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Plant stores at pottery Neolithic Höyücek, southwest Turkey

  • Danièle Martinoli (a1) and Mark Nesbitt (a2)

Abstract

Eleven samples comprising an estimated 39,000 plant remains were analysed from a burnt destruction level at the pottery Neolithic site of Höyücek, southwest Turkey (radiocarbon dated 7550–7350 uncalibrated bp, 6400–6100 calibrated BC). Large stores of emmer (Triticum dicoccum), free threshing wheat (Triticum aestivum/durum), lentils (Lens culinaris), bitter vetch (Vicia ervilia) and chickpea (Cicer arietinum) were identified and these plants were interpreted as crops. The low levels of weeds and crop processing by-products suggest most of the samples were remains of stores of human food. Two samples in which wild components (for example, Triticum boeticum, Medicago, Aegilops) dominated were interpreted as crop processing by-products, presumably stored for fodder. The presence of these stores in a structure interpreted as having a religious function shows that domestic activities also took place there. Comparison with other Neolithic and Chalcolithic sites of west central Turkey demonstrates a good correspondence in the range of crops. The poor representation of barley at Höyücek doubtless reflects the small number of samples from the site.

Türkiye'nin güney batısında yer alan neolitik yerleşim Höyücek'teki (Karbon 14 ile G.Ö. 7550–7350 [uncalibrated], MÖ 6400–6100 [calibrated] tarihlenmektedir) yaklaşık 39,000 bitki kalıntısını temsilen 11 örnek incelendi. Önemli miktarda emmer buǧdayı (Triticum dicoccum), kolay harmanlanan bir tip buǧday (Triticum aestivum/durum), mercimek (Lens culinaris), acı bakla (Vicia ervilia) ve nohut bitkisi (Cicer arietinum) belirlendi ve bu bitkiler mahsul olarak yorumlandı. Bu mahsul içinde yabani otların ve yan ürünlerin düşük miktarlarda bulunması, elde edilen örneklerin pekçoǧunun insan gıdası barındıran ambarlara ait kalıntılar olduǧunu göstermektedir. İçinde yabani otların çoǧunlukta olduǧu iki örnek ise (ör. Triticum boeticum, Medicago, Aegilops) mahsulun işlenmesi sırasında ortaya çıkan ve muhtemelen hayvan yemi olarak depolanan yan ürünler olarak yorumlandı. Bu ambarların bir yapı içindeki varlıǧının dini bir fonksiyonu olduǧu şeklinde yorumlanması, bu alanlarda yaşandıǧını da göstermektedir. Bu veriler Türkiye'nin orta-batısında yer alan diǧer Neolitik ve Kalkolitik alanlar ile karşılaştırıldıǧında, genel mahsul skalasına uygun bir ilişki göstermektedir. Höyücek'te az miktarlarda arpa bulunması ise, kesinlikle bölgeden alınan örneklerin azlıǧından kaynaklanmaktadır.

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References

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Plant stores at pottery Neolithic Höyücek, southwest Turkey

  • Danièle Martinoli (a1) and Mark Nesbitt (a2)

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