Skip to main content Accessibility help

Bovine-like coronaviruses in domestic and wild ruminants

  • Haitham Mohamed Amer (a1)


Coronaviruses (CoVs) produce a wide spectrum of disease syndromes in different mammalian and avian host species. These viruses are well-recognized for their ability to change tissue tropism, to hurdle the interspecies barriers and to adapt ecological variations. It is predicted that the inherent genetic diversity of CoVs caused by accumulation of point mutations and high frequency of homologous recombination is the principal determinant of these competences. Several CoVs (e.g. Severe acute respiratory syndrome-CoV, Middle East respiratory syndrome-CoV) have been recorded to cross the interspecies barrier, inducing different disease conditions in variable animal hosts. Bovine CoV (BCoV) is a primary cause of gastroenteritis and respiratory disease in cattle calves, winter dysentery in lactating cows and shipping fever pneumonia in feedlot cattle. Although it has long been known as a restrictive cattle pathogen, CoVs that are closely related to BCoV have been recognized in dogs, humans and in other ruminant species. Biologic, antigenic and genetic analyses of the so-called ‘bovine-like CoVs’ proposed classification of these viruses as host-range variants rather than distinct virus species. In this review, the different bovine-like CoVs that have been identified in domesticated ruminants (water buffalo, sheep, goat, dromedary camel, llama and alpaca) and wild ruminants (deer, wild cattle, antelopes, giraffes and wild goats) are discussed in terms of epidemiology, transmission and virus characteristics. The presented data denote the importance of these viruses in the persistence of BCoV in nature, spread to new geographical zones, and continuous emergence of disease epidemics in cattle farms.


Corresponding author

Author for correspondence: Haitham Mohamed Amer, Department of Virology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Cairo University, 11221 Giza, Egypt. E-mail:


Hide All
Abd El-Karim, IA, El-Sanousi, AA, Aly, NM and Reda, IM (1990) Detection of coronavirus antigen in fecal samples obtained from newborn buffalo calves. Veterinary Medical Journal Giza 38, 7785.
Abd El-Rahim, IHA (1997) Rota and/or coronavirus infections in newborn buffalo calves in Upper Egypt. Proceedings of the 4th Scientific Congress, Egyptian Society for Cattle Diseases. Assuit, Egypt, pp. 210220.
Akashi, H, Inaba, Y, Miura, Y, Sato, K, Tokuhisa, S, Asagi, M and Hayashi, Y (1981) Propagation of the Kakegawa strain of bovine coronavirus in suckling mice, rats and hamsters. Archives of Virology 67, 367370.
Alagaili, AN, Briese, T, Mishra, N, Kapoor, V, Sameroff, SC, Burbelo, PD, De Wit, E, Munster, VJ, Hensley, LE, Zalmout, IS, Kapoor, A, Epstein, JH, Karesh, WB, Daszak, P, Mohammed, OB and Lipkin, WI (2014) Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus infection in dromedary camels in Saudi Arabia. MBio 5, e0088414.
Alekseev, KP, Vlasova, AN, Jung, K, Hasoksuz, M, Zhang, X, Halpin, R, Wang, S, Ghedin, E, Spiro, D and Saif, LJ (2008) Bovine-like coronaviruses isolated from four species of captive wild ruminants are homologous to bovine coronaviruses, based on complete genomic sequences. Journal of Virology 82, 1242212431.
Animal Information Organization (2018) Wild Bactrian camel. Endangered animals. Available at
Berezowski, J (2001) Diseases of Bison. Available at
Bertin, J (2017) Types of deer around the world. Available at
Bhatnagar, YV and Lovari, S (2008) “Hemitragus jemlahicus”. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Available at
Boileau, MJ and Kapil, S (2010) Bovine coronavirus associated syndromes. Veterinary Clinics of North America: Food Animal Practice 26, 123146.
Borghese, A (2011) Situation and perspectives of buffalo in the world, Europe and Macedonia. Macedonian Journal of Animal Science 1, 281296.
Brian, DA and Baric, RS (2005) Coronavirus genome structure and replication. Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology 287, 130.
Byomi, A, Herbst, W and Baljer, G (1996) Some viral agents associated with neonatal calf diarrhea. Assuit Veterinary Medical Journal 35, 19.
Carman, PS and Hazlett, MJ (1992) Bovine coronavirus infection in Ontario 1990–1991. Canadian Veterinary Journal 33, 812814.
Cebra, CK (2007) Diarrhea in llama and alpaca crias. The AABP Proceedings 40, 170173.
Cebra, CK, Mattson, DE, Baker, RJ, Sonn, RJ and Dearing, PL (2003) Potential pathogens in feces from unweaned llamas and alpacas with diarrhea. Journal of American Veterinary Medical Association 223, 18061808.
Chasey, D, Reynolds, DJ, Bridger, JC, Debney, TG and Scott, AC (1984) Identification of coronaviruses in exotic species of Bovidae. Veterinary Record 115, 602603.
Chouljenko, VN, Kousoulas, KG, Lin, X and Storz, J (1998) Nucleotide and predicted amino acid sequences of all genes encoded by the 3’ genomic portion (9.5 kb) of respiratory bovine coronaviruses and comparisons among respiratory and enteric coronaviruses. Virus Genes 17, 3342.
Chouljenko, VN, Lin, XQ, Storz, J, Kousoulas, KG and Gorbalenya, AE (2001) Comparison of genomic and predicted amino acid sequences of respiratory and enteric bovine coronaviruses isolated from the same animal with fatal shipping pneumonia. Journal of General Virology 82, 29272933.
Chung, JE, Kim, HR, Bae, YC, Lee, OS and Oem, JK (2011) Detection and characterization of bovine-like coronaviruses from four species of zoo ruminants. Veterinary Microbiology 148, 396401.
Crossley, B, Barr, B, Magdesian, KG, Ing, M, Mora, D, Jensen, D, Loretti, A, McConnell, T and Mock, R (2010) Identification of a novel coronavirus possibly associated with acute respiratory syndrome in alpacas (Vicugna pacos) in California, 2007. Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation 22, 9497.
Crossley, BM, Mock, RE, Callison, SA and Hietala, SK (2012) Identification and characterization of a novel alpaca respiratory coronavirus most closely related to the human coronavirus 229E. Viruses 4, 36893700.
Daginakatte, GC, Chard-Bergstrom, C, Andrews, GA and Kapil, S (1999) Production, characterization, and uses of monoclonal antibodies against recombinant nucleoprotein of elk coronavirus. Clinical Diagnostic Laboratory Immunology 6, 341344.
Dea, S, Roy, RS and Begin, ME (1980) Bovine coronavirus isolation and cultivation in continuous cell lines. American Journal of Veterinary Research 41, 3038.
Decaro, N and Buonavoglia, C (2008) An update on canine coronaviruses: viral evolution and pathobiology. Veterinary Microbiology 132, 221234.
Decaro, N, Desario, C, Elia, G, Mari, V, Lucente, MS, Cordioli, P, Colaianni, ML, Martella, V and Buonavoglia, C (2007) Serological and molecular evidence that canine respiratory coronavirus is circulating in Italy. Veterinary Microbiology 121, 225230.
Decaro, N, Campolo, M, Desario, C, Cirone, F, D'Abramo, M, Lorusso, E, Greco, G, Mari, V, Colaianni, ML, Elia, G, Martella, V and Buonavoglia, C (2008 a) Respiratory disease associated with bovine coronavirus infection in cattle herds in Southern Italy. Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation 20, 2832.
Decaro, N, Mari, V, Desario, C, Campolo, M, Elia, G, Martella, V, Greco, G, Cirone, F, Colaianni, ML, Cordioli, P and Buonavoglia, C (2008 b) Severe outbreak of bovine coronavirus infection in dairy cattle during the warmer season. Veterinary Microbiology 126, 3039.
Decaro, N, Martella, V, Elia, G, Campolo, M, Mari, V, Desario, C, Lucente, M, Lorusso, A, Greco, G, Corrente, M, Tempesta, M, and Buonavoglia, C (2008 c) Biological and genetic analysis of a bovine-like coronavirus isolated from water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) calves. Virology 370, 213222.
Decaro, N, Cirone, F, Mari, V, Nava, D, Tinelli, A, Elia, G, Sarno, A, Martella, V, Colaianni, M, Aprea, G, Tempesta, M and Buonavoglia, C (2010 a) Characterisation of bubaline coronavirus strains associated with gastroenteritis in water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) calves. Veterinary Microbiology 145, 245251.
Decaro, N, Mari, V, Elia, G, Addie, DD, Camero, M, Lucente, MS, Martella, V and Buonavoglia, C (2010 b) Recombinant canine coronaviruses in dogs, Europe. Emerging Infectious Diseases 16, 4147.
de Groot, RJ, Ziebuhr, J, Poon, LL, Woo, PC, Talbot, P, Rottier, PJM, Holmes, KV, Baric, R, Perlman, S and Enjuanes, L (2008) Revision of the Family Coronaviridae. Taxonomic Proposal of the Coronavirus Study Group to the ICTV Executive Committee. Available at
de Groot, RJ, Baker, SC, Baric, R, Enjuanes, L, Gorbalenya, AE, Holmes, KV, Perlman, S, Poon, L, Rottier, PJM, Talbot, PJ, Woo, PCY and Ziebuhr, J (2012) Family Coronaviridae. In King, AMQ, Adams, M, Carstens, E and Lefkowitz, E (eds), Virus Taxonomy: Ninth Report of the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses. San Diego: Elsevier Science Publishing Co., Inc, pp. 8.6828.
Doughri, AM, Storz, J, Hajer, I and Fernando, HS (1976) Morphology and morphogenesis of a coronavirus infecting intestinal epithelial cells of newborn calves. Experimental and Molecular Pathology 25, 355370.
Drake, JW and Holland, JJ (1999) Mutation rates among RNA viruses. Proceedings of the National Academy of Science USA 96, 1391013913.
Drosten, C, Kellam, P and Memish, ZA (2014) Evidence for camel-to-human transmission of MERS coronavirus. New England Journal of Medicine 371, 13591360.
Elazhary, MA, Frechette, JL, Silim, A and Roy, RS (1981) Serological evidence of some bovine viruses in the caribou (Rangifer tarandus caribou) in Quebec. Journal of Wildlife Diseases 17, 609612.
Erles, K, Shiu, KB and Brownlie, J (2007) Isolation and sequence analysis of canine respiratory coronavirus. Virus Research 124, 7887.
Estes, R (2017) Antelope. Available at
Frankin, WL (2011) Family Camelidae (Camels). In Wilson, DE and Mittermeier, RA (eds), Handbook of the Mammals of the World. Barcelona, Spain: Lynx Ediciones, pp. 206246.
Fulton, RW, Herd, HR, Sorensen, NJ, Confer, AW, Ritchey, JW, Ridpath, JF and Burge, LJ (2015) Enteric disease in postweaned beef calves associated with Bovine coronavirus clade 2. Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation 27, 97101.
Garbe, JA, Amarin, M and Hicheri, K (1995) The Tri-national Animal Health Research Project (TAHRP) – Project No. 398-0158.21. Final Evaluation Report. United States Agency for International Development. 110 pp.
Genova, SG, Streeter, RN, Simpson, KM and Kapil, S (2008) Detection of an antigenic group 2 coronavirus in an adult alpaca with enteritis. Clinical and Vaccine Immunology 15, 16291632.
Haigh, JC, Mackintosh, C and Griffin, F (2002) Viral, parasitic and prion diseases of farmed deer and bison. Revue Scientifique Et Technique 21, 219248.
Harms, NJ, Jung, TS, Andrew, CL, Surujballi, OP, VanderKop, M, Savic, M and Powell, T (2019) Health status of reintroduced wood bison (Bison bison athabascae): assessing the conservation value of an isolated population in Northwestern Canada. Journal of Wildlife Diseases 55, 112. doi: 10.7589/2017-09-235.
Harp, JA, Myers, LL, Rich, JE and Gates, NL (1981) Role of Salmonella arizonae and other infective agents in enteric disease of lambs. American Journal of Veterinary Research 42, 596599.
Hasoksuz, M, Alekseev, K, Vlasova, A, Zhang, X, Spiro, D, Halpin, R, Wang, S, Ghedin, E and Saif, LJ (2007) Biologic, antigenic, and full-length genomic characterization of a bovine-like coronavirus isolated from a giraffe. Journal of Virology 81, 49814990.
Heckert, RA, Saif, LJ and Agnes, AG (1990) A longitudinal study of bovine coronavirus enteric and respiratory infections in dairy calves in two herds in Ohio. Veterinary Microbiology 22, 187201.
Hemida, MG, Perera, RA, Wang, P, Alhammadi, MA, Siu, LY, Li, M, Poon, LL, Saif, L, Alnaeem, A and Peiris, M (2013) Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) coronavirus seroprevalence in domestic livestock in Saudi Arabia, 2010 to 2013. Euro Surveillance 18, 20659.
Hirst, K (2017) What connects llamas and alpacas, vicunas, and guanacos? Available at
Jin, L, Cebra, CK, Baker, RJ, Mattson, DE, Cohen, SA, Alvarado, DE and Rohrmann, GF (2007) Analysis of the genome sequence of an alpaca coronavirus. Virology 365, 198203.
Kim, SH, Choi, H, Yoon, J, Woo, C, Chung, HM, Kim, JT and Shin, JH (2014) Pathogens in water deer (Hydropotes inermis) in South Korea, 2010–12. Journal of Wildlife Diseases 50, 478483.
Kim, JH, Jang, JH, Yoon, SW, Noh, JY, Ahn, MJ, Kim, Y, Jeong, DG and Kim, HK (2018) Detection of bovine coronavirus in nasal swab of non-captive wild water deer, Korea. Transboundary and Emerging Diseases 65, 627631.
La Vigna, Alpacas (2018) World distribution of alpacas. Available at
Lau, SK, Lee, P, Tsang, AK, Yip, CC, Tse, H, Lee, RA, So, LY, Lau, YL, Chan, KH, Woo, PC and Yuen, KY (2011) Molecular epidemiology of human coronavirus OC43 reveals evolution of different genotypes over time and recent emergence of a novel genotype due to natural recombination. Journal of Virology 85, 1132511337.
Lau, SK, Woo, PC, Yip, CC, Fan, RY, Huang, Y, Wang, M, Guo, R, Lam, CS, Tsang, AK, Lai, KK, Chan, KH, Che, XY, Zheng, BJ and Yuen, KY (2012) Isolation and characterization of a novel Betacoronavirus subgroup A coronavirus, rabbit coronavirus HKU14, from domestic rabbits. Journal of Virology 86, 54815496.
Lau, SK, Tsang, AK, Ahmed, SS, Alam, MM, Ahmed, Z, Wong, PC, Yuen, KY and Woo, PC (2016) First genome sequences of buffalo coronavirus from water buffaloes in Bangladesh. New Microbes and New Infections 11, 5456.
López, WP, Chamorro, ML and Garmendia, AEB (2011) [Rapid detection of rotavirus and coronavirus in alpaca crias (Vicugna pacos) with diarrhea in the Cusco region, Peru]. Revista de Investigaciones Veterinarias del Perú 22, 407411.
Lorusso, A, Desario, C, Mari, V, Campolo, M, Lorusso, E, Elia, G, Martella, V, Buonavoglia, C and Decaro, N (2009) Molecular characterization of a canine respiratory coronavirus strain detected in Italy. Virus Research 141, 96100.
Majhdi, F, Minocha, HC and Kapil, S (1997) Isolation and characterization of a coronavirus from elk calves with diarrhea. Journal of Clinical Microbiology 35, 29372942.
Miguel, E, Chevalier, V, Ayelet, G, Ben Bencheikh, MN, Boussini, H, Chu, DK, El Berbri, I, Fassi-Fihri, O, Faye, B, Fekadu, G, Grosbois, V, Ng, BC, Perera, RA, So, TY, Traore, A, Roger, F and Peiris, M (2017) Risk factors for MERS coronavirus infection in dromedary camels in Burkina Faso, Ethiopia, and Morocco, 2015. Euro Surveillance 22, 30498.
Milman, O (2017) Giraffes must be listed as endangered, conservationists formally tell US. Guardian News and Media. Available at
Muhairi, SA, Hosani, FA, Eltahir, YM, Mulla, MA, Yusof, MF, Serhan, WS, Hashem, FM, Elsayed, EA, Marzoug, BA and Abdelazim, AS (2016) Epidemiological investigation of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus in dromedary camel farms linked with human infection in Abu Dhabi Emirate, United Arab Emirates. Virus Genes 52, 848854.
Muniiappa, L, Mitov, BK and Kharalambiev, KE (1985) [Demonstration of coronavirus infection in buffaloes]. Veterinarno-meditsinski Nauki 22, 2732.
Muñoz, M, Alvarez, M, Lanza, I and Cármenes, P (1996) Role of enteric pathogens in the aetiology of neonatal diarrhoea in lambs and goat kids in Spain. Epidemiology and Infection 117, 203211.
Natsuaki, S, Goto, K, Nakamura, K, Yamada, M, Ueo, H, Komori, T, Shirakawa, H and Uchinuno, Y (2007) Fatal winter dysentery with severe anemia in an adult cow. Journal of Veterinary Medical Sciences 69, 957960.
Ozmen, O, Yukari, B, Haligur, M and Sahinduran, S (2006) Observations and immunohistochemical detection of Coronavirus, Cryptosporidium parvum and Giardia intestinalis in neonatal diarrhoea in lambs and kids. Schweizer Archiv Fur Tierheilkunde 148, 357364.
Park, SJ, Kim, GY, Choy, HE, Hong, YJ, Saif, LJ, Jeong, JH, Park, SI, Kim, HH, Lee, BJ, Cho, HS, Kim, SK, Kang, MI and Cho, KO (2006) Detection and characterization of bovine coronaviruses in fecal specimens of adult cattle with diarrhea during the warmer seasons. Journal of Clinical Microbiology 44, 31783188.
Pass, DA, Penhale, WJ, Wilcox, GE and Batey, RG (1982) Intestinal coronavirus-like particles in sheep with diarrhoea. Veterinary Record 111, 106107.
Peck, KM, Burch, CL, Heise, MT and Baric, RS (2015) Coronavirus host range expansion and Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus emergence: biochemical mechanisms and evolutionary perspectives. Annual Review of Virology 2, 95117.
Reinhardt, G, Zamora, J, Tadich, N, Polette, M, Aguilar, M, Riedemann, S and Palisson, J (1995) Diagnosis of coronavirus in sheep in Valdivia province, Xth Region, Chile. Archivos de Medicina Veterinaria 27, 129132.
Reusken, CB, Ababneh, M, Raj, VS, Meyer, B, Eljarah, A, Abutarbush, S, Godeke, GJ, Bestebroer, TM, Zutt, I, Muller, MA, Bosch, BJ, Rottier, PJ, Osterhaus, AD, Drosten, C, Haagmans, BL and Koopmans, MP (2013 a) Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) serology in major livestock species in an affected region in Jordan, June to September 2013. Euro Surveillance 18, 20662.
Reusken, CB, Haagmans, BL, Müller, MA, Gutierrez, C, Godeke, GJ, Meyer, B, Muth, D, Raj, VS, Smits-De Vries, L, Corman, VM, Drexler, JF, Smits, SL, El Tahir, YE, De Sousa, R, van Beek, J, Nowotny, N, van Maanen, K, Hidalgo-Hermoso, E, Bosch, BJ, Rottier, P, Osterhaus, A, Gortázar-Schmidt, C, Drosten, C and Koopmans, MP (2013 b) Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus neutralising serum antibodies in dromedary camels: a comparative serological study. The Lancet Infectious Diseases 13, 859866.
Rojas, M, Manchego, A, Rocha, A, Fornells, L, Silva, R, Mendes, G, Dias, H, Sandoval, N, Pezo, D and Santos, N (2016) Outbreak of diarrhea among preweaning alpacas (Vicugna pacos) in the southern Peruvian highland. The Journal of Infection in Developing Countries 10, 269274.
