Wang, L (2004). Identification of Escherichia coli O114 O-antigen gene cluster and development of an O114 serogroup-specific PCR assay. Journal of Clinical Microbiology 42: 3799–3804.
Feng, L, Han, W, Wang, Q, Bastin, DA and Wang, L (2005). Characterization of Escherichia coli O86 O-antigen gene cluster and identification of O86-specific genes. Veterinary Microbiology 106: 241–248.
Fratamico, PM and DebRoy, C (2010). Detection of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in food using real-time multiplex PCR assays targeting the stx1, stx2, wzyO157, and the fliCh7 or eae genes. Food Analytical Methods 3: 330–337.
Fratamico, PM, Briggs, CE, Needle, D, Chen, CY and DebRoy, C (2003). Sequence of the Escherichia coli O121 O-antigen gene cluster and detection of enterohemorrhagic E. coli O121 by PCR amplification of the wzx and wzy genes. Journal of Clinical Microbiology 41: 3379–3383.
Fratamico, PM, DebRoy, C, Strobaugh, TP Jr and Chen, CY (2005). DNA sequence of the Escherichia coli O103 O antigen gene cluster and detection of enterohemorrhagic E. coli O103 by PCR amplification of the wzx and wzy genes. Canadian Journal of Microbiology 51: 515–522.
Fratamico, PM, DebRoy, C and Liu, Y (2009a). The DNA sequence of the Escherichia coli O22 O antigen gene cluster and detection of pathogenic strains belonging to E. coli serogroups O22 and O91 by multiplex PCR assays targeting virulence genes and genes in the respective O-antigen gene clusters. Food Analytical Methods 2: 169–179.
Fratamico, PM, DebRoy, C, Miyamoto, T and Liu, Y (2009b). Detection of entero-hemorrhagic Escherichia coli O145 in food by PCR targeting genes in the E. coli O145 O antigen gene cluster and the Shiga toxins 1 and 2 genes. Foodborne Pathogen and Disease 6: 605–611.
Fratamico, PM, Yan, X, Liu, Y, DebRoy, C, Byrne, B, Monaghan, A, Fanning, S and Bolton, D (2010). Escherichia coli serogroup O2 and O28ac O-antigen gene cluster sequences and detection of pathogenic E. coli O2 and O28ac by PCR. Canadian Journal of Microbiology 56: 308–316.
Fratamico, PM, Wasilenko, JL, Garman, B, DeMarco, DR, Varkey, S, Jensen, M, Rhoden, K and Tice, G (2014). Evaluation of a multiplex PCR real-time PCR method for detecting Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli in beef and comparison to the U.S. Department of Agriculture Food Safety and Inspection Service Microbiology Laboratory Guidebook Method. Journal of Food Protection 77: 180–188.
Grozdanov, L, Zahringer, U, Blum-Oehler, G, Brade, L, Henne, A, Knirel, YA, Schombel, U, Schulze, J, Sonnenborn, U, Gottschalk, G, Hacker, J, Rietschel, ET and Dobrindt, U (2002). A single nucleotide exchange in the wzy gene is responsible for the semirough O6 lipopolysaccharide phenotype and serum sensitivity of Escherichia coli strain Nissle 1917. Journal of Bacteriology 184: 5912–5925.
Guo, H, Feng, L, Tao, J, Zhang, C and Wang, L (2004). Identification of Escherichia coli O172 O-antigen gene cluster and development of a serogroup-specific PCR assay. Journal of Applied Microbiology 97: 181–190.
Han, W, Liu, B, Cao, B, Beutin, L, Kruger, U, Liu, H, Li, Y, Liu, Y, Feng, L and Wang, L (2007). DNA microarray-based identification of serogroups and virulence gene patterns of Escherichia coli isolates associated with porcine postweaning diarrhea and edema disease. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 73: 4082–4088.
Handt, LK, Stoffregen, DA, Prescott, JS, Pouch, WJ, Ngai, DTW, Anderson, CA, Gatto, NT, DebRoy, C, Fairbrother, JM, Motzel, SL and Klein, HJ (2003). Clinical and microbiologic characterization of hemorrhagic pneumonia due to extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli in four young dogs. Comparative Medicine 53: 663–670.
Hobbs, M and Reeves, PR (1994). The JUMPstart sequence: a 39 bp element common to several polysaccharide gene clusters. Molecular Microbiology 12: 855–856.
Hegde, NV, Jayarao, BM and DebRoy, C (2012). Rapid detection of the top six non-O157 Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli O groups in ground beef by flow cytometry. Journal of Clinical Microbiology 50: 2137–2139.
Hegde, NV, Praul, C, Gehring, A, Fratamico, PM and DebRoy, C (2013). Rapid identification of the six clinically relevant O serogroups of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli by antibody microarray. Journal of Microbiological Methods 93: 273–276.
Hu, B, Perepelov, AV, Liu, B, Shevelev, SD, Guo, D, Senchenkova, SN, Shashkov, AS, Feng, L, Knirel, YA and Wang, L (2010). Structural and genetic evidence for the close relationship between Escherichia coli O71 and Salmonella enterica O28 O-antigens. FEMS Immunology and Medical Microbiology 59: 161–169.
Iguchi, A, Iyoda, S, Kikuchi, T, Ogura, Y, Katsura, K, Ohnishi, M, Hayashi, T and Thomson, NR (2015a). A complete view of the genetic diversity of the Escherichia coli O-antigen biosynthesis gene cluster. DNA Research 22: 101–107.
Iguchi, A, Iyoda, S, Seto, K, Morita-Ishihara, T, Sheutz, F, Ohnishi, M and Pathogenic, E. coli Working Group in Japan (2015b). Escherichia coli O-genotyping PCR: a comprehensive and practical platform for molecular O serogrouping. Journal of Clinical Microbiology 53: 2427–2432.
Iguchi, A, Iyoda, S, Seto, K, Nishii, H, Ohnishi, M, Mekata, H, Ogura, Y and Hayashi, T (2016). Six novel O genotypes from Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli. Frontiers in Microbiology 7: 765.
Ingle, DJ, Valcanis, M, Kuzevski, A, Tauschek, M, Inouye, M, Stinear, T, Levine, MM, Robins-Browne, RM and Holt, KE (2016). In silico serotyping of E. coli from short read data identifies limited novel O-loci but extensive diversity of O:H serotype combinations within and between pathogenic lineages. Microbial Genomics 2: e000064. doi: 10.1099/mgen.0.000064.
Ison, SA, Delannoy, S, Bugarel, M, Nagaraja, TG, Renter, DG, den Bakker, HC, Nightingale, KK, Fach, P, Loneragan, GH (2016). Targeted amplicon sequencing for single-nucleotide-polymorphism genotyping of attaching and effacing Escherichia coli O26:H11 cattle strains via a high-throughput library preparation technique. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 82: 640–649.
Joensen, KG, Scheutz, F, Lund, O, Hasman, H, Kaas, RS, Nielsen, EM and Aarestrup, FM (2014). Real-time whole-genome sequencing for routine typing, surveillance, and outbreak detection of verotoxigenic Escherichia coli. Journal of Clinical Microbiology 52: 1501–1510.
Joensen, KG, Tetzschner, AM, Iguchi, A, Aarestrup, FM and Scheutz, F (2015). Rapid and easy in silico serotyping of Escherichia coli using whole genome sequencing (WGS) data. Journal of Clinical Microbiology 53: 2410–2426.
Kaper, JB, Nataro, JP and Mobley, HL (2004). Pathogenic Escherichia coli. Nature Reviews Microbiology 2: 123–140.
Kaufmann, F (1943). Ueber neue tthermolabile Ko¨rperantigen der Colibakterien. Acta Pathologica et Microbiologica Scandinavica 20: 21–44.
Kaufmann, F (1944). Zur Serologie der Coli-Gruppe. Acta Pathologica et Microbiologica Scandinavica 21: 20–45.
Kaufmann, F (1947). The serology of E. coli group. Journal of Immunology 57: 71–100.
Keenleyside, WJ and Whitfield, C (1996). A novel pathway for O polysaccharide biosynthesis in Salmonella enterica serovar Borreze. Journal of Biological Chemistry 271: 28581–28592.
Knirel, YA, Qian, C, Shashkov, AS, Sizova, OV, Zdorovenko, EL, Naumenko, OI, Senchenkova, SN, Perepelov, AV and Liu, B (2016). Structural relationships between genetically closely related O-antigens of Escherichia coli and Shigella spp. Biochemistry (Moscow) 81: 600–608.
Kwong, JC, McCallum, N, Sintchenko, V and Howden, BP (2015). Whole genome sequencing in clinical and public health microbiology. Pathology 47: 199–210.
Lacher, DW, Gangiredla, J, Jackson, SA, Elkins, CA and Feng, PC (2014). Novel microarray design for molecular serotyping of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli strains isolated from fresh produce. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 80: 4677–4682.
Li, D, Liu, B, Chen, M, Guo, D, Guo, X, Liu, F, Feng, L and Wang, L (2010). A multiplex PCR method to detect 14 Escherichia coli serogroups associated with urinary tract infections. Journal of Microbiological Methods 82: 71–77.
Li, Y, Perepelov, AV, Guo, D, Shevelev, SD, Senchenkova, SN, Shahskov, AS, Liu, B, Wang, L, Knirel, YA (2011). Structural and genetic relationships of two pairs of closely related O-antigens of Escherichia coli and Salmonella enterica: E. coli O11/S. Enterica O16 and E. coli O21/S. Enterica O38. FEMS Immunology and Medical Microbiology 61: 258–268.
Linton, KJ and Higgins, CF (1998). The Escherichia coli ATP binding cassette (ABC) proteins. Molecular Microbiology 28: 5–13.
Liu, B, Knirel, YA, Feng, L, Perepelov, AV, Senchenkova, SN, Wang, Q, Reeves, PR, Wang, L (2008a). Structure and genetics of Shigella O antigens. FEMS Microbiology Reviews 32: 627–653.
Liu, B, Wu, F, Li, D, Beutin, L, Chen, M, Cao, B and Wang, L (2010). Development of a serogroup-specific DNA microarray for identification of Escherichia coli strains associated with bovine septicemia and diarrhea. Veterinary Microbiology 142: 373–378.
Liu, Y and Fratamico, PM (2006). Escherichia coli O antigen typing using DNA microarrays. Molecular and Cellular Probes 20: 239–244.
Liu, Y, DebRoy, C and Fratamico, PM (2007). Sequencing and analysis of the Escherichia coli serogroup O117, O126, and O146 O-antigen gene clusters and development of PCR assays targeting serogroup O117-, O126-, and O146-specific DNA sequences. Molecular and Cellular Probes 21: 295–302.
Liu, Y, Fratamico, PM, DebRoy, C, Bumbaugh, AC and Allen, JW (2008b). DNA sequencing and identification of serogroup-specific genes in the Escherichia coli O118 O antigen gene cluster and demonstration of antigenic diversity but only minor variation in DNA sequence of the O antigen clusters of E. coli O118 and O151. Foodborne Pathogens and Disease 5: 449–457.
Liu, Y, Yan, X, DebRoy, C, Fratamico, PM, Needleman, DS, Li, R, Wang, W, Losada, L, Brinka, L, Radune, D, Toro, M, Hegde, N and Meng, J (2015). Escherichia coli O-antigen gene clusters of serogroups O62, O68, O131, O140, O142, and O163: DNA sequences and similarity between O62 and O68, and PCR-based serogrouping. Biosensors 5: 51–68.
MacLean, LL, Webb, AC and Perry, MB (2006). Structural elucidation of the O-antigenic polysaccharide from enterohemorrhagic (EHEC) Escherichia coli O48:H21. Carbohydrate Research 341: 2543–2549.
McGrath, BC and Osborn, MJ (1991). Localization of the terminal steps of O antigen synthesis in Salmonella typhimurium. Journal of Bacteriology 173: 649–654.
Moreno, ACR, Guth, BEC and Martinez, MB (2006). Can the fliC PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism technique replace classic serotyping methods for characterizing the H antigen of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli strains? Journal of Clinical Microbiology 44: 1453–1458.
Morona, R, Van Den Bosch, L and Manning, P (1995). Molecular, genetic, and topological characterization of O antigen chain regulation in Shigella flexneri. Journal of Bacteriology 177: 1059–1068.
Mulford, CA and Osborn, MJ (1983). An intermediate step in translocation of lipopolysaccharide to outer membrane of Salmonella typhimurium. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 80: 1159–1163.
Norman, KN, Clawson, ML, Strockbine, NA, Mandrell, RE, Johnson, R, Ziebell, K, Zhao, S, Fratamico, PM, Stones, R, Allard, MW and Bono, JL (2015). Comparison of whole genome sequences from human and non-human Escherichia coli O26 strains. Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology 5: 21.
Ørskov, F and Ørskov, I (1984). Serotyping of Escherichia coli. Methods in Microbiology 14: 43–112.
Ørskov, I, Ørskov, F, Jann, B and Jann, K (1977). Serology, chemistry, and genetics of O and K antigens of Escherichia coli. Bacteriological Reviews 41: 667–710.
Patel, IR, Gangiredla, J, Lacher, DW, Mammel, MK, Jackson, SA, Lampel, KA and Elkins, CA (2016). FDA Escherichia coli identification (FDA-ECID) microarray: a pangenome molecular toolbox for serotyping, virulence profiling, molecular epidemiology, and phylogeny. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 82: 3384–3394.
Plainvert, C, Bidet, P, Peigne, C, Barbe, V, Médigue, C, Denamur, E, Bingen, E and Bonacorsi, S (2007). A new O-antigen gene cluster has a key role in the virulence of the Escherichia coli meningitis clone O45:K1:H7. Journal of Bacteriology 189: 8528–8536.
Poltorak, A, He, X, Smirnova, I, Liu, MY, Van Huffel, C, Du, X, Birdwell, D, Alejos, E, Silva, M, Galanos, C, Freudenberg, M, Ricciardi-Castagnoli, P, Layton, B and Beutler, B (1998). Defective LPS signaling in C3H/HeJ and C57BL/10ScCr mice: mutations in Tlr4 gene. Science 282: 2085–2088.
Reeves, PR (1994). Biosynthesis and assembly of lipopolysaccharides. In Ghuysen, J-M and Hakenbeck, R (eds) New Comprehensive Biochemistry, Bacterial Cell Wall. Elsevier Science Publisher, Amsterdam, Chap. 13, pp. 281–317.
Reeves, PR and Wang, L (2002). Genomic organization of LPS-specific loci. Current Topics in Microbiological Immunology 264: 109–135.
Remis, RS, MacDonald, KL, Riley, LW, Puhr, ND, Wells, JG, Davis, BR, Blake, PA and Cohen, ML (1984). Sporadic cases of hemorrhagic colitis associated with Escherichia coli O157:H7. Annals of Internal Medicine 101: 624–626.
Ren, Y, Liu, B, Cheng, J, Liu, F, Feng, L and Wang, L (2008). Characterization of Escherichia coli O3 and O21 O antigen gene clusters and development of serogroup-specific PCR assays. Journal of Microbiological Methods 75: 329–334.
Riley, LW, Remis, RS, Helgerson, SD, McGee, HB, Wells, JG, Davis, BR, Hebert, RJ, Olcott, ES, Johnson, LM, Hargrett, NT, Blake, PA and Cohen, ML (1983). Hemorrhagic colitis associated with a rare Escherichia coli serotype. New England Journal of Medicine 308: 681–685.
Russo, TA and Johnson, JR (2003). Medical and economic impact of extraintestinal infections due to Escherichia coli: focus on an increasingly important endemic problem. Microbes and Infection 5: 449–456.
Samuel, G and Reeves, P (2003). Biosynthesis of O-antigens: genes and pathways involved in nucleotide sugar precursor synthesis and O-antigen assembly. Carbohydrate Research 338: 2503–2519.
Scheutz, F, Cheasty, T, Woodward, D and Smith, HR (2004). Designation of O174 and O175 to temporary O groups OX3 and OX7, and six new E. coli O groups that include verocytotoxin-producing E. coli (VTEC): O176, O177, O178, O179, O180 and O181. APMIS 112: 569–584.
Smith, JL, Fratamico, PM and Gunther, N (2007). Extraintestinal pathogenic Escherichia coli (ExPEC). Foodborne Pathogens and Disease 4: 134–163.
Stenutz, R, Weintraub, A and Widmalm, G (2006). The structures of Escherichia coli O-polysaccharide antigens. FEMS Microbiology Review 30: 382–403.
Stromberg, ZR, Baumann, NW, Lewis, GL, Sevart, NJ, Cernicchiaro, N, Renter, DG, Marx, DB, Phebus, RK, Moxley, RA (2015). Prevalence of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O26, O45, O103, O111, O121, O145, and O157 on hides and preintervention carcass surfaces of feedlot cattle at harvest. Foodborne Pathogens and Disease 12: 631–638.
Sura, R, Van Kruiningen, HJ, DebRoy, C, Hinckley, LS, Greenberg, KJ, Gordon, Z and French, RA (2007). Extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli (ExPEC) induced acute necrotizing pneumonia in cats. Zoonoses and Public Health 54: 307–313.
Tseng, M, Fratamico, PM, Bagi, L, Delannoy, S, Fach, P, Manning, SD and Funk, JA (2014). Diverse virulence gene content of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli from finishing swine. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 80: 6395–6402.
Wang, L and Reeves, PR (1998). Organization of Escherichia coli O157 O antigen gene cluster and identification of its specific genes. Infection and Immunity 66: 3545–3551.
Wang, Q, Ruan, X, Wei, D, Hu, Z, Wu, L, Yu, T, Feng, L and Wang, L (2010). Development of a serogroup-specific multiplex PCR assay to detect a set of Escherichia coli serogroups based on the identification of their O-antigen gene clusters. Molecular and Cellular Probes 24: 286–290.