Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
×
Home

Effects of transportation on cattle health and production: a review

  • N. K. Van Engen (a1) and J. F. Coetzee (a2)
Abstract

The goal of this review is to present a concise and critical assessment of the literature related to physiologic responses in cattle that are subjected to transportation. Over two-thirds of US cattle are transported. Understanding trends in circulating physiologic parameters is an important part of mitigating the negative effects of transportation. For the producer, linking these effects after transportation to morbidity outcomes within the first 45 days on feed (i.e. especially development of bovine respiratory disease) is critical. Physiologic parameters in circulation are of primary importance and may have value for prediction of bovine respiratory disease on arrival and for the understanding of disease pathogenesis. The results of our literature survey indicated that post-transportation immune function, increased acute phase proteins, glucocorticoids, and inflammation are a pivotal starting point for understanding disease. These potential biomarkers may have utility in identifying disease for targeted therapeutics so that traditional protocols that rely heavily on metaphylaxis can be avoided. Additional research is needed to develop strategies for physiological marker identification, treatment methods, or predictive behaviors to prevent respiratory disease before and after transport. This review examines the significant deleterious effects of transportation handling and stress, and current immune system translation and non-antimicrobial mitigation strategies.

Copyright
Corresponding author
Author for correspondence: N. K. Van Engen, Johnson Research, L.L.C. 24007 HWY20/26, Parma, Idaho, 83660, USA. E-mail: nkve@johnsonresearchllc.com
References
Hide All
Abdallah, A, Hewson, J, Francoz, D, Selim, H and Buczinski, S (2016) Systematic review of the diagnostic accuracy of haptoglobin, serum amyloid A, and fibrinogen versus clinical reference standards for the diagnosis of bovine respiratory disease. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine 30, 13561368.
Ackermann, MR, Derscheid, R and Roth, JA (2010) Innate immunology of bovine respiratory disease. Veterinary Clinics of North America-Food Animal Practice 26, 215.
Agelaki, S, Tsatsanis, C, Gravanis, A and Margioris, AN (2002) Corticotropin-releasing hormone augments proinflammatory cytokine production from macrophages in vitro and in lipopolysaccharide-induced endotoxin shock in mice. Infection and Immunity 70, 60686074.
Agnes, F, Sartorelli, P, Picotti, GB, Arrigoni, C and Locatelli, A (1990) Metyrapone and adrenal-response in stressed calves. Journal of Veterinary Medicine Series a-Zentralblatt Fur Veterinarmedizin Reihe a-Physiology Pathology Clinical Medicine 37, 771774.
Aktas, MS, Ozkanlar, S, Karakoc, A, Akcay, F and Ozkanlar, Y (2011) Efficacy of vitamin E plus selenium and vitamin A plus D plus E combinations on oxidative stress induced by long-term transportation in Holstein dairy cows. Livestock Science 141, 7679.
Alsemgeest, SPM, Kalsbeek, HC, Wensing, T, Koeman, JP, Vanederen, AM and Gruys, E (1994) Concentrations of Serum Amyloid-A (SAA) and Haptoglobin (HP) as parameters of inflammatory diseases in cattle. Veterinary Quarterly 16, 2123.
Araujo, DB, Cooke, RF, Hansen, GR, Staples, CR and Arthington, JD (2010) Effects of rumen-protected polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation on performance and physiological responses of growing cattle after transportation and feedlot entry. Journal of Animal Science 88, 41204132.
Arthington, JD, Eicher, D, Kunkle, WE and Martin, FG (2003) Effect of transportation and commingling on the acute-phase protein response, growth, and feed intake of newly weaned beef calves. Journal of Animal Science 81, 11201125.
Averos, X, Martin, S, Riu, M, Serrosota, J and Gosalvez, LF (2008) Stress response of extensively reared young bulls being transported to growing-finishing farms under Spanish summer commercial conditions. Livestock Science 119, 174182.
Badolato, R, Wang, JM, Murphy, WJ, Lloyd, AR, Michiel, DF, Bausserman, LL, Oppenheim, JJ and Kelvin, DJ (1994) Serum amyloid-A has chemoattractant activity for monocytes and polymorphonuclear cells. Faseb Journal 8, A234A234.
Bannikov, GA, Hinds, CA, Rajala-Schultz, PJ, Premanandan, C, Rings, DM and Lakritz, J (2011) Serum haptoglobin-matrix metalloproteinase 9 (Hp-MMP 9) complex as a biomarker of systemic inflammation in cattle. Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology 139, 4149.
Bartram, U and Speer, CP (2004) The role of transforming growth factor beta in lung development and disease. Chest 125, 754765.
Beatty, DT, Barnes, A, Taplin, R, Mccarthy, M and Maloney, SK (2007) Electrolyte supplementation of live export cattle to the Middle East. Australian Journal of Experimental Agriculture 47, 119124.
Benson, MD and Aldobenson, MA (1982) SAA Suppression of in vitro antibody-response. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 389, 121125.
Bernardini, D, Gerardi, G, Peli, A, Costa, LN, Amadori, M and Segato, S (2012) The effects of different environmental conditions on thermoregulation and clinical and hematological variables in long-distance road-transported calves. Journal of Animal Science 90, 1183–U151.
Bristow, DJ and Holmes, DS (2007) Cortisol levels and anxiety-related behaviors in cattle. Physiology & Behavior 90, 626628.
Broom, DM (2008) The welfare of livestock during road transport. Long Distance Transport and Welfare of Farm Animals 7, 157181.
Browning, R Jr. and Leite-Browning, ML (2013) Comparative stress responses to short transport and related events in Hereford and Brahman steers. Journal of Animal Science 91, 957969.
Buckham Sporer, KR, Burton, JL, Earley, B and Crowe, MA (2007) Transportation stress in young bulls alters expression of neutrophil genes important for the regulation of apoptosis, tissue remodeling, margination, and anti-bacterial function. Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology 118, 1929.
Buckham Sporer, KR, Weber, PSD, Burton, JL, Earley, B and Crowe, MA (2008) Transportation of young beef bulls alters circulating physiological parameters that may be effective biomarkers of stress. Journal of Animal Science 86, 13251334.
Bulitta, FS, Aradom, S and Gebresenbet, G (2015) Effect of transport time of up to 12 h on welfare of cows and bulls. Journal of Service Science and Management 8, 161182.
Burdick, NC, Carroll, JA, Hulbert, LE, Dailey, JW, Willard, ST, Vann, RC, Welsh, TH Jr, and Randel, RD (2010) Relationships between temperament and transportation with rectal temperature and serum concentrations of cortisol and epinephrine in bulls. Livestock Science 129, 166172.
Burdick, NC, Carroll, JA, Randel, RD, Willard, ST, Vann, RC, Chase, CC Jr, Lawhon, SD, Hulbert, LE and Welsh, TH Jr (2011) Influence of temperament and transportation on physiological and endocrinological parameters in bulls. Livestock Science 139, 213221.
Cafazzo, S, Magnani, D, Cala, P, Razzuoli, E, Gerardi, G, Bernardini, D, Amadori, M and Costa, LN (2012) Effect of short road journeys on behaviour and some blood variables related to welfare in young bulls. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 139, 2634.
Carroll, JA, Arthington, JD and Chase, CC (2009) Early weaning alters the acute-phase reaction to an endotoxin challenge in beef calves. Journal of Animal Science 87, 41674172.
Carter, JN, Gill, DR, Confer, AW, Smith, RA and Ball, RL (2000) The effects of feeding vitamin E to sale barn-origin calves during the receiving period: animal performance and medical costs. Animal Science Research Report – Agricultural Experiment Station, Oklahoma State University 7075.
Cernicchiaro, N, White, BJ, Renter, DG, Babcock, AH, Kelly, L and Slattery, R (2012 a) Associations between the distance traveled from sale barns to commercial feedlots in the United States and overall performance, risk of respiratory disease, and cumulative mortality in feeder cattle during 1997 to 2009. Journal of Animal Science 90, 19291939.
Cernicchiaro, N, White, BJ, Renter, DG, Babcock, AH, Kelly, L and Slattery, R (2012 b) Effects of body weight loss during transit from sale barns to commercial feedlots on health and performance in feeder cattle cohorts arriving to feedlots from 2000 to 2008. Journal of Animal Science 90, 19401947.
Ceron, JJ, Eckersall, PD and Martinez-Subiela, S (2005) Acute phase proteins in dogs and cats: current knowledge and future perspectives. Veterinary Clinical Pathology 34, 8599.
Chacon, G, Garcia-Belenguer, S, Villarroel, M and Maria, GA (2005) Effect of transport stress on physiological responses of male bovines. Deutsche Tierarztliche Wochenschrift 112, 465469.
Choat, WT, Krehbiel, CR, Gill, DR, Ball, RL, Stovall, TC, Shriver, JA and Carter, JN (2000) Effect of vitamin E and fat on the health and performance of shipping stressed heifer calves. Animal Science Research Report – Agricultural Experiment Station, Oklahoma State University 7681.
Cockram, MS and Spence, JY (2012) The effects of driving events on the stability and resting behaviour of cattle, young calves and pigs. Animal Welfare 21, 403417.
Coetzee, JF, Lubbers, BV, Toerber, SE, Gehring, R, Thomson, DU, White, BJ and Apley, MD (2008) Plasma concentrations of substance P and cortisol in beef calves after castration or simulated castration. American Journal of Veterinary Research 69, 751762.
Cole, NA, Camp, TH, Rowe, LD, Stevens, DG and Hutcheson, DP (1988) Effect of transport on feeder calves. American Journal of Veterinary Research 49, 178183.
Cooke, RF, Arthington, JD, Austin, BR and Yelich, JV (2009) Effects of acclimation to handling on performance, reproductive, and physiological responses of Brahman-crossbred heifers. Journal of Animal Science 87, 34033412.
Cooke, RF, Carroll, JA, Dailey, J, Cappellozza, BI and Bohnert, DW (2012) Bovine acute-phase response after different doses of corticotropin-releasing hormone challenge. Journal of Animal Science 90, 23372344.
Cooke, RF, Cappellozza, BI, Guarnieri, TA and Bohnert, DW (2013 a) Effects of flunixin meglumine administration on physiological and performance responses of transported feeder cattle. Journal of Animal Science 91, 55005506.
Cooke, RF, Guarnieri, TA, Cappellozza, BI and Bohnert, DW (2013 b) Rest stops during road transport: impacts on performance and acute-phase protein responses of feeder cattle. Journal of Animal Science 91, 54485454.
Duff, GC and Galyean, ML (2007) Board-invited review: recent advances in management of highly stressed, newly received feedlot cattle. Journal of Animal Science 85, 823840.
Earley, B and O'Riordan, EG (2006) Effects of transporting bulls at different space allowances on physiological, haematological and immunological responses to a 12-h journey by road. Irish Journal of Agricultural and Food Research 45, 3950.
Earley, B, Fisher, AD and O'Riordan, EG (2006) Effects of pre-transport fasting on the physiological responses of young cattle to 8-hour road transport. Irish Journal of Agricultural and Food Research 45, 5160.
Earley, B, Murray, M and Prendiville, DJ (2010) Effect of road transport for up to 24 h followed by twenty-four hour recovery on live weight and physiological responses of bulls. BMC Veterinary Research 6, 38.
Earley, B, Murray, M, Prendiville, DJ, Pintado, B, Borque, C and Canali, E (2012) The effect of transport by road and sea on physiology, immunity and behaviour of beef cattle. Research in Veterinary Science 92, 531541.
Earley, B, Drennan, M and O'Riordan, EG (2013) The effect of road transport in comparison to a novel environment on the physiological, metabolic and behavioural responses of bulls. Research in Veterinary Science 95, 811818.
Eitam, H, Vaya, J, Brosh, A, Orlov, A, Khatib, S, Izhaki, I and Shabtay, A (2010) Differential stress responses among newly received calves: variations in reductant capacity and Hsp gene expression. Cell Stress & Chaperones 15, 865876.
Enyedi, B, Jelcic, M and Niethammer, P (2016) The cell nucleus serves as a mechanotransducer of tissue damage-induced inflammation. Cell 165, 11601170.
Falkenberg, SM, Carroll, JA, Keisler, DH, Sartin, JL, Elsasser, TH, Buntyn, JO, Broadway, PR and Schmidt, TB (2013) Evaluation of the endocrine response of cattle during the relocation process. Livestock Science 151, 203212.
Fox, JT, Reinstein, S, Jacob, ME and Nagaraja, TG (2008) Niche marketing production practices for beef cattle in the United States and prevalence of foodborne pathogens. Foodborne Pathogens and Disease 5, 559569.
Galyean, ML, Lee, RW and Hubbert, ME (1981) Influence of fasting and transit on ruminal and blood metabolites in beef steers. Journal of Animal Science 53, 718.
Geary, TW (2012) Effects of adrenocorticotropic hormone and flunixin meglumine on pregnancy retention in beef cows. Journal of Animal Science 90, 207211.
Gebresenbet, G, Aradom, S, Bulitta, FS and Hjerpe, E (2011) Vibration levels and frequencies on vehicle and animals during transport. Biosystems Engineering 110, 1019.
Gebresenbet, G, Wikner, I, Bobobee, EYH, Maria, G and Villarroel, M (2012) Effect of transport time and handling on physiological responses of cattle. Journal of Agricultural Science and Technology A 2, 800814.
Gifford, CA, Holland, BP, Mills, RL, Maxwell, CL, Farney, JK, Terrill, SJ, Step, DL, Richards, CJ, Robles, LOB and Krehbiel, CR (2012) Growth and development symposium: impacts of inflammation on cattle growth and carcass merit. Journal of Animal Science 90, 14381451.
Goldhawk, C, Crowe, T, Gonzalez, LA, Janzen, E, Kastelic, J, Pajor, E and Schwartzkopf-Genswein, K (2014 a) Comparison of eight logger layouts for monitoring animal-level temperature and humidity during commercial feeder cattle transport. Journal of Animal Science 92, 41614171.
Goldhawk, C, Crowe, T, Janzen, E, Gonzalez, LA, Kastelic, J, Pajor, E and Schwartzkopf-Genswein, KS (2014 b) Trailer microclimate during commercial transportation of feeder cattle and relationship to indicators of cattle welfare. Journal of Animal Science 92, 51555165.
Griffin, D (1997) Economic impact associated with respiratory disease in beef cattle. Veterinary Clinics of North America-Food Animal Practice 13, 367.
Grigor, PN, Cockram, MS, Steele, WB, Mcintyre, J, Williams, CL, Leushuis, IE and Van Reenen, CG (2004) A comparison of the welfare and meat quality of veal calves slaughtered on the farm with those subjected to transportation and lairage. Livestock Production Science 91, 219228.
Grumpelt, B, Hoffer, W, Curie, O, Jones, O, Jones, K, Kimmel, D, Mcdonald, B, Paterson, R and Schaefer, A (2015) SHORT COMMUNICATION: the Pre-transport management of antemortem stress in cattle: impact on carcass yield. Canadian Journal of Animal Science 95, 557560.
Guarnieri, TA, Cooke, RF, Cappellozza, BI, Reis, MM, Marques, RS and Bohnert, DW (2014) Effects of meloxicam administration on physiological and performance responses of transported feeder cattle. Journal of Animal Science 92, 41374144.
Gupta, S, Earley, B and Crowe, MA (2007) Effect of 12-hour road transportation on physiological, immunological and haematological parameters in bulls housed at different space allowances. Veterinary Journal 173, 605616.
Hall, JE (2006) Guyton and Hall Textbook of Medical Physiology. Philadelphia: Elsevier Saunder.
Hanthorn, CJ, Dewell, GA, Dewell, RD, Cooper, VL, Wang, C, Plummer, PJ and Lakritz, J (2014) Serum concentrations of haptoglobin and haptoglobin-matrix metalloproteinase 9 (Hp-MMP 9) complexes of bovine calves in a bacterial respiratory challenge model. BMC Veterinary Research 10, 7.
Holland, BP, Step, DL, Burciaga-Robles, LO, Fulton, RW, Confer, AW, Rose, TK, Laidig, LE, Richards, CJ and Krehbiel, CR (2011) Effectiveness of sorting calves with high risk of developing bovine respiratory disease on the basis of serum haptoglobin concentration at the time of arrival at a feedlot. American Journal of Veterinary Research 72, 13491360.
Huertas, SM, Gil, AD, Piaggio, JM and Van Eerdenburg, FJCM (2010) Transportation of beef cattle to slaughterhouses and how this relates to animal welfare and carcass bruising in an extensive production system. Animal Welfare 19, 281285.
Hulbert, LE, Carroll, JA, Burdick, NC, Randel, RD, Brown, MS and Ballou, MA (2011) Innate immune responses of temperamental and calm cattle after transportation. Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology 143, 6674.
Ishizaki, H and Kariya, Y (2010) Road transportation stress promptly increases bovine peripheral blood absolute NK cell counts and cortisol levels. Journal of Veterinary Medical Science 72, 747753.
Jarvis, AM, Messer, CDA and Cockram, MS (1996) Handling, bruising and dehydration of cattle at the time of slaughter. Animal Welfare 5, 259270.
Jubb, TF, Pinch, DS and Petty, SR (1993) Treatment with vitamin-A, vitamin-D and vitamin-E did not reduce weight-loss in transported cattle. Australian Veterinary Journal 70, 171173.
Kang, HJ, Lee, IK, Piao, MY, Kwak, CW, Gu, MJ, Yun, CH, Kim, HJ, Ahn, HJ, Kim, HB, Kim, GH, Kim, SK, Ko, JY, Ha, JK and Baik, M (2017) Effects of road transportation on metabolic and immunological responses in Holstein heifers. Animal Science Journal 88, 140148.
Klein-Patel, ME, Diamond, G, Boniotto, M, Saad, S and Ryan, LK (2006) Inhibition of beta-defensin gene expression in airway epithelial cells by low doses of residual oil fly ash is mediated by vanadium. Toxicological Sciences 92, 115125.
Knowles, TG (1999) A review of the road transport of cattle. Veterinary Record 144, 197201.
Knowles, TG, Warriss, PD, Brown, SN, Edwards, JE, Watkins, PE and Phillips, J (1997) Effects on calves less than one month old of feeding or not feeding them during road transport of up to 24 h. Veterinary Record 140, 116124.
Knowles, TG, Brown, SN, Edwards, JE, Phillips, AJ and Warriss, PD (1999) Effect on young calves of a one-hour feeding stop during a 19-hour road journey. Veterinary Record 144, 687692.
Linke, RP, Bock, V, Valet, G and Rothe, G (1991) Inhibition of the oxidative burst response of n-formyl peptide-stimulated neutrophils by serum amyloid-A protein. Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 176, 11001105.
Loerch, SC and Fluharty, FL (2000) Use of trainer animals to improve performance and health of newly arrived feedlot calves. Journal of Animal Science 78, 539545.
Lomborg, SR, Nielsen, LR, Heegaard, PMH and Jacobsen, S (2008) Acute phase proteins in cattle after exposure to complex stress. Veterinary Research Communications 32, 575582.
Lubbers, BV and Hanzlicek, GA (2013) Antimicrobial multidrug resistance and coresistance patterns of Mannheimia haemolytica isolated from bovine respiratory disease cases-a three-year (2009-2011) retrospective analysis. Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation 25, 413417.
Mackenzie, AM, Drennan, M, Rowan, TG, Dixon, JB and Carter, SD (1997) Effect of transportation and weaning on humoral immune responses of calves. Research in Veterinary Science 63, 227230.
Marques, RS, Cooke, RF, Francisco, CL and Bohnert, DW (2012) Effects of twenty-four hour transport or twenty-four hour feed and water deprivation on physiologic and performance responses of feeder cattle. Journal of Animal Science 90, 50405046.
Marti, S, Wilde, RE, Moya, D, Heuston, CEM, Brown, F and Schwartzkopf-Genswein, KS (2017) Effect of rest stop duration during long-distance transport on welfare indicators in recently weaned beef calves. Journal of Animal Science 95, 636644.
Mitchell, G, Hattingh, J and Ganhao, M (1988) Stress in cattle assessed after handling, after transport and after slaughter. Veterinary Record 123, 201205.
Mitchell, GB, Clark, ME, Siwicky, M and Caswell, JL (2008) Stress alters the cellular and proteomic compartments of bovine bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology 125, 111125.
Moonsieshageer, S and Mowat, DN (1993) Effect of level of supplemental chromium on performance, serum constituents, and immune status of stressed feeder calves. Journal of Animal Science 71, 232238.
Mostl, E, Maggs, JL, Schrotter, G, Besenfelder, U and Palme, R (2002) Measurement of cortisol metabolites in faeces of ruminants. Veterinary Research Communications 26, 127139.
Murata, H (1989) Suppression of lymphocyte blastogenesis by sera from calves transported by road. British Veterinary Journal 145, 257262.
Murata, H, Takahashi, H and Matsumoto, H (1987) The effects of road transportation on peripheral-blood lymphocyte subpopulations, lymphocyte blastogenesis and neutrophil function in calves. British Veterinary Journal 143, 166174.
Murata, H, Shimada, N and Yoshioka, M (2004) Current research on acute phase proteins in veterinary diagnosis: an overview. Veterinary Journal 168, 2840.
NAHMS, USDA (2013) Types and Costs of Respiratory Disease Treatments in U.S. Feedlots. https://www.aphis.usda.gov/animal_health/nahms/feedlot/downloads/feedlot2011/Feed11_is_RespDis.pdf.
Nikunen, S, Hartel, H, Orro, T, Neuvonen, E, Tanskanen, R, Kivela, SL, Sankari, S, Aho, P, Pyorala, S, Saloniemi, H and Soveri, T (2007) Association of bovine respiratory disease with clinical status and acute phase proteins in calves. Comparative Immunology Microbiology and Infectious Diseases 30, 143151.
Odore, R, D'Angelo, A, Badino, P, Bellino, C, Pagliasso, S and Re, G (2004) Road transportation affects blood hormone levels and lymphocyte glucocorticoid and beta-adrenergic receptor concentrations in calves. Veterinary Journal 168, 297303.
Odore, R, Badino, P, Re, G, Barbero, R, Cuniberti, B, D'Angelo, A, Girardi, C, Fraccaro, E and Tarantola, M (2011) Effects of housing and short-term transportation on hormone and lymphocyte receptor concentrations in beef cattle. Research in Veterinary Science 90, 341345.
Orro, T, Pohjanvirta, T, Rikula, U, Huovilainen, A, Alasuutari, S, Sihvonen, L, Pelkonen, S and Soveri, T (2011) Acute phase protein changes in calves during an outbreak of respiratory disease caused by bovine respiratory syncytial virus. Comparative Immunology Microbiology and Infectious Diseases 34, 2329.
Penny, CD (2015) The control of bovine respiratory disease (BRD) are we making progress? Cattle Practice 23, 314319.
Pettiford, SG, Ferguson, DM, Lea, JM, Lee, C, Paull, DR, Reed, MT, Hinch, GN and Fisher, AD (2008) Effect of loading practices and 6-hour road transport on the physiological responses of yearling cattle. Australian Journal of Experimental Agriculture 48, 10281033.
Pourjafar, M and Dehkordi, SN (2008) Ceruloplasmin and copper concentration in serum, liver and kidney of cattle. Indian Veterinary Journal 85, 89.
Price, DM, Lewis, AW, Neuendorff, DA, Carroll, JA, Burdick Sanchez, NC, Vann, RC, Welsh, TH and Randel, RD (2015) Physiological and metabolic responses of gestating Brahman cows to repeated transportation. Journal of animal science 93, 737745.
Qiu, X, Arthington, JD, Riley, DG, Chase, CC, Phillips, WA, Coleman, SW and Olson, TA (2007) Genetic effects on acute phase protein response to the stresses of weaning and transportation in beef calves. Journal of Animal Science 85, 23672374.
Ramirez-Romero, R, Brogden, KA, Gallup, JM, Sonea, IM and Ackermann, MR (2001) Mast cell density and substance P-like immunoreactivity during the initiation and progression of lung lesions in ovine Mannheimia (Pasteurella) haemolytica pneumonia. Microbial Pathogenesis 30, 325335.
Razzuoli, E, Olzi, E, Cala, P, Cafazzo, S, Magnani, D, Vitali, A, Lacetera, N, Archetti, L, Lazzara, F, Ferrari, A, Costa, LN and Amadori, M (2016) Innate immune responses of young bulls to a novel environment. Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology 172, 913.
Ribble, CS, Meek, AH, Shewen, PE, Guichon, PT and Jim, GK (1995 a) Effect of pretransit mixing on fatal fibrinous pneumonia in calves. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 207, 616619.
Ribble, CS, Meek, AH, Shewen, PE, Jim, GK and Guichon, PT (1995 b) Effect of transportation on fatal fibrinous pneumonia and shrinkage in calves arriving at a large feedlot. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 207, 612615.
Richeson, JT, Beck, PA, Gunter, SA, Gadberry, MS, Hubbell, DS and Jones, C (2006) Effects of on-arrival vs. delayed BRD vaccination on health, performance and serum IBR titer levels of newly-received stocker cattle. Journal of Animal Science 84, 1414.
Riedl, M and Diaz-Sanchez, D (2005) Biology of diesel exhaust effects on respiratory function. Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology 115, 221228.
Rocha, TG, Silva, FDF, Bortoletto, C, Silva, DG, Buzinaro, MG, Zafalon, LF and Fagliari, JJ (2016) Serum concentrations of acute phase proteins and immunoglobulins of calves with rotavirus diarrhea. Arquivo Brasileiro De Medicina Veterinaria E Zootecnia 68, 865872.
Romero, MH, Uribe-Velasquez, LF and Sanchez, JA (2014) Physiological profiles of Zebu steers during transport and pre-slaughter. Revista Colombiana De Ciencias Pecuarias 27, 282289.
Rozkova, D, Horvath, R, Bartunkova, J and Spisek, R (2006) Glucocorticoids severely impair differentiation and antigen presenting function of dendritic cells despite upregulation of toll-like receptors. Clinical Immunology 120, 260271.
Sahlin, K (1986) Muscle fatigue and lactic-acid accumulation. Acta Physiologica Scandinavica 128, 8391.
Schaefer, AL, Jones, SDM, Tong, AKW, Young, BA, Murray, NL and Lepage, P (1992) Effects of post-transport electrolyte supplementation on tissue electrolytes, hematology, urine osmolality and weight loss in beef bulls. Livestock Production Science 30, 333346.
Schaefer, AL, Jones, SDM and Stanley, RW (1997) The use of electrolyte solutions for the reducing transport stress. Journal of Animal Science 75, 258265.
Schwartzkopf-Genswein, K and Grandin, T (2014) Cattle transport by road. In Grandin, T (ed.) Livestock Handling and Transport. Wallingford, UK: Cabi, pp. 143173.
Senthilkumaran, C, Clark, ME, Abdelaziz, K, Bateman, KG, Mackay, A, Hewson, J and Caswell, JL (2013) Increased annexin A1 and A2 levels in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid are associated with resistance to respiratory disease in beef calves. Veterinary Research 44, 8.
Seppa-Lassila, L, Eerola, U, Orro, T, Hartel, H, Simojoki, H, Autio, T, Pelkonen, S and Soveri, T (2017) Health and growth of Finnish beef calves and the relation to acute phase response. Livestock Science 196, 713.
Sofos, JN (2008) Challenges to meat safety in the 21st century. Meat Science 78, 313.
Stevens, DG and Camp, TH (1979) Vibration in a livestock vehicle. American Society of Agricultural Engineers. ASAE Paper 10. Page No. 79–6511.
Swanson, JC and Morrow-Tesch, J (2001) Cattle transport: historical, research, and future perspectives). Journal of Animal Science 79, E102E109.
Theurer, ME, White, BJ, Anderson, DE, Miesner, MD, Mosier, DA, Coetzee, JE and Amrine, DE (2013) Effect of transportation during periods of high ambient temperature on physiologic and behavioral indices of beef heifers. American Journal of Veterinary Research 74, 481490.
Tothova, C, Nagy, O and Kovac, G (2014) Acute phase proteins and their use in the diagnosis of diseases in ruminants: a review. Veterinarni Medicina 59, 163180.
Van De Water, G, Verjans, F and Geers, R (2003) The effect of short distance transport under commercial conditions on the physiology of slaughter calves; pH and colour profiles of veal. Livestock Production Science 82, 171179.
Van Engen, NK, Stock, ML, Engelken, T, Vann, RC, Wulf, LW, Karriker, LA, Busby, WD, Lakritz, J, Carpenter, AJ, Bradford, BJ, Hsu, WH, Wang, C and Coetzee, JF (2014) Impact of oral meloxicam on circulating physiological biomarkers of stress and inflammation in beef steers after long-distance transportation. Journal of Animal Science 92, 498510.
Van Engen, NK, Platt, R, Roth, JA, Stock, ML, Engelken, T, Vann, RC, Wulf, LW, Busby, WD, Wang, C, Kalkwarf, EM and Coetzee, JF (2016) Impact of oral meloxicam and long-distance transport on cell-mediated and humoral immune responses in feedlot steers receiving modified live BVDV booster vaccination on arrival. Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology 175, 4250.
Vancauter, E, Leproult, R and Kupfer, DJ (1996) Effects of gender and age on the levels and circadian rhythmicity of plasma cortisol. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism 81, 24682473.
Von Borell, (2001) The biology of stress and its application to livestock housing and transportation assessment. Journal of Animal Science 79, E260E267.
White, BJ, Blasi, D, Vogel, LC and Epp, M (2009) Associations of beef calf wellness and body weight gain with internal location in a truck during transportation. Journal of Animal Science 87, 41434150.
White, BJ, Amrine, DE and Goehl, DR (2015) Determination of value of bovine respiratory disease control using a remote early disease identification system compared with conventional methods of metaphylaxis and visual observations. Journal of Animal Science 93, 41154122.
White, BJ, Goehl, DR, Amrine, DE, Booker, C, Wildman, B and Perrett, T (2016) Bayesian evaluation of clinical diagnostic test characteristics of visual observations and remote monitoring to diagnose bovine respiratory disease in beef calves. Preventive Veterinary Medicine 126, 7480.
Wierzbicka, A, Nilsson, PT, Rissler, J, Sallsten, G, Xu, YY, Pagels, JH, Albin, M, Osterberg, K, Strandberg, B, Eriksson, A, Bohgard, M, Bergemalm-Rynell, K and Gudmundsson, A (2014) Detailed diesel exhaust characteristics including particle surface area and lung deposited dose for better understanding of health effects in human chamber exposure studies. Atmospheric Environment 86, 212219.
Wong, SS, Sun, NN, Keith, I, Kweon, CB, Foster, DE, Schauer, JJ and Witten, ML (2003) Tachykinin substance P signaling involved in diesel exhaust-induced bronchopulmonary neurogenic inflammation in rats. Archives of Toxicology 77, 638650.
Wong, SS, Sun, NN, Lantz, RC and Witten, ML (2004) Substance P and neutral endopeptidase in development of acute respiratory distress syndrome following fire smoke inhalation. American Journal of Physiology-Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology 287, L859L866.
Yamada, T (1999) Serum amyloid A (SAA): a concise review of biology, assay methods and clinical usefulness. Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine 37, 381388.
Yaqoob, P and Calder, PC (2007) Fatty acids and immune function: new insights into mechanisms. British Journal of Nutrition 98, S41S45.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Animal Health Research Reviews
  • ISSN: 1466-2523
  • EISSN: 1475-2654
  • URL: /core/journals/animal-health-research-reviews
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Keywords

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed