Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home

An introduction to systematic reviews in animal health, animal welfare, and food safety

  • A. M. O'Connor (a1) and J. M. Sargeant (a2) (a3)

Abstract

In this paper, we provide an introduction to systematic reviews and discuss the process for conducting systematic reviews in animal health, animal welfare, and food safety. The research synthesis need that can be addressed by a systematic review is discussed. The use of systematic reviews to address questions about intervention effects, etiology, diagnostic tests evaluation and disease burden are discussed. The steps included in a systematic review are described.

Copyright

Corresponding author

*Corresponding author. E-mail: oconnor@iastate.edu

References

Hide All
Balshem, H, Helfand, M, Schunemann, HJ, Oxman, AD, Kunz, R, Brozek, J, Vist, GE, Falck-Ytter, Y, Meerpohl, J, Norris, S and Guyatt, GH (2011). GRADE guidelines: 3. Rating the quality of evidence. Journal of Clinical Epidemiology 64: 401406.
Begg, CB (1987). Biases in the assessment of diagnostic tests. Statistics in Medicine 6: 411423.
Begg, CB and Mazumdar, M (1994). Operating characteristics of a rank correlation test for publication bias. Biometrics 50: 10881101.
Borenstein, M, Hedges, LV, Higgins, JPT and Rothstein, HR (2009). Introduction to Meta-Analysis. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons.
Bossuyt, PM, Reitsma, JB, Bruns, DE, Gatsonis, CA, Glasziou, PP, Irwig, LM, Lijmer, JG, Moher, D, Rennie, D and De Vet, HC (2003). Towards complete and accurate reporting of studies of diagnostic accuracy: the STARD initiative. Standards for Reporting of Diagnostic Accuracy. Clinical Chemistry 49: 16.
Brace, S, Taylor, D and O'connor, AM (2010). The quality of reporting and publication status of vaccines trials presented at veterinary conferences from 1988 to 2003. Vaccine 28: 53065314.
Christopher, MM (2007). Improving the quality of reporting of studies of diagnostic accuracy: let's STARD now. Veterinary Clinical Pathology 36: 6.
Cooper, HM, Hedges, LV and Valentine, JC (2009). The Handbook of Research Synthesis and Meta-Analysis. New York: Russell Sage Foundation.
Deeks, JJ (2001). Systematic reviews in health care: systematic reviews of evaluations of diagnostic and screening tests. British Medical Journal 323: 157162.
Deeks, JJ, Macaskill, P and Irwig, L (2005). The performance of tests of publication bias and other sample size effects in systematic reviews of diagnostic test accuracy was assessed. Journal of Clinical Epidemiology 58: 882893.
Deeks, JJ, Higgins, JPT and Altman, DG ( 2011). Chapter 9: Analysing data and undertaking meta-analyses. In: Higgins, JPT and Green, S (eds) Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions, Version 5.1.0 (updated March 2011). The Cochrane Collaboration, 2011. Available from www.cochrane-handbook.org.
Denagamage, TN, O'connor, AM, Sargeant, JM, Rajic, A and Mckean, JD (2007). Efficacy of vaccination to reduce Salmonella prevalence in live and slaughtered swine: a systematic review of literature from 1979 to 2007. Foodborne Pathogens and Disease 4: 539549.
European Food Safety Authority (E.F.S.A.) (2010). Application of systematic review methodology to food and feed safety assessments to support decision making. EFSA Journal 8: 190.
Ferrer, M, Bildstein, K, Penteriani, V, Casado, E and De Lucas, M (2011). Why birds with deferred sexual maturity are sedentary on islands: a systematic review. PLoS ONE 6: e22056.
Giannakopoulos, NN, Rammelsberg, P, Eberhard, L and Schmitter, M (2012). A new instrument for assessing the quality of studies on prevalence. Clinical Oral Investigations 16: 781788.
Glasziou, P, Irwig, L and Deeks, JJ (2008). When should a new test become the current reference standard? Annals of Internal Medicine 149: 816822.
Grant, MJ and Booth, A (2009). A typology of reviews: an analysis of 14 review types and associated methodologies. Health Information and Libraries Journal 26: 91108.
Grindlay, DJ, Brennan, ML and Dean, RS (2012). Searching the veterinary literature: a comparison of the coverage of veterinary journals by nine bibliographic databases. Journal of Veterinary Medical Education 39: 404412.
Guyatt, GH, Oxman, AD, Vist, GE, Kunz, R, Falck-Ytter, Y, Alonso-Coello, P and Schunemann, HJ (2008). GRADE: an emerging consensus on rating quality of evidence and strength of recommendations. British Medical Journal 336: 924926.
Guyatt, GH, Oxman, AD, Akl, EA, Kunz, R, Vist, G, Brozek, J, Norris, S, Falck-Ytter, Y, Glasziou, P, Debeer, H, Jaeschke, R, Rind, D, Meerpohl, J, Dahm, P and Schunemann, HJ (2011a). GRADE guidelines: 1. Introduction-GRADE evidence profiles and summary of findings tables. Journal of Clinical Epidemiology 64: 383394.
Guyatt, GH, Oxman, AD, Kunz, R, Brozek, J, Alonso-Coello, P, Rind, D, Devereaux, P, Montori, VM, Freyschuss, B, Vist, G, Jaeschke, R, Williams, JW Jr, Murad, MH, Sinclair, D, Falck-Ytter, Y, Meerpohl, J, Whittington, C, Thorlund, K, Andrews, J and Schunemann, HJ (2011b). GRADE guidelines 6. Rating the quality of evidence-imprecision. Journal of Clinical Epidemiology 64: 1283–93.
Guyatt, GH, Oxman, AD, Kunz, R, Atkins, D, Brozek, J, Vist, G, Alderson, P, Glasziou, P, Falck-Ytter, Y and Schunemann, HJ (2011c). GRADE guidelines: 2. Framing the question and deciding on important outcomes. Journal of Clinical Epidemiology 64: 395400.
Guyatt, GH, Oxman, AD, Kunz, R, Woodcock, J, Brozek, J, Helfand, M, Alonso-Coello, P, Falck-Ytter, Y, Jaeschke, R, Vist, G, Akl, EA, Post, PN, Norris, S, Meerpohl, J, Shukla, VK, Nasser, M and Schunemann, HJ (2011d). GRADE guidelines: 8. Rating the quality of evidence-indirectness. Journal of Clinical Epidemiology 64: 1303–10.
Guyatt, GH, Oxman, AD, Kunz, R, Woodcock, J, Brozek, J, Helfand, M, Alonso-Coello, P, Glasziou, P, Jaeschke, R, Akl, EA, Norris, S, Vist, G, Dahm, P, Shukla, VK, Higgins, J, Falck-Ytter, Y and Schunemann, HJ (2011e). GRADE guidelines: 7. Rating the quality of evidence-inconsistency. Journal of Clinical Epidemiology 64: 1294–302.
Guyatt, GH, Oxman, AD, Montori, V, Vist, G, Kunz, R, Brozek, J, Alonso-Coello, P, Djulbegovic, B, Atkins, D, Falck-Ytter, Y, Williams, JW Jr, Meerpohl, J, Norris, SL, Akl, EA and Schunemann, HJ (2011f). GRADE guidelines: 5. Rating the quality of evidence-publication bias. Journal of Clinical Epidemiology 64: 1277–82.
Guyatt, GH, Oxman, AD, Vist, G, Kunz, R, Brozek, J, Alonso-Coello, P, Montori, V, Akl, EA, Djulbegovic, B, Falck-Ytter, Y, Norris, SL, Williams, JW Jr, Atkins, D, Meerpohl, J and Schunemann, HJ (2011g). GRADE guidelines: 4. Rating the quality of evidence–study limitations (risk of bias). Journal of Clinical Epidemiology 64: 407415.
Habacher, G, Pittler, MH and Ernst, E (2006). Effectiveness of acupuncture in veterinary medicine: systematic review. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine 20: 480488.
Higgins, JPT, Altman, DG and Sterne, JAC (2011). Chapter 8: Assessing risk of bias in included studies. In: Higgins, JPT and Green, S (eds) Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions, Version 5.1.0 (updated March 2011). The Cochrane Collaboration, 2011. Available from www.cochrane-handbook.org.
Higgins, JPT and Green, S (eds) ( 2011). Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions Version 5.0.2 [updated March 2011]. The Cochrane Collaboration, 2011. Available from www.cochrane-handbook.org.
Higgins, JPT, Ramsay, C, Reeves, BC, Deeks, JJ, Shea, B, Valentine, JC, Tugwell, P and Wells, G (2013). Issues relating to study design and risk of bias when including non-randomized studies in systematic reviews on the effects of interventions. Research Synthesis Methods 4: 1225.
Khan, KS, Ball, E, Fox, CE and Meads, C (2012). Systematic reviews to evaluate causation: an overview of methods and application. Evidence-based Medicine 17: 137–41.
Krzyzanowska, MK, Pintilie, M, Brezden-Masley, C, Dent, R and Tannock, IF (2004). Quality of abstracts describing randomized trials in the proceedings of American Society of Clinical Oncology meetings: guidelines for improved reporting. Journal of Clinical Oncology 22: 19931999.
Lewis, S and Clarke, M (2001). Forest plots: trying to see the wood and the trees. British Medical Journal 322: 14791480.
Liberati, A, Altman, DG, Tetzlaff, J, Mulrow, C, Gotzsche, PC, Ioannidis, JP, Clarke, M, Devereaux, PJ, Kleijnen, J and Moher, D (2009). The PRISMA statement for reporting systematic reviews and meta-analyses of studies that evaluate health care interventions: explanation and elaboration. Journal of Clinical Epidemiology 62: e1e34.
Moher, D, Liberati, A, Tetzlaff, J and Altman, DG (2009). Preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses: the PRISMA statement. Journal of Clinical Epidemiology 62: 10061012.
Moher, D, Hopewell, S, Schulz, KF, Montori, V, Gotzsche, PC, Devereaux, PJ, Elbourne, D, Egger, M and Altman, DG (2010). CONSORT 2010 Explanation and elaboration: updated guidelines for reporting parallel group randomised trials. British Medical Journal 340: c869.
Newman, J, Westgarth, C, Pinchbeck, G, Dawson, S, Morgan, K and Christley, R (2010). Systematic review of human-directed dog aggression. Veterinary Record 166: 407.
O'Connor, AM, Sargeant, JM, Gardner, IA, Dickson, JS, Torrence, ME, Dewey, CE, Dohoo, IR, Evans, RB, Gray, JT, Greiner, M, Keefe, G, Lefebvre, SL, Morley, PS, Ramirez, A, Sischo, W, Smith, DR, Snedeker, K, Sofos, J, Ward, MP, Wills, Rand Consensus Meeting Participants. (2010). The REFLECT Statement: methods and processes of creating reporting guidelines for randomized controlled trials for livestock and food safety. Journal of Food Protection 73: 132139.
O'Connor, AM and Sargeant, JM (2014). Meta-analyses including data from observational studies. Preventive Veterinary Medicine 113: 313–22.
Olivry, T and Mueller, RS (2003). Evidence-based veterinary dermatology: a systematic review of the pharmacotherapy of canine atopic dermatitis. Veterinary Dermatology 14: 121146.
Petticrew, M and Davey Smith, G (2012). The monkey puzzle: a systematic review of studies of stress, social hierarchies, and heart disease in monkeys. PLoS ONE 7: e27939.
Sargeant, JM, O'Connor, AM, Gardner, IA, Dickson, JS, Torrence, ME, Dohoo, IR, Lefebvre, SL, Morley, PS, Ramirez, A and Snedeker, K (2010). The REFLECT Statement: reporting guidelines for randomized controlled trials in livestock and food safety: explanation and elaboration. Journal of Food Protection 73: 579603.
Scherer, RW, Dickersin, K and Langenberg, P (1994). Full publication of results initially presented in abstracts. A meta-analysis. Journal of the American Medical Association 272: 158162.
Schulz, KF, Altman, DG and Moher, D (2010). CONSORT 2010 statement: updated guidelines for reporting parallel group randomized trials. Obstetrics Gynecology 115: 10631070.
Shamliyan, TA, Kane, RL, Ansari, MT, Raman, G, Berkman, ND, Grant, M, Janes, G, Maglione, M, Moher, D, Nasser, M, Robinson, KA, Segal, JB and Tsouros, S (2011). Development quality criteria to evaluate nontherapeutic studies of incidence, prevalence, or risk factors of chronic diseases: pilot study of new checklists. Journal of Clinical Epidemiology 64: 637657.
Snedeker, KG, Campbell, M, Totton, SC, Guthrie, A and Sargeant, JM (2010a). Comparison of outcomes and other variables between conference abstracts and subsequent peer-reviewed papers involving pre-harvest or abattoir-level interventions against foodborne pathogens. Preventive Veterinary Medicine 97: 6776.
Snedeker, KG, Totton, SC and Sargeant, JM (2010b). Analysis of trends in the full publication of papers from conference abstracts involving pre-harvest or abattoir-level interventions against foodborne pathogens. Preventive Veterinary Medicine 95: 19.
Valentine, JC and Thompson, SG (2013). Issues relating to confounding and meta-analysis when including non-randomized studies in systematic reviews on the effects of interventions. Research Synthesis Methods 4: 2635.
Waddell, LA, Rajic, A, Sargeant, J, Harris, J, Amezcua, R, Downey, L, Read, S and Mcewen, SA (2008). The zoonotic potential of Mycobacterium avium spp. paratuberculosis: a systematic review. Canadian Journal of Public Health 99: 145155.
Whiting, P, Harbord, R and Kleijnen, J (2005). No role for quality scores in systematic reviews of diagnostic accuracy studies. BMC Medical Research Methodology 5: 19.

Keywords

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed