Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home

Immune evasion by pathogens of bovine respiratory disease complex

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  24 January 2008

Subramaniam Srikumaran
Affiliation:
Department of Veterinary Microbiology and Pathology, Washington State University, Pullman, WA 99164-7040, USA
Clayton L. Kelling
Affiliation:
Department of Veterinary and Biomedical Sciences, University of Nebraska, Lincoln, NE 68583-0905, USA
Aruna Ambagala
Affiliation:
Department of Veterinary and Biomedical Sciences, University of Nebraska, Lincoln, NE 68583-0905, USA
Corresponding

Abstract

Bovine respiratory tract disease is a multi-factorial disease complex involving several viruses and bacteria. Viruses that play prominent roles in causing the bovine respiratory disease complex include bovine herpesvirus-1, bovine respiratory syncytial virus, bovine viral diarrhea virus and parinfluenza-3 virus. Bacteria that play prominent roles in this disease complex are Mannheimia haemolytica and Mycoplasma bovis. Other bacteria that infect the bovine respiratory tract of cattle are Histophilus (Haemophilus) somni and Pasteurella multocida. Frequently, severe respiratory tract disease in cattle is associated with concurrent infections of these pathogens. Like other pathogens, the viral and bacterial pathogens of this disease complex have co-evolved with their hosts over millions of years. As much as the hosts have diversified and fine-tuned the components of their immune system, the pathogens have also evolved diverse and sophisticated strategies to evade the host immune responses. These pathogens have developed intricate mechanisms to thwart both the innate and adaptive arms of the immune responses of their hosts. This review presents an overview of the strategies by which the pathogens suppress host immune responses, as well as the strategies by which the pathogens modify themselves or their locations in the host to evade host immune responses. These immune evasion strategies likely contribute to the failure of currently-available vaccines to provide complete protection to cattle against these pathogens.

Type
Review Article
Copyright
Copyright © Cambridge University Press 2008

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below.

References

Almeida, RA, Wannemuehler, MJ and Rosenbusch, RF (1992). Interaction of Mycoplasma dispar with bovine alveolar macrophages. Infection and Immunity 60: 29142919.Google ScholarPubMed
Ambagala, TC, Ambagala, APN and Srikumaran, S (1999). The leukotoxin of Pasteurella haemolytica binds to β2 integrins on bovine leukocytes. FEMS Microbiology Letters 179: 161167.Google Scholar
Baigent, SJ, Zhang, G, Fray, MD, Flick-Smith, H, Goodbourn, S and McCauley, JW (2002). Inhibition of beta interferon transcription by noncytopathogenic bovine viral diarrhea virus is through an interferon regulatory factor 3-dependent mechanism. Journal of Virology 76: 89798988.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Bastida-Corcuera, FD, Nielsen, KH and Corbeil, LB (1999). Binding of bovine IgG2a and IgG2b allotypes to protein A, protein G, and Haemophilus somnus IgBPs. Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology 71: 143149.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Berggren, KA, Baluyut, CS, Simonson, RR, Bemrick, WJ and Maheswaran, SK (1981). Cytotoxic effects of Pasteurella haemolytica on bovine neutrophils. American Journal of Veterinary Research 42: 13831388.Google ScholarPubMed
Bolin, SR, McClurkin, AW, Cutlip, RC and Coria, MF (1985). Severe clinical disease induced in cattle persistently infected with noncytopathic bovine viral diarrhea virus by superinfection with cytopathic bovine viral diarrhea virus. American Journal of Veterinary Research 46: 57365766.Google ScholarPubMed
Bossert, B, Marozin, S and Conzelmann, KK (2003). Nonstructual proteins NS1 and NS2 of bovine respiratory syncytial virus block activation of interferon regulatory factor 3. Journal of Virology 77: 86618668.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Boyce, JD and Adler, B (2000). The capsule is a virulence determinant in the pathogenesis of Pasteurella multocida M1401 (B:2). Infection and Immunity 68: 34633468.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Brackenbury, LS, Carr, BV and Charleston, B (2003). Aspects of the innate and adaptive immune responses to acute infection with BVDV. Veterinary Microbiology 96: 337344.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Brewoo, JN, Haase, CJ, Sharp, P and Schulz, RD (2007). Leukocyte profile of cattle persistently infected with bovine viral diarrhea virus. Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology 115: 369374.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Brock, KV, Grooms, DL, Ridpath, JF and Bolin, SR (1998). Changes in levels of viremia in cattle persistently infected with bovine viral diarrhea virus. Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation 10: 2226.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Brodersen, BW and Kelling, CL (1998). Effect of experimentally induced concurrent bovine respiratory syncytial virus and bovine viral diarrhea virus infections on respiratory and enteric diseases in calves. American Journal of Veterinary Research 59: 14231430.Google ScholarPubMed
Brodersen, BW and Kelling, CL (1999). Alteration of leukocyte population in calves concurrently infected with bovine respiratory syncytial virus and bovine viral diarrhea virus infections. Viral Immunology 12: 323334.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Brown, GB, Bolin, SR, Frank, DE and Roth, JA (1991). Defective function of leukocytes from cattle persistently infected with bovine viral diarrhea virus and the influence of recombinant cytokines. American Journal of Veterinary Research 52: 381387.Google ScholarPubMed
Brownlie, J, Clarke, MC and Howard, C (1984). Experimental production of fatal mucosal disease in cattle. Veterinary Record 114: 535536.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Carter, JJ, Weinberg, AD, Pollard, A, Reeves, R, Magnuson, JA and Magnuson, NS (1989). Inhibition of T-lymphocyte mitogenic responses and effects on cell functions by bovine herpesvirus 1. Journal of Virology 63: 15251530.Google ScholarPubMed
Chae, CH, Gentry, MJ, Confer, AW and Anderson, GA (1990). Resistance to host immune defense mechanisms afforded by capsular material of Pasteurella haemolytica, serotype 1. Veterinary Microbiology 25: 241251.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Charleston, B, Fray, MD, Baigent, S, Carr, BV and Morrison, WI (2001). Establishment of persistent infection with non-cytopathic bovine viral diarrhea virus in cattle is associated with a failure to induce type 1 interferon. Journal of General Virology 82: 18931897.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Chase, CC, Elmowalid, G and Yousif, AA (2004). The immune response to bovine viral diarrhea virus: a constantly changing picture. Veterinary Clinics of North America Food Animal practice 20: 95114.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Chen, Z, Rijnbrand, R, Jangra, RK, Devaraj, SG, Qu, L, Ma, Y, Lemon, SM and Li, K (2007). Ubiquination and proteasomal degradation of interferon regulatory factor-3 by Npro from a cytopathic bovine viral diarrhea virus. Virology, Epub ahead of print 366: 277292.Google Scholar
Collen, T and Morrison, WI (2000). CD4+T-cell responses to bovine viral diarrhea virus in cattle. Virus Research 67: 6780.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Collen, T, Douglas, AJ, Paton, DJ, Zhan, G and Morrison, WI (2000). Single amino acid differences are sufficient for CD4+ T cell recognition of a heterologous virus by cattle persistently infected with bovine viral diarrhea virus. Virology 276: 7082.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Collins, ME, Desport, M and Brownlie, J (1999). Bovine viral diarrhea quasispecies during persistent infection. Virology 259: 8598.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Confer, AW, Panciera, RJ, Clinkenbeard, KD and Mosier, DA (1990). Molecular aspects of virulence of Pasteurella haemolytica. Canadian Journal of Veterinary Research 54: S48S52.Google ScholarPubMed
Confer, AW, Fulton, RW, Step, DL, Johnson, BJ and Ridpath, JF (2005). Viral antigen distribution in the respiratory tract of cattle persistently infected with bovine viral diarrhea virus subtype 2a. Veterinary Pathology 42: 192199.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Coombes, BK, Valdez, Y and Finlay, BB (2004). Evasive maneuvers by secreted bacterial proteins to avoid innate immune responses. Current Biology 14: R856R867.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Corbeil, LB, Bastida-Corcuera, FD and Beveridge, TJ (1997). Haemophilus somnus immunoglobulin binding proteins and surface fibrils. Infection and Immunity 65: 42504257.Google ScholarPubMed
Czuprynski, CJ and Hamilton, HL (1985). Bovine neutrophils ingest but do not kill Haemophilus somus. Infection and Immunity 50: 431436.Google ScholarPubMed
Czuprynski, CJ and Ortiz-Carranza, O (1992). Pasteurella haemolytica leukotoxin inhibits mitogen-induced bovine peripheral blood mononuclear cell proliferation in vitro. Microbial Pathogenesis 12: 459463.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
JrDarnell, JE, Kerr, IM and Stark, GR (1994). Jak-STAT pathways and transcriptional activation in response to IFNs and other extracellular signaling proteins. Science 264: 14151421.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Dassanayake, RP, Maheswaran, SK and Srikumaran, S (2007). Monomeric expression of bovine {beta}2-integrin subunits reveals their role in Mannheimia haemolytica leukotoxin-induced biological effects. Infection and Immunity, Epub ahead of print 75: 50045010.Google Scholar
Davison, AJ, Dargan, DJ and Stow, ND (2002). Fundamental and accessory systems in herpesviruses. Antiviral Research 56: 111.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Deshpande, MS, Ambagala, TC, Ambagala, APN, Kehrli, ME and Srikumaran, S (2002). Bovine CD18 is necessary and sufficient to mediate Mannheimia (Pasteurella) haemolytica leukotoxin-induced cytolysis. Infection and Immunity 70: 50585068.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Devireddy, LR and Jones, CJ (1999). Activation of caspases and p53 by bovine herpesvirus 1 infection results in programmed cell death and efficient virus release. Journal of Virology 73: 37783788.Google ScholarPubMed
Dyer, RM, Majumdar, S, Douglas, SD and Korchak, HM (1994). Bovine parainfluenza-3 virus selectively depletes a calcium-dependent, phospholipid-dependent protein kinase C and inhibits superoxide anion generation in bovine alveolar macrophages. The Journal of Immunology 153: 11711179.Google Scholar
Elgadi, MM, Hayes, CE and Smiley, JR (1999). The herpes simplex virus vhs protein induces endoribonucleolytic cleavage of target RNAs in cell extracts. Journal of Virology 73: 71537164.Google ScholarPubMed
Eskra, L and Splitter, GA (1997). Bovine herpesvirus-1 infects activated CD4+ lymphocytes. Journal of general Virology 78: 21592166.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Finlay, BB and McFadden, G (2006). Anti-immunology: evasion of the host immune system by bacterial and viral pathogens. Cell 124: 767782.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Frank, GH (1989). Pasteurellosis of cattle. In: Adlam, C and Rutter, JM (eds) Pasteurella and Pasteurellosis. New York, NY: Academic Press, pp. 197222.Google Scholar
Fray, M, Supple, E, Morrison, W and Charleston, B (2000). Germinal center localization of bovine viral diarrhoea virus in persistently infected animals. Journal of General Virology 81: 16691673.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Fu, YX, Roark, CE, Kelly, K, Drevets, D, Campbell, P, O'Brien, R and Born, W (1994). Immune protection and control of inflammatory tissue necrosis by gamma delta T cells. Journal of Immunology 153: 31013115.Google ScholarPubMed
Gahmberg, CG, Valmu, L, Fagerholm, S, Kotovuori, P, Ihanus, E, Tian, L and Pessa-Morikawa, T (1998). Leukocyte integrins and inflammation. Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences 54: 549555.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Garcia, KC, Scott, CA, Brunmark, A, Carbone, FR, Peterson, PA, Wilson, IA and Teyton, L (1996). CD8 enhances formation of stable T-cell receptor/MHC class I molecule complexes. Nature 384: 577581.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Geiser, V and Jones, C (2005). Localization of sequences within the latency-related gene of bovine herpesvirus 1 that inhibit mammalian cell growth. Journal of Neurovirology 11: 563570.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Gil, LH, Ansari, IH, Vassilev, V, Liang, D, Lai, VC, Zhong, W, Hong, Z, Dubovi, EJ and Donis, RO (2006). The amino-terminal domain of bovine viral diarrhea virus Npro protein is necessary for alpha/beta interferon antagonism. Journal of Virology 80: 900911.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Glew, EJ, Carr, BV, Blackenbury, LS, Hope, JC, Charleston, B and Howard, CJ (2003). Differential effects of bovine viral diarrhoea virus on monocytes and dendritic cells. Journal of General Virology 84: 17711780.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Goldsby, RA, Kindt, TJ, Osborne, BA and Kuby, J (2003). Immunology. New York: W.H. Freeman and Company.Google Scholar
Gomis, SM, Godson, DL, Wobeser, GA and Potter, AA (1997). Effect of Haemophilus somnus on nitric oxide production and chemiluminescence response of bovine monocytes and alveolar macrophages. Microbial Pathogenesis 23: 327333.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Gomis, SM, Godson, DL, Wobeser, GA and Potter, AA (1998). Intracellular survival of Haemophilus somnus in bovine blood monocytes and alveolar macrophages. Microbial Pathogenesis 25: 227235.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Gopinath, RS, Ambagala, AP, Hinkley, S and Srikumaran, S (2002). Effects of virion host shut-off activity of bovine herpesvirus 1 on MHC class I expression. Viral Immunology 15: 595608.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Gordon, S (2002). Pattern recognition receptors: doubling up for the innate immune response. Cell 111: 927930.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Grandea, AG, Lehner, PJ, Cresswell, P and Spies, T (1997). Regulation of MHC class I hetero-dimer stability and interaction with TAP by tapasin. Immunogenetics 46: 477483.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Harding, MJ, Cao, X, Shams, SH, Johnson, AF, Vassilev, VB, Gil, LH, Wheeler, DW, Haines, D, Siebert, GJ, Nelson, LD, Campos, M and Donis, RO (2002). Role of bovine viral diarrhea virus biotype in the establishment of fetal infections. American Journal of Veterinary Research 63: 14551463.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Hariharan, MJ, Nataraj, C and Srikumaran, S (1993). Down regulation of murine MHC class I expression by bovine herpesvirus 1. Viral Immunology 6: 273284.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Henderson, G, Zhang, Y and Jones, C (2005). The bovine herpesvirus 1 gene encoding infected cell protein 0 (bICP0) can inhibit interferon-dependent transcription in the absence of other viral genes. Journal of General Virology 86: 26972702.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Henneke, P and Golenbock, DT (2004). Phagocytosis, innate immunity and host-pathogen specificity. Journal of Experimental Medicine 199: 14.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Hewitt, EW (2003). The MHC class I antigen presentation pathway: strategies for viral immune evasion. Immunology 110: 163169.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Highlander, SK, Fedorova, ND, Dusek, DM, Panciera, R, Alvarez, LE and Rinehart, C (2000). Inactivation of Pasteurella (Mannheimia) haemolytica leukotoxin causes partial attenuation of virulence in a calf challenge model. Infection and Immunity 68: 39163922.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hilton, L, Moganeradj, K, Zhang, B, Chen, YH, Randall, RE, McCauley, JW and Goodbourn, S (2006). The NPro product of bovine viral diarrhea virus inhibits DNA binding by interferon regulatory factor 3 and targets it for proteosomal degradation. Journal of Virology 80: 1172311732.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hinkley, S, Hill, AB and Srikumaran, S (1998). Bovine herpesvirus-1 infection affects the peptide transport activity in bovine cells. Virus Research 53: 9196.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Hinkley, S, Ambagala, AP, Jones, CJ and Srikumaran, S (2000). A vhs-like activity of bovine herpesvirus-1. Archives of Virology 145: 20272046.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Howard, CJ (1990). Immunological responses to bovine virus diarrhoea virus infections. Revue Scientifique et Technique 9: 95103.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Howard, MD, Boone, JH, Buechner-Maxwell, V, Schurig, GG and Inzana, TJ (2004). Inhibition of bovine macrophage and polymorphonuclear leukocyte superanion production by Haemophilus somnus. Microbial Pathogenesis 37: 263271.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hughes, HP, Campos, M, McDougall, L, Beskorwayne, TK, Potter, AA and Babiuk, LA (1994). Regulation of major histocompatibility complex class II expression by Pasteurella haemolytica leukotoxin. Infection and Immunity 62: 16091615.Google ScholarPubMed
Hutchings, DL, Campos, M, Qualtiere, L, Babiuk, LA (1990). Inhibition of antigen-induced and interleukin-2-induced proliferation of bovine peripheral blood leukocytes by inactivated bovine herpes virus 1. Journal of Virology 64: 41464151.Google ScholarPubMed
Inzana, TJ, Hensley, J, McOuiston, J, Lesse, AJ, Campagnari, AA, Boyle, SM and Apicella, MA (1997). Phase variation and conservation of lipooligosaccharide epitopes in Haemophilus somnus. Infection and Immunity 65: 46754681.Google ScholarPubMed
Inzana, TJ, Glindemann, G, Cox, AD, Wakarchuk, W and Howard, MD (2002). Incorporation of N-acetylneuraminic acid into Haemophilus somnus lipooligosaccharide (LOS): enhancement of resistance to serum and reduction of LOS antibody binding. Infection and Immunity 70: 48704879.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Janeway, CA and Travers, P (2005). Immunobiology. New York and London. Garland Publishing Inc.Google Scholar
Jeyaseelan, S, Hsuan, SL, Kannan, MS, Walcheck, B, Wang, JF, Kehrli, ME, Lally, ET, Sieck, GC and Maheswaran, SK (2000). Lymphocyte function-associated antigen 1 is a receptor for Pasteurella haemolytica leukotoxin in bovine leukocytes. Infection and Immunity 68: 7279.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Keles, I, Woldehiwet, Z and Murray, RD (1998). In-vitro studies on mechanism of immunosuppression associated with bovine respiratory syncytial virus. Journal of Comparative Pathology 118: 337345.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kelling, CL, Stine, LC, Rump, K and Parker, RE (1990). Investigation of bovine viral diarrhea virus infections in a range beef cattle herd. Journal of American Veterinary Medical Association 197: 589593.Google Scholar
Kelling, CL, Steffen, DJ, Topliff, CL, Eskridge, KM, Donis, RO and Higuchi, DS (2002). Comparative virulence of isolates of bovine viral diarrhea virus type II in experimentally inoculated six- to nine-month-old calves. American Journal of Veterinary Research 63: 13791384.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Kelling, CL, Hunsaker, BD, Steffen, DJ, Topliff, CL, Abdelmagid, OY and Eskridge, KE (2005). Characterization of protection from systemic infection and disease by use of a modified-live noncytopathic bovine viral diarrhea virus type 1 vaccine in experimentally infected calves. American Journal of Veterinary Research 63: 17851791.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kelling, CL, Hunsaker, BD, Steffen, DJ, Topliff, CL and Eskridge, KE (2007). Characterization of protection against systemic infection and disease from experimental bovine viral diarrhea virus type 2 infection by use of a modified-live noncytopathic type 1 vaccine in calves. American Journal of Veterinary Research 65: 788796.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Koppers-Lalic, D, Rijsewijk, FA, Verschuren, SB, van Gaans-Van den Brink, JA, Neisig, A, Ressing, ME, Neefjes, J and Wiertz, EJ (2001). The UL41-encoded virion host shut-off (vhs) protein and vhs-independent mechanisms are responsible for down-regulation of MHC class I molecules by bovine herpesvirus 1. Journal of General Virology 82: 20712081.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Koppers-Lalic, D, Rychlowski, M, van Leeuwen, D, Rijsewijk, FA, Ressing, ME, Neefjes, JJ, Bienkowska-Szewczyk, K and Wiertz, EJ (2003). Bovine herpesvirus 1 interferes with TAP-dependent peptide transport and intracellular trafficking of MHC class I molecules in human cells. Archives of Virology 148: 20232037.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Koppers-Lalic, D, Reits, EA, Ressing, ME, Lipinska, AD, Abele, R, Koch, J, Marcondes Rezende, M, Admiraal, P, van Leeuwen, D, Bienkowska-Szewczyk, K, Mettenleiter, TC, Rijsewijk, FA, Tampe, R, Neefjes, J and Wiertz, EJ (2005). Varicelloviruses avoid T cell recognition by UL49.5-mediated inactivation of the transporter associated with antigen processing. Proceedings of National Academy of Sciences, USA 102: 51445149.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Le Grand, D, Solsona, M, Rosengarten, R and Poumarat, F (1996). Adaptive surface antigen variation in Mycoplasma bovis to the host immune response. FEMS Microbiology Letters 144: 267275.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Lehner, PJ and Trowsdale, J (1998). Antigen presentation: coming out gracefully. Current Biology 8: R605R608.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Leite, F, Brown, JF, Sylte, MJ, Briggs, RE and Czuprynski, CJ (2000). Recombinant bovine interleukin-1beta amplifies the effects of partially purified Pasteurella haemolytica leukotoxin on bovine neutrophils in a beta (2)-integrin-dependent manner. Infection and Immunity 68: 55815586.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Leite, F, O'Brien, S, Sylte, MJ, Page, T, Atapattu, D and Czuprynski, CJ (2002). Inflammatory cytokines enhance the interaction of Mannheimia haemolytica leukotoxin with bovine peripheral blood neutrophils in vitro. Infection and Immunity 70: 43364343.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Leite, F, Kuckleburg, C, Atapattu, D and Czuprynski, CJ (2004). BHV-1 infection and inflammatory cytokines amplify the interaction of Mannheimia haemolytica leukotoxin with bovine peripheral blood mononuclear cells in vitro. Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology 99: 193202.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Li, J, Clinkenbeard, KD and Ritchey, JW (1999). Bovine CD18 identified as a species specific receptor for Pasteurella haemolytica leukotoxin. Veterinary Microbiology 67: 9197.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Lodmell, DL, Niwa, A, Hayashi, K and Notkins, AL (1973). Prevention of cell-to-cell spread of herpes simplex virus by leukocytes. Journal of Experimental Medicine 137: 706720.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Loneragen, GH, Thomson, DU, Montgomery, DL, Mason, GL and Larson, RL (2005). Prevalence, outcome, and health consequences associated with persistent infection with bovine viral diarrhea virus in feedlot cattle. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 226: 595601.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Majury, AL and Shewen, PE (1991a). The effect of Pasteurella haemolytica A1 leukotoxic culture supernate on the in vitro proliferative response of bovine lymphocytes. Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology 29: 4156.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Majury, AL and Shewen, PE (1991b). Preliminary investigation of the mechanism of inhibition of bovine lymphocyte proliferation by pasteurella haemolytica A1 leukotoxin. Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology 29: 5768.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Malazdrewich, C, Ames, TR, Abrahamsen, MS and Maheswaran, SK (2001). Pulmonary expression of tumor necrosis factor alpha, interleukin-1 beta, and interleukin-8 in the acute phase of bovine pneumonic pasteurellosis. Veterinary Pathology 38: 297310.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Marshal, DJ, Moxley, RA and Kelling, CL (1996). Distribution of virus and viral antigen in gnotobiotic calves 10 days postinoculation with bovine viral diarrhea virus. Veterinary Pathology 33: 311318.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Mathy, NL, Mathy, JP, Lee, RP, Walker, J, Lofthouse, S and Meeusen, EN (2002). Pathological and immunological changes after challenge infection with Pasteurella multocida in naïve and immunized claves. Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology 85: 179188.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
McClurkin, AW, Littledike, ET, Cutlip, RC, Frank, GH, Coria, MF and Bolin, SR (1984). Production of cattle immunotolerant to bovine viral diarrhea virus. Canadian Journal of Comparative Medicine 48: 156161.Google ScholarPubMed
Momburg, F and Hammerling, GJ (1998). Generation and TAP-mediated transport of peptides for major histocompatibility complex class I molecules. Advances in Immunology 68: 191256.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Morrison, WI, Lalor, PA and Christensen, AK (1986). Cellular constituents and structural organization of the bovine thymus and lymph node. In: Morrison, WI (ed) The Ruminant Immune System in Health and Disease. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 220251.Google Scholar
Muller-Doblies, D, Ackermann, M and Metzler, A (2002). In vitro and in vivo detection of Mx gene products in bovine cells following stimulation with alpha/beta interferon and viruses. Clinical and Diagnostic Laboratory Immunology 9: 11921199.Google ScholarPubMed
Muller-Doblies, D, Arquaint, A, Schaller, P, Heegard, PMH, Hilbe, M, Albini, S, Abril, C, Tobler, K, Ehrensperger, F, Peterhans, E, Ackermann, M and Metzler, A (2004). Innate immune responses of calves during transient infection with a noncytopathic strain of bovine viral diarrhea virus. Clinical and Diagnostic Laboratory Immunology 11: 302312.Google ScholarPubMed
Nataraj, C, Eidmann, S, Hariharan, MJ, Sur, JH, Perry, GA and Srikumaran, S (1997). Bovine herpesvirus 1 downregulates the expression of bovine MHC class I molecules. Viral Immunology 10: 2134.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Negrete-Abascal, E, Tenorio, VR and de la Garza, M (1999). Secretion of proteases from Pasteurella multocida isolates. Current Microbiology 38: 6467.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Nishmura, H, Emoto, M, Hiromatsu, K, Yamamoto, S, Matsuura, K, Gomi, H, Ilkeda, T, Itohara, S and Yoshikai, Y (1995). The role of gamma delta T cells in priming macrophages to produce tumor necrosis factor-alpha. European Journal of Immunology 25: 14651468.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Oldstone, MBA (1994). The role of cytotoxic T lymphocytes in infectious disease: history, criteria, and state of the art. Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology 189: 18.Google ScholarPubMed
Ortmann, B, Copeman, J, Lehner, PJ, Sadasivan, B, Herberg, JA, Grandea, AG, Riddell, SR, Tampe, R, Spies, T, Towsdale, J and Cresswell, P (1997). A critical role for tapasin in the assembly and function of multimeric MHC class I-TAP complexes. Science 277: 13061309.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Parsons, KR, Howard, CJ and Jones, BV (1989). Investigation of gut associated lymphoid tissue using monoclonal antibodies against lymphocytes. Veterinary Pathology 26: 396408.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Petras, SF, Chidambaram, M, Illyes, EF, Froshauer, S, Weinstock, GM and Reese, CP (1995). Antigenic and virulence properties of Pasteurella haemolytica leukotoxin mutants. Infection and Immunity 63: 10331039.Google ScholarPubMed
Rehmtulla, AJ and Thomson, RG (1981). A review of the lesions in shipping fever of cattle. Canadian Veterinary Journal 22: 18.Google ScholarPubMed
Rinaldo, CR (1994). Modulation of major histocompatibility complex antigen expression by viral infection. American Journal of Pathology 144: 637650.Google ScholarPubMed
Rothbard, JB and Gefter, ML (1991). Interactions between immunogenic peptides and MHC proteins. Annual Review Immunology 9: 527565.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Saira, K, Zhou, Y and Jones, C (2007). The infected cell protein 0 encoded by bovine herpesvirus 1 (bICP0) induces degradation of interferon response factor 3 and, consequently, inhibits beta interferon promoter activity. Journal of Virology 81: 30773086.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Sharma, R and Woldehiwet, Z (1991). Depression of lymphocyte responses to phytohaemagglutinin in lambs experimentally infected with bovine respiratory syncytial virus. Research in Veterinary Science 50: 152156.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Shewen, PE and Wilkie, BN (1982). Cytotoxin of Pasteurella haemolytica acting on bovine leukocytes. Infection and Immunity 35: 9194.Google ScholarPubMed
Schlender, J, Bossert, B, Buchholz, U and Conzelmann, KK (2000). Bovine respiratory syncytial virus nonstructural proteins NS1 and NS2 cooperatively antagonize alpha/beta interferon-induced antiviral response. Journal of Virology 74: 82348242.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Schlender, J, Walliser, G, Fricke, J and Conzelmann, KK (2002). Respiratory syncytial virus fusion protein mediates inhibition of mitogen-induced T-cell proliferation by contact. Journal of Virology 76: 11631170.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Schuh, JC, Bielefeldt-Ohmann, H, Babiuk, LA and Doige, CE (1992). Bovine herpesvirus-1-induced pharyngeal tonsil lesions in neonatal and weanling calves. Journal of Comparative Pathology 106: 243253.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Siddaramppa, S and Inzana, TJ (2004). Haemophilus somnus virulence factors and resistance to host immunity. Animal Health Research Reviews 5: 7993.Google ScholarPubMed
Singer, DS and Maguire, JE (1990). Regulation of the expression of class I MHC genes. Critical Reviews in Immunology 10: 235257.Google ScholarPubMed
Smibert, CA, Johnson, DC and Smiley, JR (1992). Identification and characterization of the virion-induced host shut-off product of herpes simplex virus gene UL41. Journal of General Virology 73: 467470.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Sparks-Thissen, RL and Enquist, LW (1999). Differential regulation of Dk and Kk major histocompatibility complex class I proteins on the cell surface after infection of murine cells by pseudorabies virus. Journal of Virology 73: 57485756.Google Scholar
Stevens, P and Czuprynski, CJ (1995). Dissociation of cytolysis and monokine release by bovine mononuclear phagocytes incubated with Pasteurella haemolytica partially purified leukotoxin and lipopolysaccharide. Canadian Journal of Veterinary Research 59: 110117.Google ScholarPubMed
Swasdipan, S, McGowan, M, Phillips, N and Bielefeldt-Ohmann, H (2002). Pathogenesis of transplacental virus infection: pestivirus replication in the placenta and fetus following respiratory infection. Microbial Pathogenesis 32: 4960.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Tanaka, K, Tanahashi, N, Tsurumi, C, Yokota, KY and Shimbara, N (1997). Proteasomes and antigen processing. Advances in Immunology 64: 138.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Tatum, FM, Briggs, RE, Sreevatsan, SS, Zehr, ES, Ling Hsuan, S, Whiteley, LO, Ames, TR and Maheswaran, SK (1998). Construction of an isogenic leukotoxin deletion mutant of Pasteurella haemolytica serotype 1: characterization and virulence. Microbial Pathogenesis 24: 3746.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Thomas, CB, Mettler, J, Sharp, P, Jensen-Kostenbader, J and Schultz, RD (1990). Mycoplasma bovis suppression of bovine lymphocyte response to phytohemagglutinin. Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology 26: 143155.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Thomas, CB, Van Ess, P, Wolfgram, LJ, Riebe, J, Sharp, P and Schltz, RD (1991). Adherence to bovine neutrophils and suppression of neutrophil chemiluminescence by Mycoplasma bovis. Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology 27: 365381.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Valarcher, JF, Furze, J, Wyld, S, Cook, R, Conzelmann, KK and Taylor, G (2003). Role of alpha/beta interferons in the attenuation and immunogenicity of recombinant bovine respiratory syncytial viruses lacking NS proteins. Journal of Virology 77: 84268439.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Vanden Bush, TJ and Rosenbusch, RF (2002). Mycoplasma bovis induces apoptosis of bovine lymphocytes. FEMS Immunology and Medical Microbiology 32: 97103.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Walz, PH, Bell, TG, Steficek, BA, Kaiser, L, Maes, RK and Baker, JA (1999). Experimental model of type II bovine viral diarrhea virus-induced thrombocytopenia in neonatal calves. Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation 11: 505514.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Wang, JF, Kieba, IR, Korostoff, J, Guo, TL, Yamaguchi, N, Rozmiarek, H, Billings, PC, Shenker, BJ and Lally, ET (1998). Molecular and biochemical mechanisms of Pasteurella haemolytica leukotoxin-induced cell death. Microbial Pathogenesis 25: 317331.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Weenink, SM and Gautam, A (1997). Antigen presentation by MHC class II molecules. Immunology and Cell Biology 75: 6981.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Williams, DB and Watts, TH (1995). Molecular chaperones in antigen presentation. Current Opinion in Immunology 7: 7784.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Winkler, MT, Doster, A and Jones, C (1999). Bovine herpesvirus 1 can infect CD4(+) T lymphocytes and induce programmed cell death during acute infection of cattle. Journal of Virology 73: 86578668.Google ScholarPubMed
Wittum, TE, Grotelueschen, DM, Brock, KV, Kvasnicka, W, Floyd, WJ, Kelling, CL and Odde, KG (2001). Persistent bovine viral diarrhea virus infection in US beef herds. Preventive Veterinary Medicine 49: 8394.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Yang, YF, Sylte, MJ and Czuprynski, CJ (1998). Apoptosis: a possible tactic of Haemophilus somnus for evasion of killing by bovine neutrophils? Microbial Pathogenesis 24: 351359.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Yewdell, JW and Hill, AB (2002). Viral interference with antigen presentation. Nature Immunology 3: 10191025.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Yoo, HS, Maheswaran, SK, Lin, G, Townsend, EL and Ames, TR (1995). Induction of inflammatory cytokines in bovine alveolar macrophages following stimulation with Pasteurella haemolytica lipopolysaccharide. Infection and Immunity 63: 381388.Google ScholarPubMed
Zinkernagel, RM and Doherty, PC (1974). Restriction of in vitro T cell-mediated cytotoxicity in lymphocytic choriomeningitis within a syngeneic or semiallogeneic system. Nature 248: 701702.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed

Full text views

Full text views reflects PDF downloads, PDFs sent to Google Drive, Dropbox and Kindle and HTML full text views.

Total number of HTML views: 43
Total number of PDF views: 270 *
View data table for this chart

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between September 2016 - 21st January 2021. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Hostname: page-component-76cb886bbf-gtgjg Total loading time: 0.855 Render date: 2021-01-21T09:26:22.163Z Query parameters: { "hasAccess": "0", "openAccess": "0", "isLogged": "0", "lang": "en" } Feature Flags: { "shouldUseShareProductTool": true, "shouldUseHypothesis": true, "isUnsiloEnabled": true, "metricsAbstractViews": false, "figures": false, "newCiteModal": false }

Send article to Kindle

To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

Immune evasion by pathogens of bovine respiratory disease complex
Available formats
×

Send article to Dropbox

To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

Immune evasion by pathogens of bovine respiratory disease complex
Available formats
×

Send article to Google Drive

To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

Immune evasion by pathogens of bovine respiratory disease complex
Available formats
×
×

Reply to: Submit a response


Your details


Conflicting interests

Do you have any conflicting interests? *