Saalfeld, WK and Edwards, GP (2008) Ecology of feral camels in Australia. Managing the impacts of feral camels in Australia: a new way of doing business (DKCRC Report 47). Alice Springs: Desert Knowledge Cooperative Research Centre. ISBN 1-74158-094-3.
Sabir, JS, Lam, TT, Ahmed, MM, Li, L, Shen, Y, Abo-Aba, SE, Qureshi, MI, Abu-Zeid, M, Zhang, Y, Khiyami, MA, Alharbi, NS, Hajrah, NH, Sabir, MJ, Mutwakil, MH, Kabli, SA, Alsulaimany, FA, Obaid, AY, Zhou, B, Smith, DK, Holmes, EC, Zhu, H and Guan, Y (2016) Co-circulation of three camel coronavirus species and recombination of MERS-CoVs in Saudi Arabia. Science 351, 8184.
Saif, LJ (2010) Bovine respiratory coronavirus. Veterinary Clinics of North America: Food Animal Practice 26, 349364.
Saleh, SM (1994) Epidemiological studies on diarrhea in cattle newborn calves fed on colostrum from vaccinated and control-pregnant cows. Trinational Animal Health Research Project (TAHRP), 2nd Annual Workshop. Sharm El-Sheikh, Egypt.
Smits, JE (1991) A brief review of infectious and parasitic diseases of wapiti, with emphasis on western Canada and the northwestern United States. Canadian Veterinary Journal 32, 471479.
Smits, JE (1992) Elk diseases survey in western Canada and northwestern United States. In Brown, RD (ed.) The Biology of Deer. New York, NY: Springer-Verlag, pp. 101106.
Song, HD, Tu, CC, Zhang, GW, Wang, SY, Zheng, K, Lei, LC, Chen, QX, Gao, YW, Zhou, HQ, Xiang, H, Zheng, HJ, Chern, SW, Cheng, F, Pan, CM, Xuan, H, Chen, SJ, Luo, HM, Zhou, DH, Liu, YF, He, JF, Qin, PZ, Li, LH, Ren, YQ, Liang, WJ, Yu, YD, Anderson, L, Wang, M, Xu, RH, Wu, XW, Zheng, HY, Chen, JD, Liang, G, Gao, Y, Liao, M, Fang, L, Jiang, LY, Li, H, Chen, F, Di, B, He, LJ, Lin, JY, Tong, S, Kong, X, Du, L, Hao, P, Tang, H, Bernini, A, Yu, XJ, Spiga, O, Guo, ZM, Pan, HY, He, WZ, Manuguerra, JC, Fontanet, A, Danchin, A, Niccolai, N, Li, YX, Wu, CI and Zhao, GP (2005) Cross-host evolution of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus in palm civet and human. Proceeding of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 102, 24302435.
Stair, EL, Rhodes, MB, White, RG and Mebus, CA (1972) Neonatal calf diarrhea: purification and electron microscopy of a coronavirus-like agent. American Journal of Veterinary Research 33, 11471156.
Storz, J, Stine, L, Liem, A and Anderson, GA (1996) Coronavirus isolation from nasal swab samples in cattle with signs of respiratory tract disease after shipping. Journal of American Veterinary Medical Association 208, 14521455.
Storz, J, Purdy, CW, Lin, X, Burrell, M, Truax, RE, Briggs, RE, Frank, GH and Loan, RW (2000) Isolation of respiratory bovine coronavirus, other cytocidal viruses, and Pasteurella spp from cattle involved in two natural outbreaks of shipping fever. Journal of American Veterinary Medical Association 216, 15991604.
Thomas, SM and Morgan, ER (2013) Effect on performance of weanling alpacas following treatments against gastro-intestinal parasites. Veterinary Parasitology 198, 244249.
Torres-Medina, A, Schlafer, DH and Mebus, CA (1985) Rotaviral and coronaviral diarrhea. Veterinary Clinics of North America: Food Animal Practice 1, 471493.
Tråvén, M, Carlsson, U, Lundén, A and Larsson, B (1999) Serum antibodies to bovine coronavirus in Swedish sheep. Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica 40, 6974.
Tsunemitsu, H, Yonemichi, H, Hirai, T, Kudo, T, Onoe, S, Mori, K and Shimizu, M (1991) Isolation of bovine coronavirus from feces and nasal swabs of calves with diarrhea. Journal of Veterinary Medical Sciences 53, 433437.
Tsunemitsu, H, El-Kanawati, ZR, Smith, DR, Reed, HH and Saif, LJ (1995) Isolation of coronaviruses antigenically indistinguishable from bovine coronavirus from wild ruminants with diarrhea. Journal of Clinical Microbiology 33, 32643269.
Tzipori, S, Smith, M, Makin, T and McCaughan, C (1978) Enteric coronavirus-like particles in sheep. Australian Veterinary Journal 54, 320321.
Vijgen, L, Keyaerts, E, Moes, E, Thoelen, I, Wollants, E, Lemey, P, Vandamme, AM and Van Ranst, M (2005) Complete genomic sequence of human coronavirus OC43: molecular clock analysis suggests a relatively recent zoonotic coronavirus transmission event. Journal of Virology 79, 15951604.
Vijgen, L, Keyaerts, E, Lemey, P, Maes, P, Van Reeth, K, Nauwynck, H, Pensaert, M and Van Ranst, M (2006) Evolutionary history of the closely related group 2 coronaviruses: porcine hemagglutinating encephalomyelitis virus, bovine coronavirus, and human coronavirus OC43. Journal of Virology 80, 72707274.
Woo, PC, Lau, SK, Yip, CC, Huang, Y, Tsoi, HW, Chan, KH and Yuen, KY (2006) Comparative analysis of 22 coronavirus HKU1 genomes reveals a novel genotype and evidence of natural recombination in coronavirus HKU1. Journal of Virology 80, 71367145.
Woo, PC, Lau, SK, Huang, Y and Yuen, KY (2009) Coronavirus diversity, phylogeny and, jumping. Experimental Biology and Medicine 234, 11171127.
Woo, PC, Lau, SK, Wernery, U, Wong, EY, Tsang, AK, Johnson, B, Yip, CC, Lau, CC, Sivakumar, S, Cai, JP, Fan, RY, Chan, KH, Mareena, R and Yuen, KY (2014) Novel betacoronavirus in dromedaries of the Middle East, 2013. Emerging Infectious Diseases 20, 560572.
Woo, PC, Lau, SK, Fan, RY, Lau, CC, Wong, EY, Joseph, S, Tsang, AK, Wernery, R, Yip, CC, Tsang, CC, Wernery, U and Yuen, KY (2016) Isolation and characterization of dromedary camel coronavirus UAE-HKU23 from dromedaries of the Middle East: minimal serological cross-reactivity between MERS coronavirus and dromedary camel coronavirus UAE-HKU23. International Journal of Molecular Sciences 17, E691.
Wünschmann, A, Frank, R, Pomeroy, K and Kapil, S (2002) Enteric coronavirus infection in a juvenile dromedary (Camelus dromedarius). Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation 14, 441444.
Yang, DK, Hwang, IJ, Kim, BH, Kweon, CH, Lee, KW, Kang, MI, Lee, CS and Cho, KO (2008) Serosurveillance of viral diseases in Korean native goats (Capra hircus). Journal of Veterinary Medical Sciences 70, 977979.
Yokoi, K, Okazaki, H, Inahara, K and Hatama, S (2009) Prevalence of eight bovine viruses in sika deer (Cervus nippon yesoensis) in Japan. Veterinary Record 165, 754755.
Zhang, XM, Herbst, W, Kousoulas, KG and Storz, J (1994) Biological and genetic characterization of a hemagglutinating coronavirus isolated from a diarrhoeic child. Journal of Medical Virology 44, 152161.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Animal Health Research Reviews
  • ISSN: 1466-2523
  • EISSN: 1475-2654
  • URL: /core/journals/animal-health-research-reviews
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *



Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed