Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home

Infrastructure for sustainable use of animal genetic resources in Southern and Eastern Africa

  • E. Zonabend (a1) (a2), A.M. Okeyo (a2), J.M.K. Ojango (a2), I. Hoffmann (a3), S. Moyo (a4) and J. Philipsson (a1)...

Summary

The Global Plan of Action (GPA) for Animal Genetic Resources (AnGR) adopted by FAO recognizes the role of AnGR for food security through improved productivity while maintaining genetic diversity. A critical issue for conservation and genetic improvement programmes is the availability of supportive infrastructure. The objective of the present study was to assess existing and needed infrastructure for sustainable use of AnGR in a sample of countries in Southern and Eastern Africa. Information was primarily obtained from semi-structured interviews with key personnel in animal breeding during country visits. Countries studied are at different stages of development. No complete breeding programmes are in place but some conservation programmes exist in most countries. Except for a few cases, livestock recording as basis for R&D and breeding practice is lacking. The institutional setup to support animal breeding programmes is fragmented and needs to be better integrated. Shortage of skilled personnel is noted as the most serious constraint for development. Countries with least university training in animal breeding have least developed AnGR activities. However, since the GPA was agreed upon, many countries have re-casted their policies and make efforts to develop breeding policies. A change in mindsets aiming at closer collaboration among institutions, farmer involvement and capacity development and strengthening at all levels is suggested.

Le Plan d'Action Mondial pour les Ressources Zoogénétiques adopté par la FAO reconnaît le rôle que les Ressources Zoogénétiques jouent dans la garantie de la sécurité alimentaire en améliorant la productivité tout en conservant la diversité génétique. La disponibilité d'une infrastructure de soutien s'avère une question cruciale pour les programmes de conservation et d'amélioration génétique. L'objectif de cette étude est d'évaluer l'infrastructure existante et celle requise pour l'utilisation durable des Ressources Zoogénétiques dans un échantillon de pays de l'Afrique Méridionale et Orientale. L'information a été essentiellement obtenue au moyen d'interviews semi-structurés réalisés, pendant les visites aux pays, à du personnel clé en matière d'élevage. Les pays étudiés se trouvent à différents niveaux de développement. Il n'y a pas de programmes complets d'amélioration génétique en place mais des programmes de conservation existent dans la plupart des pays. À quelques exceptions près, les pays manquent de systèmes d'enregistrement du bétail servant de base à l'exercice de la R&D (recherche et développement) et de l'amélioration génétique. La structure institutionnelle de soutien aux programmes d'amélioration génétique animale est fragmentée, une meilleure intégration de celle-ci étant donc nécessaire. Le manque de personnel qualifié a été identifié comme étant la contrainte la plus grave pour le développement. Les pays avec le moins de formation universitaire en sélection animale sont ceux qui présentent les activités les moins développées en matière de Ressources Zoogénétiques. Néanmoins, depuis l'adoption du Plan d'Action Mondial, plusieurs pays ont reformulé leurs politiques et sont en train de faire des efforts pour développer des directives de sélection. Un changement de mentalité est suggéré, à tous les niveaux, en vue d'une collaboration plus étroite entre institutions, l'engagement des éleveurs et le développement et renforcement des capacités.

El Plan de Acción Mundial sobre los Recursos Zoogenéticos adoptado por la FAO reconoce el papel que los Recursos Zoogenéticos desempeñan en la garantía de la seguridad alimentaria mejorando la productividad y manteniendo a la vez la diversidad genética. Disponer de una infraestructura de apoyo es una cuestión crucial en los programas de conservación y mejora genética. El objetivo del presente estudio es evaluar la infraestructura existente y la necesaria para el uso sostenible de los Recursos Zoogenéticos en un conjunto de países de África Meridional y Oriental. La información fue fundamentalmente obtenida a través de entrevistas semiestructuradas realizadas, durante las visitas a los países, a personal clave en la cría animal. Los países estudiados se hallan a distintos niveles de desarrollo. No hay programas integrales de mejora genética implantados pero en la mayoría de los países existen algunos programas de conservación. Exceptuando unos pocos casos, se carece de registro ganadero como base para la práctica de la I + D (investigación y desarrollo) y la mejora genética. El sistema institucional de apoyo a los programas de mejora genética animal está fragmentado, con lo que se hace necesaria una mejor integración del mismo. La escasez de personal cualificado ha sido identificada como la limitación más grave para el desarrollo. Los países con la menor formación universitaria en cría animal son aquellos que presentan las actividades menos desarrolladas en materia de Recursos Zoogenéticos. No obstante, desde la adopción del Plan de Acción Mundial, son muchos los países que han replanteado sus políticas y están haciendo esfuerzos por desarrollar directrices de mejora. Se sugiere un cambio, a todos los niveles, en el modo de pensar con vistas a un estrechamiento de la colaboración entre instituciones, la implicación de los ganaderos y el desarrollo y fortalecimiento de capacidades.

Copyright

Corresponding author

Correspondence to: E. Zonabend, Department of Animal Breeding and Genetics, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden. Emelie.Zonabend@slu.se

References

Hide All
Boettcher, P.J., Tixier-Boichard, M., Toro, M.A., Simianer, H., Eding, H., Gandini, G., Joost, S., Garcia, D., Colli, L., Ajmone-Marsan, P. & Consortium, G. 2010. Objectives, criteria and methods for using molecular genetic data in priority setting for conservation of animal genetic resources. Animal Genetics 41: 6477.
Bruford, M.W., Bradley, D.G. & Luikart, G. 2003. DNA markers reveal the complexity of livestock domestication. Nature Reviews Genetics 4: 900910.
Cardellino, R.A. & Boyazoglu, J. 2009. Research opportunities in the field of animal genetic resources. Livestock Science 120: 166173.
DAD-IS. 2013. Domestic animal diversity information system (DAD-IS). Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome. (available at http://dad.fao.org).
Faco, O., Lobo, R.N.B., Gouveia, A.M.G., Guimaraes, M., Fonseca, J.F., dos Santos, T.N.M., da Silva, M.A.A. & Villela, L.C.V. 2011. Breeding plan for commercial dairy goat production systems in southern Brazil. Small Ruminant Research 98: 164169.
FAO. 2007a. Global plan of action for animal genetic resources and the Interlaken declaration. Rome. (available at http://www.fao.org/docrep/010/a1404e/a1404e00.htm).
FAO. 2007b. The State of the World's Animal Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture, edited by Barbara Rischkowsky & Dafydd Pilling. Rome. (available at http://www.fao.org/docrep/010/a1250e/a1250e00.htm).
FAO. 2007c. The state of the world's animal genetic resources for food and agriculture, Annexes Country reports. In Rischkowsky, B. & Pilling, D., eds. The State of the World's Animal Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture. Rome, FAO. (available at: ftp://ftp.fao.org/docrep/fao/010/a1250e/annexes/CountryReports/) Countries: Botswana. 60 pp. Kenya. 68 pp. Mozambique. 64 pp. Tanzania 60 pp. Uganda. 82 pp. Zambia. 75 pp.
FAO. 2009a. Livestock keepers – guardians of biodiversity. Rome. (available at ftp://ftp.fao.org/docrep/fao/012/i1034e/i1034e.pdf).
FAO. 2009b. Preparation of national strategies and action plans for animal genetic resources. FAO Animal Production and Health Guidelines. No. 2. Rome. (available at http://www.fao.org/docrep/012/i0770e/i0770e00.htm).
FAO. 2010. Breeding strategies for sustainable management of animal genetic resources. In FAO Animal Production and Health Guidelines. No. 3. Rome. (available at: http://www.fao.org/docrep/012/i1103e/i1103e.pdf).
FAO. 2011. Developing the institutional framework for the management of animal genetic resources. FAO Animal Production and Health Guidelines. No. 6. Rome. (available at http://www.fao.org/docrep/014/ba0054e/ba0054e00.pdf).
FAO. 2012a. Cryoconservation of animal genetic resources. FAO Animal Production and Health Guidelines No. 12. Rome. (available at http://www.fao.org/docrep/016/i3017e/i3017e00.pdf).
FAO. 2012b. FAOSTAT database. FAO Statistics Division, Rome. (available at: http://faostat.fao.org/site/291/default.aspx) Accessed: 2012-03-30.
FAO. 2012c. Phenotypic characterization of animal genetic resources. FAO Animal Production and Health Guidelines No. 11. Rome. (available at http://www.fao.org/docrep/015/i2686e/i2686e00.htm).
FAO. 2013. FAOSTAT database. FAO Statistics Division, Rome. (available at: http://faostat.fao.org/site/573/default.aspx#ancor) Accessed: 2013-02-18.
Fimland, E. & Oldenbroek, K. 2007. Practical implications of utilization and management. In Oldenbroek, K., ed. Utilisation and conservation of farm animal genetic resources, pp. 195213. Wageningen, Wageningen Academic Publishers.
Hanneman, R. & Riddle, M. 2005. Social network data. In Introduction to social network methods. Riverside, CA, University of California, Riverside. (available at: http://faculty.ucr.edu/~hanneman/).
Hoffmann, I. 2010. Climate change and the characterization, breeding and conservation of animal genetic resources. Animal Genetics 41: 3246.
Kasonta, J.S. & Nitter, G. 1990. Efficiency of nucleus breeding schemes in dual-purpose cattle of Tanzania. Animal Science 50: 245251.
Kosgey, I.S., Mbuku, S.M., Okeyo, A.M., Amimo, J., Philipsson, J. & Ojango, J.M. 2011. Institutional and organizational frameworks for dairy and beef cattle recording in Kenya: a review and opportunities for improvement. Animal Genetic Resources/Resources génétiques animales / Recursos genéticos animales 48: 111.
Kugonza, D.R., Jianlin, H., Nabasirye, M., Mpairwe, D., Kiwuwa, G.H., Okeyo, A.M. & Hanotte, O. 2011. Genetic diversity and differentiation of Ankole cattle populations in Uganda inferred from microsatellite data. Livestock Science 135: 140147.
Kvale, S. 1996. InterViews. An introduction to qualitative research. Thousand Oaks, CA, Sage Publications.
Madalena, F.E. 2012. Animal breeding and development – South American perspective. Journal of Animal Breeding and Genetics 129: 171172.
Muigai, A.W.T. & Hanotte, O. 2013. The origin of African sheep: archaeological and genetic perspectives. Afr Archaeol Rev 30: 3950.
Ojango, J.M., Panndam, J.M., Bhuiyan, A.K.F.H., Khan, M.S., Kahi, A.K., Imbayarwo-Chikosi, V.E., Halimani, T.E., Kosgey, I.S., & Okeyo, A.M. 2010. Higher education in animal breeding in developing countries – challenges and opportunities. In The 9th World Congress on Genetics Applied to Livestock Production. Gesellschaft für Tierzuchtwissenschaften. 1–6 August 2010. Leipzig, Germany.
Ojango, J.M.K., Malmfors, B., Mwai, O. & Philipsson, J. 2011. Training the trainers-an innovative and succesful model for capacity building in animal genetic resource utilization in Sub-Saharan Africa and Asia. International Livestock Research Institute, Nairobi: ILRI and SLU. vi + 44 pp. ISBN: 929146-271-3.
Philipsson, J. 2000. Sustainability of dairy cattle breeding systems utilising artificial insemination in less developed countries – examples of problems and prospects. In Galal, S., Boyazoglu, J., Hammond, K., eds. Workshop on developing breeding strategies for lower input animal production environments, pp. 551562. Bella, Italy, International Committee for Animal Recording.
Philipsson, J., Rege, J.E.O., Zonabend, E. & Okeyo, A.M. 2011. Sustainable breeding programmes for tropical farming systems. Module 3. pp. 1–35. In Ojango, J.M., Malmfors, B., & Okeyo, A.M., eds. Animal genetic training resources version 3, International Livestock Research Institute, Nairobi, Kenya, and Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden. (available at: http://agtr.ilri.cgiar.org/agtrweb/Documents/Modules/breeding%20programmes.pdf).
Rege, J.E.O., Marshall, K., Notenbaert, A., Ojango, J.M.K. & Okeyo, A.M. 2011. Pro-poor animal improvement and breeding – what can science do? Livestock Science 136: 1528.
Rewe, T.O., Herold, P., Kahi, A.K. & Valle Zárate, A. 2009. Breeding indigenous cattle genetic resources for beef production in Sub-Saharan Africa. Outlook on Agriculture 38: 317326.
The World Bank. 2011. Data. Agriculture, value added (% GDP), (available at: http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/NV.AGR.TOTL.ZS/countries) Accessed: 2011-09-09.
Wollny, C.B.A. 2003. The need to conserve farm animal genetic resources in Africa: should policy makers be concerned? Ecological Economics 45: 341351.
Wooliams, J., Berg, P., Mäki-Tanila, A., Meuwissen, T. & Fimland, E. 2005. Sustainable management of animal genetic resources. Ås, Norge, Nordic Gene Bank Farm Animals.
Wurzinger, M., Solkner, J. & Iniguez, L. 2011. Important aspects and limitations in considering community-based breeding programs for low-input smallholder livestock systems. Small Ruminant Research 98: 170175.

Keywords

Infrastructure for sustainable use of animal genetic resources in Southern and Eastern Africa

  • E. Zonabend (a1) (a2), A.M. Okeyo (a2), J.M.K. Ojango (a2), I. Hoffmann (a3), S. Moyo (a4) and J. Philipsson (a1)...

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed