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A genetic profile of bovine pestiviruses circulating in Brazil (1998–2018)

  • E. F. Flores (a1), J. F. Cargnelutti (a1), F. L. Monteiro (a1), F. V. Bauermann (a2), J. F. Ridpath (a3) and R. Weiblen (a1)...


The pestiviruses bovine viral diarrhea virus 1 (BVDV-1), 2 (BVDV-2), and HoBi-like (HoBiPeV) are endemic among Brazilian cattle, the world's largest commercial bovine herd. In the last two decades (1998–2018) over 300 bovine pestiviruses have been partially or fully sequenced in Brazil, including viruses from different regions, different epidemiological backgrounds, and associated with diverse clinical presentations. Phylogenetic analysis of these viruses demonstrated a predominance of BVDV-1 (54.4%), with subgenotypes −1a (33.9% of total) and −1b (16.3%) being more frequent and subgenotypes −1d, −1e, and −1i at very low frequencies. The overall BVDV-2 frequency was 25.7% but it varied largely by region, reaching up to 48% in Southern states. BVDV-2b was the predominant subgenotype (84.8% of BVDV-2), followed by BVDV-2a (8.86%). HoBiPeV accounted for 19.9% (61/307) of the genotyped viruses and were detected at high frequency in cattle from Northeastern states. These findings demonstrate a unique mix of pestivirus species and subgenotypes, unlike that seen in Europe or North America. The design of effective diagnostic tools, vaccines, and control programs for limiting bovine pestivirus infections in Brazil must take into consideration this unique mix of viruses. This article provides a critical review of two decades of genetic identification of pestiviruses in Brazil.


Corresponding author

Author for correspondence: E. F. Flores, Setor de Virologia, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, Av. Roraima, 1000, 63A, Santa Maria, Rio Grande do Sul, 97105-900, Brazil. E-mail:


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