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Votive Reliefs from Balboura and its Environs with an Epigraphical Appendix1

  • Tyler Jo Smith (a1) and N. P. Milner


Seventy-five votive reliefs have been identified from the survey of the Balboura city site and the west part of its territory. Several reliefs include inscriptions, yielding crucial information about their date and function in Greco-Roman northern Lycia; these are studied by N. P. Milner in the epigraphical appendix. This paper presents a catalogue of the reliefs, an analysis of the iconographic types and distribution outside the survey area, and an examination of their location and function. Prior to extensive survey of the Balboura area many of the reliefs were undiscovered and unpublished. This treatment of the votive reliefs aims to increase our knowledge of religious life and art at Balboura—first during its period of hellenisation (from c. 200 B.C.), and later as a small urban centre of the eastern Roman Empire. The majority of reliefs are rock-cut and remain in situ; the others are carved on slabs. The general condition of the reliefs is poor. Many are badly weathered, as well as being of a generally low artistic standard.



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2 On Lycia in general: Bryce, T. R., “Hellenism in Lycia” in Descoeurdes, J.-P. ed., Greek Colonists and Native Populations (Oxford, 1990) 531–41; Mitchell, S., Anatolia: Land, Men and Gods in Asia Minor I (Oxford, 1993) 85–6, 165, 189 ff. On Balboura: Hall, A. S. and Coulton, J. J., “A Hellenistic Allotment List in the Kibyratis”, Chiron XX (1990) 109–55, and Coulton, , “North Lycia7985.

3 On the type see: Robert, L., Hellenica III (Paris, 1946) 75–6, Hellenica VII (Paris, 1949) 50–4, Hellenica X (Paris, 1955) 512, Robert, , “Documents572, and Naour, Tyriaion nos 36, 41, 71.

4 Cf. Robert, , Hellenica III, 76, Hellenica X, 8, pl. 1, and Milner and Smith, 67–70, nos 2 and 3.

5 On D18 the riders hold spears and face away from the goddess rather than confront her. On D21 the goddess is excluded altogether.

As on Triad reliefs, the tunic may be a misunderstood cuirass, a dress style known to the Dioscuri; e.g. Robert, , “Documents575, fig. 5.

6 Roos, P., Opuscula Atheniensia IX (1969) 70–2; Robert, , “Documents553.

7 Milner and Smith, 4c, pl. xvia-b.

8 Bean, , JNL 9, pl. 5, and Robert, , “Documents571, fig. 3.

9 Similarly the Triad relief (T11) appears beneath a pair of rock-cut stelai which, like the tabula ansata (D44), is not the normal accompaniment to the votives. Neither the funerary stelai nor the tabula ansata is necessarily part of the same commission.

10 Cf. Naour, , Tyriaion 91, no. 44.

11 Sanders, J. M., “The Early Lakonian Dioskouroi Reliefs”, in ΦΙΛΟΛΑΚΩΝ, ed. Sanders, J. M. (London, 1992) 206–8 discusses Laconian reliefs where the twins are replaced by the dokona (beams) (Sparta Museum 588) or amphorae (Sparta Museum 613).

A late Hellenistic marble relief at Delos from the House of the Diadumene depicts two piloi with a crescent moon between, and is similar to the Balboura reliefs. Bruneau, Ph., BCH LXXXI–II (1964) 162, n. 3, fig. 12, and LIMC “Dioskouroi” no. 157.

12 Milner and Smith, no. 1, pl. xiva.

13 General on Kakasbos: Robert, , Hellenica III, 3874; Bean, G. E., “Notes and Inscriptions from the Cibyratis and Caralitis”, BSA 51 (1956) 142; Robert, , “Documents554; Naour, Tyriaion nos 73–9; LIMC “Kakasbos”; Frei, , ANRW 1808–10. See Bryce, , Lycians 180–81 on Lycian origins.

14 E.g. İzmir Museum, from Telmessos, dedicated to Herakles, LIMC “Kakasbos” no. 5; on the Maseis reliefs, Bean, G.E., Lycian Turkey (London, 1978) 169; and Naour, , Tyriaion 107–14 on the shrine of Maseis.

15 On reliefs said to be from Pisidia, now in the Burdur Museum, he often has footwear; see LIMC “Kakasbos” nos 22, 24–6.

16 Cf. the Herakles relief on the southeast side of the acropolis hill at Nif; Roos, P., Opuscula Atheniensia IX (1969) 89, fig. 65, and 92.

17 On her cult in Asia Minor: Robert, , “Documents594–7; and, French, , “Isinda and Lagbe5892.

18 The inscribed panel on A3 is illegible.

19 Artemis rides side-saddle or astride various animals, notably a bull (LIMC “Artemis” nos 700–5) or a stag, goat, hind or boar (nos 685–99).

20 Cf. an inscribed relief from Güğü, where the animal is identified as a boar: Bean, , JNL 27, no. 46.

21 See a relief from Korkuteli now in the Antalya Museum, Robert, , “Documents594–6, another from Kozağacı, Naour, , Tyriaion 114–15, no. 80, and on a relief at Güğü note 20 above.

22 Compare our relief with the rock-cut reliefs from Philippi depicting Artemis as a huntress pursuing a hind; Collart, P. and Ducrey, P., Philippes I Les reliefs rupestres (Paris, 1975) 201–27; LIMC “Artemis” no. 291.

23 Another thunderbolt relief is known on a block northeast of Seki: Pace, B., Annuario III (19161917) 66; Petersen-von Luschan, 177, 2, and Robert, L., Villes d'Asie Mineure 2nd edn. (Paris, 1962) 228.

24 It is also known that Zeus Soter had a priest at Kibyra during the 1st c A.D.; Petersen-von Luschan, 187 no. 246–8.

25 Milner and Smith, 4d, and 75.

26 Milner and Smith, no. 1, and Metzger, H., Catalogue des monuments votifs du Musée d'Adalia (Paris, 1952) 23, no. 10, and 27.

27 Milner and Smith, 75.

28 Robert, , “Documents515–50; Frei, , ANRW 1839–16.

29 James, E. O., The Cult of the Mother-Goddess (London, 1959) esp. 1660 on the “Idaean Mother of Phrygia”.

30 Naour, , Tyriaion 83, pl. 16, no. 36; 87, pl. 16, no. 41; 107, no. 71.

31 Oinoanda: Milner and Smith, nos 2 (rock-cut) and 3 (slab); Kibyra: Duchesne, M. and Collignon, M. M., “Sur un voyage archéologique en Asie Mineure”, BCH I (1877) 365, though not in situ; Güğü: Robert, , Hellenica III, 76, Pace, B., Annuario III (19161917) 65, no. 66, Bean, , JNL 37, no. 47; Dont: Heberdey-Kalinka, 41.

32 Robert, , Hellenica X, 511 (Yazır), 6, pl. 1 (Idebessos).

33 For example, the Celtic genii cucullati; CSIR I (7), 33, no. 97, pl. 26, and 35, no. 103, pl. 27, where the three are accompanied by a female “Mater”. See also the Celtic armed triad, idem 43, no. 131, pl. 33.

34 Robert, , Hellenica III, 76, Hellenica VII, 50–4. Pace, B., Annuario III (19161917) 65, no. 66; Bean, , JNL 27, no. 47.

35 Plutarch, , De defectu oraculorum 21 (421d); Robert, , Hellenica VII, 50–1 and Hellenica X, 6. On Kronos in Lycia see Frei, , ANRW 1811.

36 Hellenica VII, 50–8; Hellenica X, 6; and discussion by Milner and Smith, 69.

37 Axes are visible on the Güğü relief, on both Oinoanda reliefs, as well as on the reliefs from Dont and from Kibyra. Serpents are seen clearly at Güğü, at Oinoanda and at Dont. Dogs are identified in place of the snakes on the Korkuteli relief and on the Kibyra relief; see note 31 above.

38 Bean, G. E., Lycian Turkey (London, 1978) 158–60; Frei, , ANRW 1830–33; Freyer-Schauenburg, B., “Die lykischen Zwölfgötter-Reliefs”, Asia-Minor-Studien 13 (Münster, 1994).

39 Naour, , Tyriaion 87–8, no. 41, pl. 16.

40 Milner and Smith, pl. xivb.

41 Robert, , La Carie 75, 331.

42 The cornucopia is sometimes held by Hermes and, like the purse, signifies abundance; LIMC “Hermes” 287–8, and no. 688.

43 Milner and Smith, 4c, pl. xvb, xvi, the object is identified as a caduceus.

44 LIMC “Hermes” 286–7.

45 Chapoutier, Dioscures catalogues the type on reliefs and in other media. On Lycia and Pisidia see Roos, P., Opuscula Atheniensia IX (1969) 70–2, Robert, Documents553–79 and, LIMC “Dioskouroi”. The most recent discussion is Mackintosh, M., The Divine Rider in the Art of the Western Empire (Oxford, 1995) 3847.

46 Chapoutier, , Dioscures 214–17, fig. 29–30 (mirror); LIMC “Dioskouroi” no. 128 (coin); Chapoutier, , Dioscures 35, no. 13, pl. 9 (Ephesia relief).

47 Naour, Tyriaion nos 2 (prov. unknown), 34, 40, 81, and 82.

48 Naour, , Tyriaion 91, no. 44, pl. 15; cf. D4 from Balboura, and D43 from Kızılbel.

49 Milner and Smith, no. 1.

50 Boston MFA 153.1973 is a marble relief; Robert, , “Documents575, fig. 5., and note 5 above.

51 Milner and Smith, no. 4a.

52 See Mitchell, S., “Three Cities in Pisidia”, AnSt XLIV (1994) 147, on a coin type of Kodrula, where the female is surmounted by a crescent moon.

53 İplikçioğlu, B. et al. , Neue Inschriften aus Nord-Lykien I (Vienna, 1992) no. 8.

54 Mounted: Sibidunda coin (Chapoutier, , Dioscures 62, no. 51, pl. 11); holding horses: Antonine coin from Termessos (Hill, , BMC 270) and Boston relief 153.1973 (Robert, , “Documents575, fig. 5).

55 Armed: Afyon Museum (Robert, “Documents” no. 9); unarmed: Korkuteli (Metzger, op. cit. (note 26) no. 8, pl. 13). On an example from Korydalla in the Lycian lowlands the twins carry swords (cf. D44), TAM II.3 (1944) 933, and Robert, “Documents” no. 8.

56 Eagle: Kestel Lake (Robert, “Documents” no. 19); moon: Termessos (Hill, , BMC 270).

57 Sparta Museum nos 201, 202, 203, in Tod, M.N. and Wace, A. J. B., A Catalogue of the Sparta Museum (Oxford, 1906). Votive reliefs of the Dioscuri at Sparta date between the 6th century B.C.–3rd century A.D.; see Sanders, J. M., “The Early Lakonia Dioskouroi Reliefs”, in ΦΙΛΟΛΑΚΩΝ, ed. Sanders, J. M. (London, 1992) 205–10, ibid., “The Dioscuri in Post-Classical Sparta”, 217–24, and Steinhauer, G., “Η εικονογραϕία των Διοσκούρων στη ρωμαική Σπάρτη”, 225–35, both in Sculpture from Arcadia and Laconia, eds. Palagia, O. and Coulson, W. (Oxford, 1993).

58 See also a relief from Tegea, and two others said to be Peloponnesian in Chapoutier, Dioscures nos 37–9.

59 Chapoutier, , Dioscures 109–15. Robert believed neither the cult nor artistic model came from Laconia, , “Documents573. Steinhauer mentions that the Spartan reliefs including the goddess are the least popular version, op. cit. (note 57) 232.

60 Robert, , “Documents560, n. 10.

61 For example, LIMC “Artemis” 563–4.

62 See note 41 above.

63 The Anatolian Mother may have local Lycian Bronze Age origins; see Bryce, , Lycians 175–7. See also Boardman, J., Greeks Overseas 3rd edn. (London, 1980) 93–4, n. 247, fig. 106, where the Anatolian Mother Goddess is depicted on a Phrygian statue from Boğazköy.

64 On connections between Sparta and the Kibyratis: Woodward, A. M., “Sparta and Asia Minor under the Roman Empire”, in Studies presented to David Moore Robinson Vol. II, ed. Mylonas, G. E. and Raymond, D. (St. Louis, 1953) 868–83; Robert, , “Documents564–5; Coulton, J. J., “Oenoanda: The Agora”, AnSt XXXVI (1986) 82.

65 Smith, R. R. R., Hellenistic Sculpture (London, 1991) 75–7 and 83–6.

66 Reliefs recorded outside the survey area include: Robert, , BE (1959) 412, Bean, , JNL 12, no. 16, Robert, , BE (1980) no. 505, p. 465; in Oinoanda's territory: Robert, , “Documents554 (Seki), Bean, G. E., “Notes and Inscriptions from the Cibyratis and Caralitis”, BSA 51 (1956) 142, nos 21 and 23, and British School of Archaeology at Ankara, Research Reports 1994 (London, 1994) 21.

67 Petersen-von Luschan, 170, and Heberdey-Kalinka, 7.

68 First published by Smith, A. H., JHS VIII (1887) 235–6; Robert, , Hellenica III, 6970, and “Documents” 569–70, fig.2; LIMC no. 13.

69 Many are now housed in the Fethiye and İzmir Museums, or are built into modern structures; e.g. Robert, , Hellenica III, nos 3 and 7, from the area of Fethiye, and Hellenica III, nos 14, 16 and 17, now in İzmir. See also Coulton, , “Northern Lycia84.

70 Sagalassos I, ed. Waelkens, M. (Leuven, 1993), 45, fig. 38, and Sagalassos II, ed. Waelkens, M. and Poblome, J. (Leuven, 1993) 912. One such offering is a statuette of an armed figure found inside the Doric temple, and given a Hellenistic date. However, any resemblance between this armed statuette and the standard club-wielding deity known from numerous examples is not obvious.

71 Hill, , BMC xciv, and Robert, , Hellenica III, 65.

72 See LIMC “Kakasbos” nos 7, 19, 22–6.

73 LIMC nos 19 and 22.

74 See note 14 above.

75 Robert, , Hellenica III, 5863; LIMC “Men”, and Frei, , ANRW 1826–27 on Sozon.

76 Naour, , Tyriaion 111–13, pl. 24, nos 74–8. The one detached relief (no. 78) shows the horse walking, rather than galloping, and is the most like the Balboura survey reliefs.

77 Robert, , Hellenica III, 42–3; Schleiermacher, M., Die Kaiserzeitlichen Reliefs des triumphierenden Reiters (Bonn, 1984), esp. 245–50 on Anatolian types. Compare Kakasbos with a horseman holding a club on a cemetery wall at Beth She‘arim (Sheikh Ibereiq); Goodenough, E. R., Jewish Symbols in the Greco-Roman Period (New York, 1953) I, 98, and III, fig. 74.

78 French, , “Isinde and Lagbe88–9.

79 Güğü: Bean, , JNL 27, no. 46; Tyriaion: Naour, , Tyriaion 114–5, no. 8; Korkuteli: Robert, , “Documents594–6, and Metzger, op. cit. (note 26) pl. II,7; the Lycian lowland reliefs are from Antiphellos, Komba, Finike, see Frei, , ANRW 21.10.1, 41.10.2, 42.10.1.

80 One recorded at Antiphellos (Frei 41.10.1), and the other possibly from Finike (Frei 42.10.1), ANRW 1773.

81 Cf. the “fountain” shrine at Oinoanda; Milner and Smith, 4d, and the inscription, 72; see also the Güğü relief (note 79), where an Artemis Lagbene and Triad relief are closely situated.

82 Petersen-von Luschan, 170, no. 20 g.

83 French, , “Isinda and Lagbe88, 2.3, no. 4, pl. 4.10.2.

84 E.g. Naour, Tyriaion no. 36 (Triad) on south face of rock, nos 37, 38 and 39 (stelai) on south face, and nos 40 and 45 (Dioscuri) facing southeast.

85 As suggested by an inscription on a Dioscuri relief (D13) inside the İn cave; see Milner below no. 6.

86 Cf. Yazır Göl where four Triad reliefs (T7–10) are clustered on the east side of the lake, roughly facing the lake.

87 Lloyd, S., Early Highland Peoples of Anatolia (London, 1967) on Alaca Hüyük, 70–2, and on Eflatun Pınar, 78–9; Jewell, E. R., Archaeology and History of Western Anatolia (Dissertation, Univ. of Pennsylvania, 1974) 164; Bryce, , Lycians 179, c, on the Eliyãna.

88 Robert, , “Documents56; however, Parker, R., Miasma: Pollution and Purification in Early Greek Religion (Oxford, 1983) 212 discusses healing springs sacred to particular deities, including Herakles and Artemis.

89 Robert, , “Documents596–7.

90 Hellenica III, 67.

91 Robert, , “Documents561, n. 19 and 20.

92 Robert, , “Documents555.

93 Robert, , “Documents552.

94 The Dioscuri relief at Oinoanda is located outside the city wall; Milner and Smith, 16.

95 Coulton, J. J., “The Fortifications at Balboura”, Revue des études anciennes 96 (1994) Vol. 1–2, 327–35, and Coulton, J. J., Milner, N. P., Reyes, A. T., “Balboura Survey: Onesimos and Meleager: Part I”, AnSt XXXVIII (1988) 144.

96 The Upper Theatre at Balboura”, AnSt XLIV (1994) 2746, though he inclines to the 2nd century, esp. 44.

97 Mitchell, S., AnSt XLV (1995) 16.

98 Milner and Smith, no. 4; see Milner below note 12. See also the rock-cut sarcophagi and Artemis Lagbene relief from Alafahrettin (Kemer Mevkii); French, , “Isinda and Lagbe88, 2.3.

99 See note 9 above.

100 Childs, W. A. P., The City-Reliefs of Lycia (Princeton, 1978) on Lycian tombs and tombsculpture, esp. 97–106 on the funerary function of reliefs.

101 See below, no. 11.

102 Money, D. K., “Lions of the Mountains”, AnSt XL (1990) 45–6, on art at Balboura.

103 See note 85 above.

104 Ussishkin, D.Hollows, ‘Cup-Marks’, and Hittite Stone Monuments”, AnSt XXV (1975) 85103; Neue, P., “Schalensteine und Schalenfelsen in Boğazköy-Hattuşa”, Ist Mitt 27–28 (19771978) 6172; and Işık, F., “Zur Enstehung Phrygischer Felsdenmaler”, AnSt XXXVII (1987) 163–78.

105 Coulton, J. J., Milner, N. P., Reyes, A. T., “Balboura Survey: Onesimos and Meleager: Part I”, AnSt XXXVIII (1988) 121–31.

106 J. J. Coulton informs me of a small rectangular cutting on a rock face above the Nymphaeum at Balboura, which might have held a loose relief. See Robert, L., Opera Minora Selecta IV 198–9, on a group of Kakasbos reliefs now in Antalya Museum said to have been found below a rock with hewn niches.

107 See note 69 above.

108 Robert, , Hellenica III, 58, n. 4 and 69–70, n. 3.

109 One Triad relief (T2) forms the boundary of a settlement.

110 A. S. Hall and J. J. Coulton, op. cit. (note 2) 149–51, and Coulton, J. J., “Termessians at Oinoanda”, AnSt XXXII (1982) 126–31; most recently Eilers, C. F. and Milner, N. P., “Q. Mucius Scaevola and Oenoanda: A New Inscription”, AnSt XLV (1995) 84–8.

111 It is not certain whether the territory was empty or previously settled. Coulton, , “Northern Lycia83–5 discusses the population of Balboura and the southern Kibyratis. S. Mitchell argues that the Pisidians were already hellenised by this date: “Hellenismus in Pisidien”, Asia-Minor-Studien 6 (Münster, 1992) 34.

112 Cf. Henig, M., CSIR Vol. I, (7) xvii. See also Momigliano, A., Alien Wisdom: the Limits of Hellenization (Cambridge, 1975) 121, esp. 7.

113 Bossert, H. Th. et al. , Karatepe Kazıları (Ankara, 1950) pl. xiii, 64, and 56–9; Orthmann, W., Untersuchungen zur späthethitischen Kunst (Bonn, 1971) 494, B4, pl. 18; and Frankfort, H., The Art and Architecture of the Ancient Orient (Harmondsworth, 1970) 310, and fig. 363.

114 Syme, R., Anatolica: Studies in Strabo, ed. Birley, A. (Oxford, 1995) 285.

115 The iconography of the Dioscuri reliefs can be seen to have survived into the Early Christian Period; see the relief of two horsemen flanking a cross on a lintel from a church at Oinoanda; Mitchell, S., AST XIII.ii (1996) 73, fig. 7; Mitchell, S., AnSt XLV (1995) 16.

* With acknowledgments to the Turkish authorities for permission to survey the site, to the British Academy and the B.I.A.A. generally, and the Craven and Meyerstein Funds, Oxford, and Christ Church, Oxford, specifically, for contributing funds to my work on site, and to the government representatives Bay Mehmet Şener, Elazığ museum, and Bay Haluk Yalçınkaya, Milas museum, for their help in 1986 and '87. I also thank Dr. J. J. Coulton who directed the Balboura Survey, for inviting me to take part, and for constructive criticism of a draft of this article. He also supplied the data for inscriptions not at the site of Balboura. Thanks for comments are also due to Prof. O.R. Gurney and Dr. B. Levick.

1 Burkert, W., Greek Religion, tr. Raffan, J. (1985), 212.

2 Cf. Liddell, Scott, Jones, A Greek Lexicon 9 s. vv.

3 A famous example from early Christian writers is N.T. Matth. 1.20: ἰδού ἄγγελος Κυρίου κατ᾿ ὄναρ ἐϕάνη αὐτῷ, λέγων…, cf. 2.13, 2.23. It has roots in several ancient Near Eastern cultures, see Gurney, O. R., “The Babylonians and the Hittites”, in Loewe, M. and Blacker, C. (edd.), Divination and Oracles (London 1981), 142–73.

4 Nock, A. D., Essays on Religion and the Ancient World (Oxford, 1986) I, 45–7; Lane, E. N., Corpus Monumentorum Religionis Dei Menis III (Leiden, 1976) 24; Bömer, F., Untersuchungen über die Religion der Sklaven in Griechenland and Rom II (Wiesbaden, 1960) 109, and IV2 (Stuttgart, 1990) 298–9; Veyne, P., “Une évolution du paganism greco-romain: injustice et piété des dieux, leurs ordres ou ‘oracles’,” !Latomus XLV (1986) 259–83: during the Principate the gods began to order mortals to make vows which they later had to fulfil.

5 Cf. Milner, N. P. and Smith, M. F., “New votive reliefs from Oinoanda,” AnSt XLIV (1994), 6576, at 70 ff., no. 4.

6 Cf. Roscher, W. H. (ed.), Ausführliches Lexikon der griechischen und römischen Mythologie I ii(18861890), 2179, from the Theatre of Pompey in Rome.

7 See P. Veyne, art. cit (n. 4).

8 So, Robert, L., BCH CVII (1983), 569 ff., 573, L., and Robert, J., La Carie II (1954) 140.

9 Cf. L., and Robert, J., La Carie II (1954) 75, 331. Naour, C., Tyriaion en Cabalide (1980) 19 marks the Pisidian character of the Dioscuri-and-goddess cult; in this group she may have often lacked a more specific name, and is only once named in Dioscuri reliefs, although the Dioscuri are often named; cf. Robert, L., BCH CVII (1983) 568, 560 no. 10 (Macun Asarı): Άρτέμι[δι] Άρχεσίλαος εὐχήν.

10 Cf. Naour, 21–2; and on Hermes, cf. Milner and Smith, art cit. (n. 5) 74–5. Similarly, in the “Twelve Gods” reliefs from Komba, central Lycia, additional deities are Artemis (always), and on occasion the “Father of the gods” and Hermes; cf. L. Robert, 593.

11 L. Robert, 572.

12 Mitchell, S., AnSt XLV (1995) 15–6. Cf. Milner and Smith, art. cit. (n. 5) 70 ff., no. 4, where the hypothesis of a fountain may now be discounted. The arched feature is certainly an arcosolium (pers. comm. J. J. Coulton). The reliefs at Lagbe are also not far from arcosolia. At Balboura too, Money, D. K., “Lions of the Mountains: the Sarcophagi of Balboura,” AnSt XL (1990) 48 “W46–47” and 49 “S 15”, noted the proximity to tombs of the reliefs T1 (close to an arcosolium) and D1. Cf. Tyler Jo Smith, above, p. 20.

13 Cf. Tyler Jo Smith, above, p. 18.

14 Arteimas, Gidlasis, Maramotas, Moles, Molesis, Nenas, Trokondas.

15 Manes, Midas.

16 Artemon, Athenodoros, Euagapetos, Hermaios, Hikesios, Magas, Meno[philos], Rhesia.

17 Cf. Hall, A. S., Coulton, J. J., “A Hellenistic Allotment List from Balboura in the Kibyratis,” Chiron XX (1990), 109–58.

18 Artemon (4 ×), Hermaios (2 ×), Magas. See especially Brixhe, loc. cit. (n. 33).

19 Cf. the Dictaean Cave in Crete, the Corycian Cave in Cilicia (Hicks, E. L., JHS XII (1891) 239 ff.) and the caves of the Theoi Agrioi which were located in the Mt. Kragos area of Lycia according to Alexander Polyhistor, apud Steph. Byz. s.v. κράγος. Coulton, J. J., AnSt XLII (1992) 7, reports the presence of quantities of early Iron Age pottery around the entrance to the cave at İn taşı.

20 Cf. AnSt XLI (1991) 32 n. 25.

21 Cf. AnSt XXXIX (1989) 60.

22 Zgusta, L., Kleinasiatische Personennamen (1964), § 1512.31.

23 Mitford, T. B., in Temporini, H. (ed.), Aufstieg und Niedergang der römischen Welt 18.3 (1990) 2138, with ref. to Houwink Ten Cate, P. H. J., The Luwian Population Groups of Lycia and Cilicia Aspera during the Hellenistic Period, Documenta et Monumenta Orientis Antiqui X (Leiden 1961), 125 ff.

24 Naour, op. cit. (n. 9), 91 no. 44, pl. xv.

25 Bean, G. E., Journeys in Northern Lycia 1965–67, Denkschr. Akad. Wien, phil.-hist. Kl. 85 (1965), 9.

26 Two examples, with the Pisidian goddess represented standing between two caps; cf. Naour, C., ZPE XXII (1976) 129–30 nos. 21–2, pl. viii.

27 Ibid. pl. ix.

28 Smyth, H. W., The Sounds and Inflections of the Greek Dialects: Ionic (Oxford 1894), 379.

29 Brixhe, C., Le dialecte grec de Pamphylie, Bibl. Inst. fr. Ét. Anat. Istanbul XXVI (1976), 101–2 § 33.

30 It is, however, used of a Balbouran buried in a 3rd.–2nd. c. B.C. cemetery at Sidon, Syria; his painted stele is in İstanbul Archaeological Museum: Διοσκουρίδη Εξαβοου Πισίδη Βαρβουλεῦ sic συμμάχων σημεοϕόρε χρηστὲ Χαίρε. Κεραίας ό ἀδελϕὸς ἔστησε, “Dioskourides son of Exaboas(?), Pisidian, Ba(l)bou(r)an, standard-bearer of the Allies, good man, farewell. Keraias his brother set it up.” Cf. Parlasca, K., Syrische Grabreliefs hellenistischer und römischer Zeit, Trierer Winckelmannsprogramme 3 (Mainz 1981) 6, pl. 2.3; Robert, L., Études Anatoliennes (Paris 1937) 366.

31 Cf. Robert, L., Études Anatoliennes (1937), 155 ff.

32 See above (n. 9).

33 Brixhe, C., “Étymologie populaire et onomastique en pays bilingue,” Revue de Philologie LXV (1991), 6381 at 77–9. Cf. AnSt XLI (1991) 35.

34 Also Hall and Coulton, art. cit. (n. 17) (Balboura).

35 Ibid. and Zgusta § 576.4 (Balboura).

36 Ib. § 576.1 (Termessus Major).

37 Ib. § 580.2 (a Balbouran in Sidon quoted at n. 30 above, a local instance from Boubon, and one from Karayük Pazar nr. Denizli). The name is also probable in an unpublished correction to an inscr. from Balboura, , SEG XXVI (19761977) 1413 = inv. no. 20. Note that there was a Pisidian city close to Kremna called Keraia/Keraion (BE 1978: 501, Zgusta, L., Kleinasiatische Ortsnamen (Heidelberg 1984) § 484), a Greek place-name like Kremna itself.

38 IGR III 1502. See Cousin, G., BCH XXIV (1900), 337, Robert, L., BCH CVII (1983), 558 no. 5, Nollé, J. (ed.), Side I (Inschr. Kleinasien 43) (1993) 213 n. 77.

39 See H.S. Versnel, “Religious Mentality in Ancient Prayer,” in id. (ed.), Faith, Hope and Worship: Aspects of Religious Mentality in the Ancient World, Studies in Greek and Roman Religion II (Leiden, 1981), 45 ff.

40 Cf. Weinreich, O., “Θεοὶ Έπήκοοι,” Ath. Mit. XXXVII (1912), 168, esp. 55 ff. = Ausgewählte Schriften I (1969), 131–95, esp. 175–86; H.S. Versnel, loc. cit., 34–37. According to H. W. Pleket, ibid., 182 n. 140, the epithet is frequent in cults of the Oriental, orientalised Greek, and more generally of healing, gods, or gods who bring σωτηρία, such as Asclepios, Demeter, and the Dioscuri. Cf. Baslez, M.-F., Recherches sur les conditions de pénétration et de diffusion des religions orientales à Délos (Paris, 1977), 294 ff.

41 See Chapouthier, F., Les Dioscures au service d'une Déesse, Bibl. Éc. fr. Athènes et Rome CXXXVII (1935), 68 no. 60, for a specially-made votive lamp for the Dioscuri and Moon-goddess, from the Fayum, Egypt.

42 Cf. Hanson, A. E., “Memorandum and speech of an advocate,” ZPE VIII (1971), 1527. But see now Lewis, N., On Government and Law in Roman Egypt (1995) 292–7: perhaps ni(k)e is meant.

43 Avi-Yonah, M., Abbreviations in Greek Inscriptions, (Quarterly of the Department of Antiquities in Palestine IX (Supp.)), 1940, 85–6. An iota could be meant by the stroke, which may sometimes occur over the M, not through it; cf. μ(ά)ρ(τυς) with the downstroke of the rho continuing through the mu, ibid. 87. N.b. also p. 86 μιθ(ωτής).

44 Feissel, D., Worp, K. A., “La requête d'Appion, évêque de Syene à Théodose II: P. Leid. Z révisé,” Oudheidkundige Mededelingen LXVIII (1988), 97111, at 102 n. 47, SEG XXXVIII (1988) 1466.

45 See Feissel and Worp for this gloss on ῥεγεῶνος (line 2). However, it is properly used as the technical term for an area of imperial landed estates, equivalent to a tractus in Roman administrative terminology, cf. Jones, A. H. M., The Later Roman Empire 284–602 (1964), 713, Hirschfeld, O., Die Kaiserlichen Verwaltungsbeamten bis auf Diocletian (19053, repr. Berlin 1963), 125–6, 133–4. Further refs. in Side I (Inschr. Kleinasien 43), 213 n. 78.

46 This is rarer than Greek ἐπὶ + gen. for this translation, cf. Mason, H. J., Greek Terms for Roman Institutions (1974) 141, but is found for instance in ἀπὸ κοίτης = a cubiculo in an inscr. from the estate of Calpurnius, M.Longus near Tefenni, to the north-east of Oinoandan and Balbouran territory on the far side of Lake Kabalitis, IGR IV 894.

47 Cf. Oxford Latin Dict. s.v. “ex, e 13(b).” The Greek prefers gen. pl. in this sense, e.g., MAMA I 168ἀπὸ καμπιδουκτόρων ὠρδεναίου, I 216 αὐγουστάλιος καὶ ἀπὸ (Laodicea Combusta).

48 Carrié, J.-M., “Bryonianus Lollianus de Side ou les avatars de l'ordre equestre,” ZPE 35 (1979), 213–24, at 217–8; cf. Roueché, C., Aphrodisias in late Antiquity, JRS monogr. V (London 1989), 23–4 on ἀπὸ πριμιπιλαρίων and ἐξ ἐπάρχων λεγιῶνος.

49 Hist. Eccl. 8.11.2: , translated by Rufinus as Adauctus… honoribus palatii per gradus singulos usque ad officiorum magisterium perfunctus, rationes quoque per illud tempus summarum partium administrans in supra dicta urbe degebat…

50 Cf. Ramsay, W. M., JHS VIII (1887), 498, μισ[θ]ωτὴ[ς χωρίων τ]οῦ Καίσαρος, near Nacolea in Phrygia, but the restoration of χωρίων is uncertain. Cf. Hirschfeld, 129 n. 1, citing also CIL VIII 10570, 14464 1.30, Dig. 19.2.49 (Modestinus) and 49.14.45 §13 (Paulus).

51 The Latin prefers the plural for the purely honorary meaning.

52 Cf. Carrié, loc. cit., who prefers this explanation of the ?late 3rd. c. civilian career of Lollianus.

53 Broughton, T. R. S., “Roman Asia Minor,” in Frank, T. (ed.), An Economic Survey of Ancient Rome IV (1938), 662.

54 Cf. Robert, L., Hellenica X (1955), 71 n.1, used only in the imperial administration, apparently.

55 Cf. J., and Robert, L., La Carie II (1954), 292–93. N.b., οἰκόνομος seems to have denoted a vilicus or dispensator in Asia Minor, unlike Egypt, where it often meant “accountant”.

56 Cf. Jones, 413, has magistri rei privatae or rationales one for each late-Roman diocese; below them were procuratores, e.g., proc. saltuum responsible for large estates or conglomerations of estates. Egyptian papyri show that there was a procurator of imperial estates for each city. Some provinces had their own rationalis (καθολικός): Egypt had one, as well as a magister privatae (μάγιστρος τῆς πριονάτης), even while part of the diocese of Oriens. See also Pflaum, H.-G., Les procurateurs équestres sous le haut-empire romain (1950), 85 ff., 99 ff.

57 OGIS 526 = IGR IV 1651.

58 Parsons, P. J., “Philippus Arabs and Egypt,” JRS LVII (1967), 134–41, esp. 138–9; Bowman, A. K., “Papyri and Roman Imperial History, 1960–75,” JHS LXVI (1976), 165. Contra, Parassoglou, G. M., Imperial Estates in Roman Egypt, American Studies in Papyrology XVIII (Amsterdam, 1978), 87.

59 Cf. Hirschfeld, op. cit. (n. 45) 35–6. At 134 n. 2, he suggests CJ 1.54.2 is about non-patrimonial procurators. But a fortiori the low-ranking type of procurator was prohibited from imposing fines too.

60 Hirschfeld, 133.

61 The most up-to-date data on this family are in Raepsaet-Charlier, M.-T., Prosopographie des femmes de l'ordre senatorial (Ier–IIe siècles) (1987) 230 no. 257. See also the stemma in Milner, N. P. and Mitchell, S., AnSt XLV (1995) 100.

62 PIR 2 832 C.

63 Her grandfather Claudius Dryantianos was a leading citizen of Patara, cf. Milner and Mitchell, 103. Her father Claudius Titianus, also called Ti. Claudius Flavianus Titianus Q. Vilius Proculus L. Marcius Celer M. Calpurnius Longus, is related to the Longus, M. Calpurnius (IGR IV 894, 895, cf. 897, identical acc. to Cagnat comm. ad 894) who had estates at Alastos, near Tefenni. He had a δοῦλος οἰκονόμος (dispensator) also called Artemon (IGR IV 895).

64 Cf. IGR IV 897, reading ἔτονς ασ՛ (line 1: Heberdey, dated A.D. 224–5) reported by Leschhorn, W., Antike Ären, (Historia Einzelschriften LXXXI, 1993), 533 no. 9. The fragmentary inscription records a dedication on behalf of orophylakes of an estate run by a misthotes.

65 Jones, A. H. M., Studies in Roman Government and Law (Oxford 1960) 164; ILS 2392, 2424.

66 We know that veterans were settled in the area; there was a κολωνία in the territory of Balboura, cf. Naour, op. cit. (n. 9) 38 no. 8.

67 Cousin, G., BCH XXIV (1900), 338; F. Chapouthier op. cit. (n. 41) 25–6; Nollé, J., Side I (Inschr. Kleinasien 43), 212, no. TEp 9; cf. Ruge, W., RE XVI ii col. 2390, Robert, L., Villes d'Asie Mineure (19351) 168–9, (1962 2) 365–66; Daux, G., BCH C (1976), 225226, cf. SEG XXVI (19761977) 1438; cf. Robert, L., BCH CVII (1983) 558 no. 5.

68 Braunstein, O., Die politische Wirksamkeit der griechischen Frau (Diss. Leiden, 1911), 70.

69 See the list of examples in Laminger-Pascher, G., Index Grammaticus zu den griechischen Inschriften Kilikiens und Isauriens I, Sitzungsberichte der Österreichischen Akademie der Wissenschaften ph.-hist. Kl. 284.3 (Vienna, 1973), 49, with n. 66; cited by G. Daux, art. cit. See also J. Nollé, op. cit., 213, accepting this interpretation.

70 Roscher, W., Lexikon I i (18841886), 1164–6 s.v. “Dioskuren” (A. Furtwängler); cf. Nollé, 213, n. 81, for further refs. Nollé's suggestion to read = Μ(ε)γ(άλοι) is not supported by Avi-Yonah, 84, as there is no horizontal hasta on the central upright.

71 Robert, L., Hellenica XI–XII (1960), 338 ff. Cf. Διόσκοροι Σαμοθρᾴκων ἐπιϕανεῖς θεοὶ ἀδαμεῖ[ς ἀ]εί (Beyşehir), Robert, L., BCH CVII (1983), 419.

72 For κρίματα, cf. IGR III 58, 66 (Prusias ad Hypium); Dion., Hal.Ant. Rom. 4.12.3.

73 Wörrle, M., Stadt und Fest im kaiserzeitlichen Kleinasien, Vestigia vol. 39 (Munich, 1988), 27 ff., 33.

74 TAM II i 250, dated by the eponymous priesthood of the League of Licinnius Longus.

75 Naour, C., “Inscriptions de Lycie,” ZPE XXIV (1977), 270.

76 Cf. Kom[..]ra, an estate, which contained 107 slaves, and was owned by the city of Kibyra, IGR 4.914 and Nollé, J., ZPE XLVIII (1982) 267–73.

77 Cf. the Oinoandan Licinnius Longus, A.D. 131/2, Licinnius Stasithemis before A.D. 123, and another Licinnius in A.D. 146. See Wörrle 41 n. 118, 43–43; Zimmermann, M., Untersuchungen zur historischen Landeskunde Zentrallykiens, Antiquitas I.42 (1992), 252, 260.

78 Cf. Balland, A., Fouilles de Xanthos VII (1981), 227–8.

79 Inv. no. YÇ 1124.

80 Bechtel, F., Die historischen Personennamen des Griechischen bis zur Kaiserzeit (1917), 109; Pape, W., Benseler, G. E., Wörterbuch der griechischen Eigennamen3 (1911), 302; IGR III 484 (Oinoanda).

81 Bechtel, 272; Pape-Benseler, 1626. Presumably the revels are those of Dionysos.

82 Bechtel, 577. Cf. ῾Ρησώ from Crete, 1st. c. B.C./A.D., listed by Fraser, P. M. and Matthews, E. (edd.), A Lexicon of Greek Proper Names I (Oxford 1987). Gignac, F. T., A Grammar of the Greek Papyri of the Roman and Byzantine Periods I (Milan 1976), 243, details the phonological process whereby unaccented eta between rho and sigma could become epsilon in the koine of the Empire.

83 Coulton, J. J., AnSt XLII (1992) 8.

84 On this local form of the Thraco-Anatolian rider-god, see Frei, P., “Die Götterkulte Lykiens in der Kaiserzeit,” in Temporini, H. (ed.), Aufstieg und Niedergang der römischen Welt II 18.3 (1990) 1808–10; Robert, L., “Un dieu anatolien: Kakasbos,” Hellenica III (1946), 3874; 172–3; add Hellenica VII (1949), 57–8; Hellenica X (1955), 13; Hellenica XIII (1965), 99; Annuaire du Collège de France: 61e année (1961), 314; 63e année (1963), 350; Villes d'Asie Mineure2 (1960), 362 n. 4.

85 F. Bechtel, 531. Cf. W. H. Roscher, op. cit. (n. 6) 631 s.v. “Zeus (Beinamen)”; Farnell, L. R., The Cults of the Greek States I (1896), 66–7.

86 Cf. Fraser and Matthews, s. vv.

87 See Liddell, Scott, Jones, A Greek Lexicon 9 s.vv. for this meaning.

88 Petersen, E. and von Luschan, F., Reisen in Lykien, Milyas und Kibyratis II (1889), 171 no. 214, fig. 79.

89 Not over it, as per Petersen and v.Luschan.

90 Cf. Zgusta, op. cit. (n. 21) § 912; RE XV ii (1932) 1526–40 s.v. “Midas (1)–(5)”.

91 Zgusta § 108.11 and 108.1. Cf. no. 4. above.

92 Orromous at Oinoanda (BE 1978: 462), Balboura (Hall, Coulton, art. cit. (n. 17), 114 C 31), and Tyriaion in the territory of Balboura (Naour, op. cit. (n. 9) 20 no. 3); Oromōs at Küçük Söğle, in the Elmalı plain (İplikçoğlu, B., Çelgin, G., Çelgin, A.V. (edd.), Neue Schriften aus Nord-Lykien I, Sitzungsberichte der Österreichischen Akademie der Wissenschaften ph.-hist. Kl. 584 Bd. (Vienna, 1992), 21 no. 9).

93 Ormous, from Cilicia, and Ōrmas, from Isauria (Zgusta §§ 1106.2 and 1659).

94 Koerner, R., Die Abkürzung der Homonymität in griechischen Inschriften (Sb. Akad. Berlin 1961 no. 2).

1 The survey was conducted 1985–1993, and information about the votive reliefs was collected over the course of these years. Generous support was provided by the British Academy, the British Institute of Archaeology at Ankara, the Craven Committee (Oxford), the Meyerstein Fund (Oxford), Merton College (Oxford), and the Society of Antiquaries of London. Special thanks are extended to the Turkish authorities for permission to conduct the survey, and to the government representatives. The Lancelyn-Greene Fund of Merton College made possible my study of the reliefs in 1992 and 1993.

I wish to thank the following people for help in the preparation of this article: E. Frankfort, C. Howgego, A. Macdonald, N. P. Milner, T. H. Robinson, J. M. Sanders, R. R. R. Smith, N. Zimi, The Warburg Institute (London), and especially J. J. Coulton for his advice, encouragement and improvements at every stage. I also thank Professor O. R. Gurney for his helpful comments and suggestions.

A list of abbreviations used in the notes in addition to those standard for AnSt is given at the end of the paper.

Votive Reliefs from Balboura and its Environs with an Epigraphical Appendix1

  • Tyler Jo Smith (a1) and N. P. Milner


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