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Balboura Survey: Onesimos and Meleager, Part I

  • J. J. Coulton, N. P. Milner and A. T. Reyes

Extract

In the course of the survey of the surface remains of the North Lycian city of Balboura, our attention was drawn to three small buildings near the southwest corner of the agora (Fig. 1), because their association with a series of inscriptions casts an interesting light on the society of the city. Most of these inscriptions have long been known, although three are unpublished, but their significance cannot be fully appreciated without some knowledge of the buildings and statue bases with which they are associated. Our aim, therefore, is to consider the architectural and epigraphic evidence together.

The buildings concerned (Figs. 2–4) are, from west to east, an exedra set up by Onesimos the city slave (demosios), with statues of the Demos and Boule of Balboura; a temple of Nemesis, also built by Onesimos; and a second exedra, set up by the wealthy Meleager, son of Castor. All three buildings face southward onto a paved street, and turn their backs to the agora, which was set at a lower level to the north.

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1 The study of the exedra of Meleager is by J. J. Coulton, that of the other architecture by A. T. Reyes, while all the inscriptions are the responsibility of N. P. Milner. As is inevitable in such a joint investigation, however, each of us owes much to discussion with the others. The site plan (Fig. 1) is adapted from the survey plan by Dr. L. Bier of Brooklyn College, New York, and the state plan of the temple of Nemesis and the exedra of Onesimos was executed with his assistance. Valuable advice on Nemesis, Boule, and Demos was provided by Dr. O. Palagia.

2 Because the temple probably had Ionic, Corinthian, or Composite capitals (below, p. 128), its columns would normally have had twenty-four flutes (Vitr. 3.5.12; 4.1.1.). For an Ionic building whose principal columns had sixteen flutes, see Dinsmoor, 142 (fifth-century B.C. stoa of the Athenians at Delphi); cf. Coulton, J. J., Greek Architects at Work (1977) 39.

3 Cf. Shoe, 145, 149–50; pl. 69.

4 For the ancient testimonia on Nemesis and the wheel, see Cook, A. B., Zeus 1 (1914) 269–71, and note also Vettius Valens 6.9.14 (cited in Seyrig, H., Syria 13 (1932) 52 n. 1). On the iconography of Nemesis in general, see Karageorghis, V., Sculptures from Salamis 1 (1964) 1214 with references to earlier bibliography; Rolley, C., BCH 88 (1964) 502 with n. 2; Hamdorf, F. W., Griechische Kultpersonifikationen der vorhellenistischen Zeit (1964) 35–6; Fleischer, R. in Hommages à Maarten J. Vermaseren 1 (1978) 392–6, Taf. 77–9; see also below, p. 131.

5 For examples, see RE 13 (1927) 2000 no. γ (Eleusis); 2004 no. 17 (Basilica Julia in Rome); 2006 no. 2 (Timgad and Germany), s. v. lusoria tabula. For a photograph of an example from Eleusis, see Liddell, D. M., Chessmen (1938) pl. opposite 115.

6 Cf. Owen, S. G., ed., P. Ovidi Nasonis Tristium Liber Secundus (1924) 257 and RE, op cit. (n. 5), 1987.

7 RE, op. cit. (n. 5) 1988, 2004–5 distinguishes between eight-spoked wheels and wheels with a greater or lesser number of spokes, suggesting that the latter were related to a game called ὤμιλλα, mentioned in Pollux 9.102.

8 On the symbolism of the wheel motif in classical antiquity, see references in Robinson, D. M., Excavations at Olynthus 10 (1941) 512–3 with n. 112–3 and id., Excavations at Olynthus 12 (1946) 254–7 n. 27.

9 Roscher, W. H., Ausführliches Lexikon der griechischen und römischen Mythologie 3 (18971908) 135–41; A. B. Cook, op. cit. (n. 4) 268; Kajanto, I. in ANRW 2.17.1 (1981) 516, 521.

10 Cf. the use of a four-spoked wheel above the legend ΑГΑΘΗ ΤΥΧΗ on the floor mosaic of an anteroom in a house at Olynthus: Robinson, D. M., AJA 38 (1934) 502–5; id., Excavations at Olynthus 8 (1938) 59–60, 288–90; pl. 15–6, 84–5.

11 Vitr. 3.4.12; 4.1.1, 8; cf. 3.3.7 (possibly a textual interpolation: Fensterbusch, C., ed., Vitruvii De Architectura (1964) 543 n. 175).

12 Cf. the proportions for Ionic and Corinthian columns tabulated in Dinsmoor, table between 340 and 341.

13 On the appearance and construction of ancient doors, see Vitr. 4.6.1–6 and Donaldson, T. L., A Collection of the Most Approved Examples of Doorways from Ancient Buildings in Greece and Italy (1833); Klenk, H., Die Antike Tür (1924); Büsing-Kolbe, A., JDAI 93 (1978) 66174 (esp. 138, Tab. 2 for tabulation of a small number of fasciae widths from door jambs); Coupel, P., Demargne, P., Fouilles de Xanthos 3 (1969) 124–32, pl. 51–4, LXV–LXXIV; Waelkens, M., Die kleinasiatische Türsteine (1986). For jambs with wide innermost fasciae, cf. Lanckoronski, 2, pl. 14 (Odeion at Termessos) and door representations in Waelkens, cited above, Taf. 9.196; 33.226–7; 37.238; 64.419; 69.467; 71.474.

14 Vitruvius recommends that the height of a door should be 2–2·5 times its width (4.6.1, 3), but surviving ancient doorways vary considerably in proportions. The proportions of height to width for doorways in Lanckoronski vary roughly from 1·5 (1, 78) to 2·4 (2, 82–3, fig. 34). The proportions from Greece and Italy tabulated in Donaldson, op. cit. (n. 13) 30 vary from 2–2.6; those in Büsing-Kolbe, op. cit. (n. 13) 138, Tab. 1 from c. 1.5–3.75.

15 Threatte, L., The Grammar of Attic Inscriptions 1 (1980) 90.

16 Dörner, F. K., Der Erlass des Statthalters von Asia Paullus Fabius Persicus (1935) 16, fr.(c), lines 13–18.

17 Cf. Diogenes of Oenoanda, fr.115. in Smith, M. F., Prometheus 8 (1982) 193212.

18 Bibliography in Foucher, L., Mélanges … W. Seston (1974) 187.

19 Schweitzer, B., JDAI 46 (1931) 229, cf. 242.

20 Bean, G. E., Mitford, T. B., Journeys in Rough Cilicia 1964–8 (1970) no. 249.

21 Ibid., no. 91.

22 IGR 3, 465 = LBW 1226.

23 Opramoas gave a temple of each to Rhodiapolis (TAM 2.3, 905).

24 Ovid, , Tr. 5.8.5.

25 Nemesis appears as Tyche on Smyrna-Ephesos homonoia coins; B. Schweitzer, op. cit. (n. 19) 204.

26 Hill, G. F., British Museum Catalogue of Greek Coins: Lycia, Pamphylia, Pisidia (1897) 217–18. Nemesis also appears on coins of Gagai, Rhodiapolis, Aspendos, Attaleia, Amblada, Baris, Etenna/Kotenna, Isinda, Pednelissos and Termessos; for Kibyra see n. 28.

27 B. Schweitzer, op. cit. (n. 19) 175–246.

28 SNG v. Aulock: Phrygia (1964) no. 3726; cf. n. 33.

29 Bibliography in Fleischer, R., Hommages à M. J. Vermaseren 1 (1978) 393.

30 For examples, see Society of Dilettanti, Antiquities of Ionia 3 (1840) chapter 2, pl. 12 (Aphrodisias); Fellows, C., Discoveries in Lycia (1841) 176 (Xanthos); Krauss, F., Das Theater von Milet 1 (1973) 8990; Abb. 92–6.

31 On the iconography of Demos and Boule, see LIMC 3.1 (1986) 145–7, s. v. Boule; 375–82, s. v. Demos; Lawton, C. L., Attic Document Reliefs of the Classical and Hellenistic Periods 1 (Princeton Ph.D. thesis, 1984) 4653; Hamdorf, F. W., Griechische Kultpersonifikationen der vorhellenistischen Zeit (1964) 30–2; Palagia, O., Hesperia 51 (1982) 109 n. 58; Erim, K. T., Aphrodisias (1986) 84–5. Vermeule, C. C., Roman Imperial Art in Greece and Asia Minor (1968) 114, 122–3 suggests that Boule, like Senatus, could be depicted as a mature man; cf. Daremberg-Saglio 4.2, 1199, s. v. Senatus. See also p. 137 below.

32 For examples of reliefs that may have shown Boule and Demos together, see Schwenk, C. J., Antike Kunst 19 (1976) 64–6, pl. 14 = id., Athens in the Age of Alexander (1985) 394–401 no. 81; Daremberg-Saglio 1.1, 744, s. v. Boule = C. L. Lawton, op. cit. (n. 31) 301–3 no. 115; C. C. Vermeule, op. cit. (n. 31) 114, 122–3; Chuvin, P., RArch (1987) 100–1.

33 LIMC 3.1 (1986) 379 no. 52, s. v. Demos; illus. in LIMC 3.2 (1986) 125 no. 6, s. v. Boule. For similar numismatic representations of Boule, and Demos, , see LIMC 3.1 (1986) 379 no. 50 (Paphlagonia) and no. 51 (Bithynia), s. v. Demos. A coin from Kibyra, found in the western section of the upper city of Balboura in summer 1987, shows a veiled bust of Boule on the obverse and, on the reverse, a winged, standing Nemesis, plucking at her chiton with her right hand; cf. Head, B. V., Catalogue of the Greek Coins of Phrygia (1906) 136 no. 30–3; pl. 16.11 (“time of Septimius Severus and later”); SNG Copenhagen: Lydia 1 (1947) Phrygia pl. 8 no. 277 (“Imperial times”); SNG v. Aulock: Phrygia (1964) Taf. 121 no. 3726 (“2–3 Jh.”).

34 CIL 3, 6998 = ILS 7196.

35 Pleket, H. W., ZPE XLII (1981) 167–70.

36 REG XCIV (1981) 558.

37 Cf. Pittalakos in Aeschines, c. Tim. 54; 59.

38 J., and Robert, L., REG 86 (1973) 475.

39 Robert, L., in ed. des Gagniers, J. et al. , Laodicée du Lycos (1969) 316 ff., esp. 321.

40 Horsley, G. H. R., AS XXXVII (1987) no. 5 = Bean, G. E., TAD XIX (1970) no. 3.

41 TAM 3.1, 4851. Note also near Balboura: Bean, G. E., AS X (1960) no. 102 (Comama—of Boule).

42 MAMA 6, 380–380a.

43 Robert, L., L'Antiquité Classique XXXV (1966) 425–7.

44 Buckler, W. H., Revue de Philologie IX (1935) 187, no. 2.

45 Laumonier, A., BCH LIX (1935) 365–6.

46 L. Robert, loc. cit. (n. 43).

47 IGR 3, 465 = LBW 1226 = inv. no. 21.

48 Laumonier, A., Les Cultes indigènes en Carie (1958) 274.

49 L. Robert, loc. cit. (n. 39).

50 Balland, A., Fouilles de Xanthos VII (1981) 215 ff; but see now Wörrle (n. 73).

51 Foxhall, L., Forbes, H. A., Chiron XII (1982) 4190.

52 Rickman, G., The Corn Supply of Ancient Rome (1980) 10, 48.

53 Polybius, , Histories, 6.42.

54 A. Balland, loc. cit. (n. 50) no. 67.

55 Loc. cit. (n. 34).

56 Loc. cit. (n. 50); but Wörrle, loc. cit. (n. 73), refutes Balland's interpretation.

57 Naour, C., ZPE XXIV (1977) 265 no. 1.

58 Hands, A. R., Charities and Social Aid in Greece and Rome (1968) 95 ff.

59 Plutarch, , Pericles 37.4; schol. ad Aristophanes, Wasps 718.

60 IGR 3, 493.

61 TAM 2.3, 789.

62 IGR 3, 759.

63 TAM 2.2, 664–5.

64 TAM 2.2, 496.

65 TAM 2.3, 740.

66 TAM 2.3, 838.

67 Loc. cit. (n. 60).

68 Jameson, S., Lycia and Pamphylia under the Roman Empire from Augustus to Diocletian (Oxford D.Phil, thesis, 1965) 264.

69 IGR 3, 802 (Sillyon); ibid. 796 (Perge).

70 OGIS 533.

71 IG 5.2, 268 (Mantinea).

72 ILS 6595 (Italy).

73 Loc. cit. (n. 50) 217. But a sitometrion is now attested at Oinoanda by A.D. 124 (Wörrle, M., Stadt und Fest im kaiserzeitlichen Kleinasien (Vestigia 30, 1988) 127–8, 130).

74 Loc. cit. (n. 57) 269, n. 14.

75 G. Rickman, op. cit. (n. 52), 119, emphasizes that the imperial granaries erected at Patara and Myra were located on the northern Alexandrian corn route to Rome (Acts of the Apostles 27: 1–28; 13), and were unlikely to have housed supplies for the local communities of the district.

76 Vitr. 4.3.4 with reference to 3.3.12. Note also Coulton, J. J., BSA LXXIV (1979) 125, fig. 10; the Doric façade is chronologically closest to the buildings of Group 9/12 (Hellenistic), whose capitals suggest that the proportions of upper to lower column diameters varied between 0·8 and 0·9.

77 Shoe, 165, pl. 55.

78 On the use of handling bosses and for other examples, see Martin, R., Manuel d'architecture grecque I (1965) 209–10; J. J. Coulton, op. cit. (n. 2) 47–8, fig. 12e.

79 A distance of c. 0·20 m. might have been expected; note, for example, Lanckoronski 2, 81, fig. 32 (an Ionic temple) and 82, fig. 33 for the evidence.

80 For a similar step-cutting, cf. Courby, F., Picard, C., Recherches archéologiques à Stratos d'Acarnanie (1924) 38, fig. 20 and 43, fig. 23 (the inner frieze), with comments ad loc.

81 The accumulation of errors of measurement over the recording of the dimensions of individual frieze blocks accounts for the discrepancy.

82 Vitr. 4.3.4.

83 Coulton, J. J., The Architectural Development of the Greek Stoa (1976) 108–9.

84 Vitr. 4.4.1.

85 On Doric temple tombs in Asia Minor, see Coulton, J. J., AS XXXII (1982) 57–8 and n. 28.

86 Shoe, 92.

87 Ibid., 68.

88 Coulton, J. J., AS XXXII (1982) 50–1, fig. 5.

89 Dinsmoor, 175.

90 Coulton, J. J., AS XXXII (1982) 56, with references.

91 Coulton, J. J., AS XXXVI (1986) 8; for the inscription dating the aqueduct, see IGR 3, 466; Naour, C., Anc Soc 9 (1978) 166–70 with bibliography.

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Balboura Survey: Onesimos and Meleager, Part I

  • J. J. Coulton, N. P. Milner and A. T. Reyes

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