Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home

Indigenous chicken genetic resources in Bangladesh: current status and future outlook

  • A.K.F.H. Bhuiyan (a1), M.S.A. Bhuiyan (a1) and G.K. Deb (a1)

Summary

Livestock, especially poultry, is a promising sector for poverty reduction in Bangladesh. Approximately 140 millions chickens are scattered throughout 68 000 villages in the country, mostly of indigenous, non-descript type. The production system for indigenous chickens is smallholder backyard scavenging in nature with each family keeping an average of 6–7 chickens to meet family requirements, and from which a cash income can also be derived when necessary. Indigenous chickens produce about 75% of the eggs and 78% of the meat consumed domestically. Among said indigenous chicken genetic resources, non-descript Deshi, Aseel and Naked Neck breeds are noteworthy

The non-descript Deshi chicken constitutes about 90% of the indigenous population. Also known as ‘Murghi’, they have undergone unknown periods of natural selection and are a reservoir of excellent genetic diversity. They show high levels of morphological and phenotypic variability and increased fitness under natural settings. Studies reveal that they may be regarded as one breed or population because of the small genetic distances among them. Deshi chickens are characterized by black (75%) and red (25%) plumage colour; black (39%), yellow (32%) and white (29%) shank color; black (99%) eye color; bright red (59%) and pale (41%) comb colour; white (82%) and yellow (17%) skin colour; no definite (61%) and lacing (17%) feather pattern; medium (70%) and large (19%) body size; single comb (97%) and rudimentary spur (98%); medium egg size (80%); light brown (67%) and white (27%) egg shell colour. Regarding production traits, Deshi chickens have average hatch weight of 29 g; body weight at 4, 8, 12 weeks; weekly weight gain (0–12 weeks) of respectively of 77, 175, 315, 24 grams; age at first egg (175 days); weight of pullet (0.9 kg); mature body weight (1.3 kg); hatchability (52%); fertility (83%); annual egg production (45 -50 eggs); 9% mortality up to 500 days of age.

The indigenous chicken population of Bangladesh has been undergoing genetic erosion since the 1960s, following the introduction of improved stock from developed countries. Efforts to sustain commercial hybrid broiler and layer chicken farming under intensive and semi-intensive production models have been tested, but efficiency of systematic characterization, screening, breed improvement and conservation programmes with the indigenous Deshi chickens at the smallholder village levels (in-situ) of Bangladesh are yet to be tested. Such an initiative may help to save these creatures from the grip of thethreat of extinction. This in turn may help to sustain village chicken production system in Bangladesh and could be a useful micro-economic strategy in the on-going poverty alleviation process in the country.

L'élevage, et en particulier l'élevage de volailles, est un secteur important pour la réduction de la pauvreté au Bangladesh. Environ 140 millions de poulets sont élevés dans 68.000 villages, la plupart appartenant à des races indigènes sans description du type. Le système de production des poulets indigènes est constitué de petites unités au sol, avec une moyenne par élevage fermier de 6–7 poulets pour couvrir les besoins de la famille, avec possibilité si nécessaire d'un revenu. Les races indigènes produisent environ 75% des oeufs et 78% de la viande consommés par famille. Mises à part ces ressources génétiques indigènes, il faut aussi souligner l'importance de races non décrites de Deshi, Aseel et Naked Neck.

La race non décrite Deshi représente environ 90% de la population indigène. Bien connue aussi comme “Murghi”, ces populations ont été soumises à des périodes de sélection naturelle et représentent un excellent réservoir de diversité génétique. Le niveau de variabilité morphologique et phénotypique est élevé et en conditions naturelles on observe une amélioration de l'état physique. Des études ont indiqué qu'on peut les considérer comme une seule race ou population étant donné la courte distance génétique entre elles. Les poulets Deshi possèdent un plumage noir (75%) et rouge (25%); des pattes noires (39%), jaunes (32%) et blanches (29%); des yeux noirs (99%); une crête rouge intense (59%) ou pâle (41%); une peau blanche (82%) et jaune (17%); forme du plumage non défini (61%) et défini (17%); taille corporelle moyenne (70%) et grande (19%); crête unique (97%) et ergot rudimentaire (98%); taille des oeufs moyenne (67%); couleur de la coquille des oeufs brune (67%) et blanche (27%). En ce qui concerne la production, les poulets Deshi pèsent en moyenne à l'éclosion 29 gr.; le poids corporel à la semaine 4, 8 et 12 avec un gain de poids par semaine (0–12 semaines) respectivement de 77, 175, 315, 24 gr.; âge à la première ponte d'œufs (175 jours); poids de la poulette (0,90 kg); poids corporel à la maturité (1,3 kg); niveau d'éclosion (54%); fertilité (83%); production annuelle d'ufs (45–50 œufs); 9% de mortalité jusqu'à 500 jours d'âge.

Depuis les années 60 la population indigène de poulet au Bangladesh a subi une érosion génétique à cause de l'introduction de races améliorées en provenance des pays développés. Des efforts ont été fait pour encouragé la commercialisation des hybrides de poulets d'engrais et de ponte en conditions de production intensives et semi-intensives, mais l'efficacité de la caractérisation systématique, la sélection, l'amélioration de race et les programmes de conservation avec les poulets Deshi dans les conditions d'environnement au niveau des villages (in-situ) du Bangladesh doivent encore être testés. Ce genre d'initiative peut aider à sauver ces animaux de l'extinction. En même temps, cela permettrait d'aider la production de poulets au niveau des villages du Bangladesh tout en étant utile pour la stratégie micro-économique du procès de réduction de la pauvreté dans le pays.

Copyright

References

Hide All
Ahmed, S. & Islam, N.. 1985. Backyard poultry development project in 100 villages. Proceedings of the 1st Conference of Bangladesh Animal Husbandry Association. February 23–24, 1985. BARC. Dhaka, 133138
Ambar, M.A.J, Bhuiyan, A.K.F.H., Hoque, M.A. & Amin, M.R.. 1999. Ranking of some pure and crossbred chicken using scoring indices. Indian Journal of Poultry Science. 34 (2): 140146.
Azizul, H.D.A. 1983. A comparative study of the performances of exotic breeds and indigenous birds under Bangladesh condition, M.Sc. Thesis, Department of Poultry Science. Bangladesh Agricultural University. Mymensingh, pp. 36.
Baura, A 1992. A study on the performances of Rhode Island Red, indigenous chicken and their crossbred chickens with or without extra feeding under the rural condition of Bangladesh. M.Sc. Thesis, Department of Poultry Science, Bangladesh. Agricultural University, Mymensingh, pp. 28.
Baura, A. & Howlider, M.A.R.. 1990. Prospect of native chickens in Bangladesh. Poultry Adviser, 23: 5761.
BLRI. 1999. Research Achievements and Activities Report, 1999. Bangladesh Livestock Research Institute, Savar, Dhaka, Bangladesh, pp. 35.
DLS. 1998. Expansions and Activities. Department of Livestock Services. Dhaka. Bangladesh, pp. 131.
DLS. 2000. Expansions and Activities. Department of Livestock Services. Dhaka. Bangladesh, pp. 31.
Haque, Q.M.E., Ebadul, M.H. & Rigor, E.M.. 1990. The effect of chick separation on productivity of the hen and chick. Asian-Aust. Journal of Anim. Sci. 3 (2): 121123.
Haque, Q.M.E. & Assaduzzaman, U.. 1990. Feeding pattern of birds (chicken and ducks) under scavenging condition and formulation of supplementary ration using the local ingredients. Second Annual Progress Report, Poultry Production Research Division, Bangladesh Livestock Research Institute, Savar, Dhaka, Bangladesh, pp. 47.
Hoque, M., Ali, A., & Rahim, Q.M.F.. 1975. A study on the upgrading of indigenous chickens of Bangladesh with White Leghorn, New Hampshire and White Cornish. Poultry Breeding Project. Department of Animal Breeding and Genetics. Bangladesh Agricultural University, Mymensingh, Bangladesh, pp. 28.
Hoque, M.E., Howlider, M.A.R. & Huque, Q.M.E.. 2003. Laying performance of Naked Neck, exotic chicken and their crosses under rural scavenging condition. Proceedings of 3rd International Poultry Show and Seminar. Organized by World Poultry Science Association, Bangladesh Branch, Dhaka, 276278.
Huque, Q.M.E. & Ebadul, M.H.. 1990. The onset of lay in indigenous hens following hatching of chicks. Poultry Adviser. vol. XXIII (VIII): 5760.
Huque, Q.M.E. 1999. Poultry research and development in Bangladesh. Proceedings of the 1st Seminar and International Poultry Show. Organized by the Would Poultry Science Association, Bangladesh Branch. April 24–26, Dhaka, 7080.
Jensen, H.A. 2000. Structures for improving smallholder chicken production in Bangladesh breeding strategy. In Developing Breeding Strategies for Lower Input Animal Production Environments. Galal, S.. Boyazoglu, J. & Hammond, K. (Eds), ICAR, FAO, 395408.
Khan, M.R. & Roy, P.C.. 2003. Credit policy; disbursement and its impact on poultry industry in Bangladesh. Third International Poultry Show and Seminar, Dhaka, Bangladesh: 4351
Okada, I., Maeda, Y.. Ota, K.. Namikawa, T.. Amano, T.. Kurosawa, Y.Hasnath, M.A.Faruque, M.O.., Majid, M.A. & Karim, M.D.R.. 1987. Genetic studies on native chickens in Bangladesh. In: Genetic studies on breed difference action of the native domestic animals in Bangladesh, Part. 2. Hiroshima University: 1126.
Okada, I., Maeda, Y.Ota, K.Hashiguchi, M.A.Hasnath, M.O.Faruque, & Majid, M.A.. 1988. Gene constitution of indigenous chickens in Bangladesh. Japanese Poultry Science. 25 (1): 1526.
Rahman, M.P, Sorensen, PJensen, H.A. & Dolberg, F.. 1996. Exotic hens under semi scavenging conditions in Bangladesh. www.cipav.org.co/Irrd9/3/bang931.htm.
Sazzad, M.H. 1986. Reproductive performance of Deshi hens under scavenging and intensive system of rearing. Proceedings of 1st Annual Livestock Research Workshop, Bangladesh Livestock Research Institute, Savar, Dhaka, 6062.
Sazzad, M.H., Ebadul, M.H. & Asaduzzaman, M.U.. 1990. Egg production by Deshi (indigenous) hens in rural Bangladesh. Animal Breeding Abstracts. 58: 3929.
Yeasmin, T. & Howlider, M.A.R.. 1998. Comparative physical features, egg production and egg quality characteristics of normal and dwarf indigenous (Deshi) hens of Bangladesh. Journal of Applied Animal Research, 13, 191196.
Yoshimura, Y., Barua, A., Heryanto, H. Olirà & Zheng, W.. 1997. Reproductive physiology in domestic animals: a basic knowledge to improve poultry production in Asian countries. Journal of International Development and Cooperation, Hiroshima University. Vol. 3: 2741.
Zaman, S., Ali, A.Faruque, M.O. & Bhuiyan, A.K.F.H.. 1991. Transferrin polymorphism and growth rate in Rhode Island Red, Crossbred and native chicken. Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Science. Vol. 4 (3): 231234.

Keywords

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed