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Genetic diversity analysis of the mitochondrial D-loop of Nigerian indigenous sheep

  • B.O. Agaviezor (a1) (a2) (a3), M.A. Adefenwa (a3) (a4), S.O. Peters (a1) (a3), A. Yakubu (a5), O.A. Adebambo (a1), M.O. Ozoje (a1), C.O.N. Ikeobi (a1), B.M. Ilori (a1), M. Wheto (a1), O.O. Ajayi (a1), S.A. Amusan (a1), M. Okpeku (a6), M. De Donato (a3) and I.G. Imumorin (a3)...

Summary

Indigenous livestock resources are strategic in the socio-economics of rural agricultural systems to ensure food security in resource-poor countries. Therefore, better understanding of genetic variation holds the key to future utilization through conservation. We report the first analysis of genetic diversity of Nigerian sheep based on the D-loop region of the Ovis aries mitochondrial genome using 1 179 bases between sites 15 437 and 16 616 base pairs. A sample of 290 animals made up of Balami, West African Dwarf (WAD), Uda and Yankasa breeds were randomly collected from across Nigeria. Ninety-six haplotypes were observed with a high mean haplotype diversity of 0.899 ± 0.148. Gene diversity was highest in Uda (0.921 ± 0.021) and lowest in WAD (0.852 ± 0.061). Population specific FST indices varied from 0.00133 in Uda to 0.00335 in WAD. Yankasa had the highest number of polymorphic sites (201), while the least was in Uda (96). Analysis of molecular variance revealed that 0.23 percent of the variation is found among populations compared with 99.77 percent variation found within populations. The phylogenetic tree indicates that the mitochondrial lineages of these sheep breeds originated from a common source consistent with first divergence of Yankasa followed by WAD, while Balami and Uda remain more closely related. These results suggest that evolutionary divergence of Nigerian sheep breeds based on mitochondrial DNA D-loop sequence may be coincident with geographical distribution in Nigeria and suggest significant interbreeding. This could have implications for managing improvement and conservation strategies and long-term conservation of Nigerian indigenous sheep.

Les ressources des animaux d'élevage indigènes représentent une valeur stratégique dans la socio-économie des systèmes agricoles ruraux qui permettrait de garantir la sécurité alimentaire dans les pays pauvres en ressources. Par conséquent, l'utilisation future de ces ressources par le biais de la conservation dépend d'une meilleure compréhension de la variation génétique. Nous signalons la première analyse de la diversité génétique des moutons nigériens basée sur la région de la boucle D du génome mitochondrial d'Ovis aries en utilisant 1 179 bases entre les sites 15 437 et 16 616 paires de bases. Des échantillons de 290 animaux provenant des races Balami, West African Dwarf, Uda et Yankasa ont été collectés au hasard dans tout le Nigéria. On a observé 96 haplotypes avec une moyenne élevée de diversité d'haplotype de 0,899 ± 0,148. On a relevé la diversité génétique la plus élevée chez les moutons Uda (0,921 ± 0,021) et la plus faible chez les moutons West African Dwarf (0,852 ± 0,061). Les indices spécifiques de population FST variaient entre 0,00133 pour les Uda et 0,00335 pour les West African Dwarf. Les moutons Yankasa présentaient le nombre le plus élevé de sites polymorphiques (201) tandis que le plus bas a été repéré chez les Uda (96). L'analyse de la variance moléculaire a indiqué que 0,23 pour cent de la variation se trouve parmi les populations tandis que 99,7 pour cent se situe au sein des populations. L'arbre phylogénétique indique que les lignées mitochondriales de ces races de moutons proviennent d'une source commune cohérente avec la première divergence des Yankasa suivie par les West African Dwarf, tandis que les races Balami et Uda restent plus étroitement apparentées. Ces résultats semblent indiquer que la divergence évolutive des races de moutons indigènes basée sur la séquence de la boucle D d'ADN mitochondrial pourrait coïncider avec la distribution géographique au Nigéria et suggérer un croisement considérable. Cette conclusion pourrait avoir des retombées dans la gestion des stratégies d'amélioration et de conservation et dans la conservation à long terme des moutons indigènes du Nigéria.

Los recursos ganaderos autóctonos son de carácter estratégico en los aspectos socioeconómicos de los sistemas agrícolas para garantizar la seguridad alimentaria en los países de escasos recursos. Por lo tanto, conocer mejor la importancia de la variabilidad genética es vital para su futura utilización, por medio de la conservación. Se presenta el primer análisis de la diversidad genética en ovejas de Nigeria basado en la región de control (D-loop) del Ovis aries del genoma mitocondrial, utilizando 1.179 bases entre las posiciones 15.437 y 16.616 de pares de bases. Una muestra de 290 animales, compuesta por las razas Balami, West African Dwarf (WAD), Uda y Yankasa, fue tomada al azar de toda Nigeria. Se observaron noventa y seis (96) haplotipos, con una alta diversidad media en cuanto a éstos de 0,899 ± 0,148. La diversidad genética fue mayor en la raza Uda (0,921 ± 0,021) y menor en la raza WAD (0,852 ± 0,061). Los índices de población específicos FST variaron de 0.00133 en la raza Uda a 0,00335 en la raza WAD. La raza Yankasa presentó el mayor número de posiciones polimórficas (201), mientras que el menor lo mostró la raza Uda (96). Análisis de la varianza molecular reveló que 0,23% de la variación se encuentra entre las poblaciones, en comparación con el 99,77% de variación que se encuentra dentro de las poblaciones. El árbol filogenético indica que los linajes mitocondriales de las razas ovinas partieron de un origen común en conformidad con la primera divergencia de la raza Yankasa, seguida por WAD, mientras que las razas Balami y Uda se encuentran más estrechamente relacionadas. Estos resultados demuestran que la divergencia evolutiva de las poblaciones ovinas de Nigeria, basados en el ADN mitocondrial de la región control, puede coincidir con la distribución geográfica en Nigeria e indican una tasa importante de cruzamiento entre ellas. Esto podría tener ventajas desde el punto de vista de la gestión de la mejora y las estrategias de conservación y preservación a largo plazo de las ovejas autóctonas de Nigeria.

Copyright

Corresponding author

Correspondence to: Dr Ikhide G. Imumorin, Department of Animal Science, Cornell University, 267 Morrison Hall, Ithaca, NY 14853, USA. email: igi2@cornell.edu

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