Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home

Caracterización genética de los pequeños rumiantes saharauis con microsatélites de ADN

  • M. Gómez (a1), B. Slut (a2), A.M. Martínez (a3), V. Landi (a3), M. Ruiz (a3) and J.V. Delgado (a3)...

Summary

In the 1970s a large proportion of the people of Western Sahara went into exile, settling as refugees in camps in Tindouf, Algeria. They took with them their traditional pastoralist way of life and their breeds of small ruminants, which formed the main part of their diet. Almost three decades later, these breeds, having endured the war and the exodus, are in danger of extinction, firstly because of their situation, and secondly because of scientific ignorance about them. In the present paper, we develop a genetic characterization of the Sidaun and Kerrian breeds of sheep and the Buzguender breed of goats in the Saharawi refugee camps. The results indicate that all the breeds studied still have a high level of genetic differentiation and are not showing signs of recent exotic gene migrations. This is encouraging, for it indicates that we are in time to conserve these genotypes of high ecological value for their capacity to survive in the desert.

En los años setenta, gran parte del pueblo Saharaui tomó el camino del exilio estableciéndose como refugiados en los campos de Tindouf (Argelia). Con ellos se llevaron su medio de vida como pastores tradicionales, las razas de pequeños rumiantes que eran gran parte de su sustento. Casi tres décadas después, estas razas que han sufrido la guerra y el éxodo están en un serio peligro de extinción, en primer lugar por su situación y en segundo lugar por el desconocimiento científico sobre las mismas. En el presente trabajo, realizamos una caracterización genética de las razas ovinas Sidaun y Kerrian, así como de la raza caprina Buzguender, en los campos de refugiados Saharauis. Los resultados obtenidos indican que todas las razas mantienen un elevado nivel de diferenciación genética y no evidencian signos de migraciones de genes exóticos recientes. Esto es alentador ya que indica que aun hay tiempo de conservar estos recursos genéticos animales de elevado valor ecológico por su capacidad de supervivencia en el desierto.

Au cours des années 1970, une grande partie des populations du Sahara occidental ont émigré en masse et se sont installées, en tant que réfugiés, dans les terres de Tindouf (Algérie). Les réfugiés avaient emporté leurs moyens d'existence en tant que pasteurs traditionnels, leurs petits ruminants qui représentaient une part importante de leur alimentation. Presque 30 ans après, ces races, qui ont subi la guerre et l'exode, sont menacées d'extinction, d'abord en raison de leur situation et aussi à cause de l'ignorance scientifique qui les concerne. Cet article présente la caractérisation génétique des races de moutons Sidaun et Kerrian et de chèvres Buzguender réalisée dans les terres des réfugiés du peuple Saharoui. Les résultats indiquent que toutes les races analysées maintiennent encore un niveau élevé de différenciation génétique et qu'elles ne présentent pas de signes de migrations récentes de gènes exotiques. Il s'agit d'un résultat très positif car il montre qu'il est encore possible de conserver ces génotypes qui possèdent une grande valeur écologique en raison de leurs capacités de survie dans le désert.

Copyright

Corresponding author

Correspondence to: A. Martínez, Departamento de Genética. Universidad de Córdoba, Campus de Rabanales, 14071-Córdoba. email: ib2mamaa@uco.es

References

Hide All
Belkhir, K., Borsa, P., Chikhi, L., Raufaste, N. & Bonhomme, F. 2003. Genetix, Logiciel sous WindowsTM pour la génétique des populations. Laboratoire Génome, Populations, Interactions CNRS UMR 5000. Université de Montpellier II, Montpellier (France).
Bruno-de-Sousa, C., Martínez, A.M., Ginja, C., Santos-Silva, F., Carolino, M.I., Delgado, J.V. & Gama, L.T. 2011. Genetic diversity and population structure in Portuguese goat breeds. Livestock Science 135: 131139.
Cañón, J., García, D., García-Atance, M.A., Obexer-Ruff, G., Lenstra, P., Ajmone-Marsan, P., Dunner, S. & ECONOGENE Consortium. 2006. Geographical partitioning of goat diversity in Europe and the Middle East. Animal Genetics 37: 327334.
Ceccobelli, S., Lasagna, E., Landi, V., Martínez, A.M. & Sarti, F.M. 2009. Genetic diversity and relationships among Italian Merino derived breeds assessed by microsatellites. Italian Journal of Animal Science 8 (Suppl. 3): 8385.
Fitzhugh, H.A., Ehui, S.K. & Lahlou-Kassi, A. 1992. Research strategies for development of animal agriculture. World Animal Review 72 (3): 313.
Glowatzki-Mullis, M.L., Muntwyler, J., Baumle, E. & Gaillard, C. 2009. Genetic diversity of Swiss sheep breeds in the focus of conservation research. Journal of Animal Breeding and Genetics 126: 164175.
Goudet, J. 2001. FSTAT, a program to estimate and test gene diversities and fixation indices (version 2.9.3). Disponible en: http://www.unil.ch/izea/softwares/fstat.html.
Guo, S.W. & Thompson, E.A. 1992. Performing the exact test of Hardy-Weinberg proportions for multiple alleles. Biometrics 48: 361372.
Hoffmann, I., Marsan, P.A., Barker, J.S.F., Cothran, E.G., Hanotte, O., Lenstra, J.A., Milan, D., Weigend, S. & Simianer, H. 2004. New MoDAD marker sets to be used in diversity studies for the major farm animal species: recommendations of a joint ISAG/FAO working group. Disponible en: http://dad.fao.org/.
Kawasaki, E. 1990. Sample preparation from blood, cells and other fluids, In: PCR Protocols: A Guide to Methods and Applications (Academic Press, New York), pp. 146152.
Lasagna, E., Bianchi, S., Ceccobelli, S., Landi, V., Martínez, A.M., Vega-Pla, J.L., Panella, F., Delgado, J.V. & Sarti, F.M. 2011. Genetic relationships and population structure in three Italian Merino-derived sheep breeds. Small Ruminant Research 96: 111119.
Lebbie, S.H.B., Yapi-Gnaore, C.V., Rege, J.E.O. & Baker, R.L. 1996. Current developments in the management of small ruminant genetic resources in sub-Saharan Africa. In: IGA/FAO Round Table on the Global Management of Small Ruminant Genetic Resources, Beijing (FAO, Bangkok), pp. 3345.
Martínez, A.M., Acosta, J., Vega-Pla, J.L. & Delgado, J.V. 2006. Analysis of the genetic structure of the Canary goat populations using microsatellites. Livestock Science 102: 140145.
Martínez, A.M., Carrera, M.P., Acosta, J.M., Rodríguez-Gallardo, P.P., Cabello, A., Camacho, E. & Delgado, J.V. 2004. Genetic characterisation of the Blanca Andaluza goat based on microsatellite markers. South African Journal of Animal Science 34 (Suppl. 1): 1719.
Martínez, A.M., Landi, V., Amills, M., Capote, J., Gómez, M., Jordana, J., Ferrando, A., Manunza, A., Martín, D., Pons, A., Vidal, O. & Delgado, J.V. 2011. Biodiversidad caprina en España. Archivos de Zootecnia 60: 437440.
Martínez, A.M., Quiroz, J., Delgado, J.V. & Vega-Pla, J.L. 2007. Caracterización genética de la oveja canaria con microsatélites de ADN. Archivos de Zootecnia 55 (216): 421424.
Park, S.D.E. 2002. Trypanotolerance in West African cattle and the population genetic effects of selection. PhD thesis, Trinity College Dublin.
Quiroz, J., Martínez, A.M., Zaragoza, L., Perezgrovas, R., Vega-Pla, J.L. & Delgado, J.V. 2008. Genetic characterization of the autochthonous sheep populations from Chiapas, Mexico. Livestock Science 116: 156161.
Ramsay, K.A., Smith, C.H. & Geldenhuys, C.P. 1984. The potential of the indigenous veld goat as a meat producer in the traditional developing areas of South Africa. Department of Development Aid, Pretoria.
Raymond, M. & Rousset, F. 1995. GENEPOP (version 1.2): Population genetics software for exact test and ecumenicism. Journal of Heredity 86 (3): 248249.
Santos-Silva, F., Ivo, R.S., Sousa, M.C.O., Carolino, M.I., Ginja, C. & Gama, L.T. 2008. Assessing genetic diversity and differentiation in Portuguese coarse-wool sheep breeds with microsatellite markers. Small Ruminant Research 78: 3240.
Schulz, U., Tupac-Yupanqui, I., Martínez, A.M., Méndez, S., Delgado, J.V., Gómez, M., Dunner, S. & Cañón, J. 2010. The Canarian camel: a traditional dromedary population. Diversity 2: 561571.
Weir, B.S. & Cockerham, C.C. 1984. Estimating F statistics for the analysis of population structure. Evolution 38: 13581370.
Winrock International. 1992. Assessment of animal agriculture in sub-Saharan Africa. Winrock International Institute for Agricultural Development, Morrilton AR.

Keywords

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed