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Studies in race crossing. IX. Crosses of Australians and Papuans with Caucasians, Chinese, and other races

  • R. Ruggles Gates

Summary

In continuation of the series of studies of racial crosses, this paper gives a genctical account of various race hybrids, in which Australian aborigines or Papuans are involved with Chinese, Malayans or Filipinos. Several families are traced through four or five generations, and some involve three or (in one case) four different races. Most of these racial combinations have not been studied previously.

The racial characters recorded in Tables include colour of eyes, hair, eyebrows, eyelashes and skin, form of hair and measurements of head and of ears. In addition various observations of brow ridges, orbits, eyefolds, nose, lips and mouth were made. The Mongolian brachycephaly is strongly inherited from male Chinese ancestors; also the eyefolds, especially the top fold, which is more or less independent of the epicanthic fold. In Malay crosses the face and head are often very narrow. Marked segregation in sibs can occur in head form (cephalic index), hair colour, hair form, skin colour and other features. It has already been shown that in the F1 of aborigines × White the skin is near white. The same is true of Papuan × White, and in addition the child's hair is flaxen or very light brown although the Papuans appear to have always black or near-black hair.

Incidentally, it was also observed that the Papuans not infrequently have marked brow ridges, depressed nasal root and sunken orbits like the Australian aborigines, indicating common elements in the ancestry of these two races.

The Papuan nose, commonly with an overhanging tip, differs in some respects from the Semitic nose, and appears to be an independent (parallel) development.

All contrasted human racial characters, such as hair form and colour, head shape, brow ridges, nasal root depression, size of ear and of mouth appear to depend on a small number of cumulative genes, generally without dominance. In how far these are alleles or based on genes at independent loci can only be determined by further investigations.

Riassunto

Continuando la serie degli studi sugli incroci raziali, questo lavoro fa una relazione genetica degli ibridi di varie razze, in cui gli aborigeni Australiani o Papuani sono uniti a Caucasici, Cinesi, Malesi o Filippini. Molte famiglie sono descritte attraverso quattro o cinque generazioni ed alcune comprendono tre o (in un caso) quattro razze diverse. Molte di queste combinazioni raziali non sono state studiate precedentemente.

I caratteri raziali riportati nelle Tabelle comprendono il colore di: occhi, capelli, ciglia, sopracciglia e pelle; la forma dei capelli e le misurazioni del capo e delle orecchie. Furono fatte inoltre svariate osservazioni sulle rughe, sulle orbite, sulle pliche degli occhi, sul naso, sulle labbra e sulla bocca. La brachicefalia dei Mongoli è in gran parte ereditata da antenati cinesi di sesso maschile; così pure le pliche degli occhi, soprattutto la plica superiore che è più o meno indipendente dall'epicanto. Negli incroci Malesi la faccia ed il capo sono spesso molto stretti. Nelle fratrie può verificarsi una marcata segregazione per la forma del capo (indice cefalico), il colore e la forma dei capelli, il colore della pelle ed altri tratti. È già stato dimostrato che nella F, di aborigeno × Bianco la pelle è quasi bianca. Lo stesso vale nel caso di papuano × Bianco ed inoltre i capelli del bambino sono biondi o di un castano molto chiaro, benchè i Papuani abbiano sempre capelli neri, o quasi neri.

È stato anche osservato, incidentalmente, che i Papuani presentano con una certa frequenza rughe marcate, radice nasale depressa ed orbite incavate come gli aborigeni Australiani, il che sta ad indicare dei comuni elementi ancestrali nelle due razze.

Il naso Papuano, la cui punta tende generalmente in basso, differisce in alcuni caratteri dal naso semitico e sembra essere uno sviluppo indipendente (parallelo).

Tutti i caratteri raziali umani contrastanti, quali la forma ed il colore dei capelli, la forma del capo, le rughe, la depressione della radice nasale, la grandezza delle orecchie e della bocca, sembrano essere dovuti ad un basso numero di geni cumulativi, generalmente non-dominanti. Solo in ulteriori studi potrà essere stabilito quanto essi siano alleli, o basati su geni situati in loci indipendenti.

RÉSUMÉ

En continuant la série des études sur les croisements raciaux, voici une relation génétique des ibrides de diverses races, où les aborigènes Australiens ou Papouas sont croisés aux Caucasiens, aux Malais, aux Chinois ou aux Philippins. Beaucoup de familles sont suivies à travers quatre ou cinq générations et certaines comprennent trois ou (dans un cas) quatre races différentes. La plupart de ces combinations raciales n'ont pas été considérées jusqu'à maintenant.

Les caractères raciaux reportés dans les Tables comprennent la couleur des yeux, des cheveux, des cils, des surcils et de la peau; la forme des cheveux et les mesurations de la tête et des oreilles. Des observations ont été faites, en plus, sur les rides, les orbites et les plis des yeux, ainsi que sur le nez, les lèvres et la bouche. La brachycéphalie des Mongoles est héritée, en bonne partie, des ancêtres Chinois mâles, et aussi les plis des yeux, surtout le pli supérieur qui est plus ou moins indépendent de l'épicante. Dans les croisements Malais le visage et la tête sont souvent très étroits. Il peut se vérifier chez les siblings une remarquable ségrégation pour la forme de la tête (index céphalique), la couleur et la forme des cheveux, la couleur de la peau et d'autres caractères. Il a déjà démontré que dans la F, de aborigène × Blanc la peau est presque blanche. Il en est de même dans le cas de Papouas × Blanc et, en plus, les cheveux de l'enfant sont blonds ou d'un châtain très clair, quoique les Papouas aient toujours des cheveux noirs ou presque noirs.

Il a aussi été remarqué, presque acciden-talement, que les Papouas présentent assez fréquemment des rides profondes et la racine nasale et les orbites enfoncées comme les aborigènes Australiens, ce qui ferait penser à des éléments ancestraux communs dans les deux races.

Le nez Papouas, dont la pointe tend généralement vers le bas, diffère pour certains caractères du nez sémitique et paraît être un développement indépendant (parallèle).

Tous les caractères raciaux humains contrastants, tels que la forme et la couleur des cheveux, la forme de la tête, les plis, la dépression de la racine nasale, la grandeur des oreilles et de la bouche semblent être dûs à un petit nombre de gènes cumulatifs non-dominants. Ce ne sera que dans de prochaines études que l'on pourra établir jusqu'à quel point soient-ils allèles, ou basés sur des gènes situés dans des locus indépendants.

ZUSAMMENFASSUNG

In Fortsetzung der Serie von den Rassenkreuzungen Untersuchungen, macht der Verfasser eine genetische Beschreibung über die hybriden von vielen Rassen (Australianern und Papuasern Eingeborenen mit Kaukasern, Chinesen, Malesen und Philippinen). In vielen Familien geht die Beschreibung vier/fünf Generationen durch und in einigen gibt es drei oder (in einem Fall) vier verschiedene Rassen. Viele dieser Rassenkreuzungen sind bisher nicht untersucht worden.

Die in den Tabellen beschriebene Rassenmerkmale enthalten die Farbe von: Augen, Haar, Augenbrauen und Haut; die Form des Haares und die Masse des Kopfes und der Ohren. Die Falten, die Augenhöhlen, die Augenfalten, die Nase, die Lippen, den Mund sind auch beschrieben worden. Die Brachykephalie von den Mongolen ist von männlichen Chinesischen Ahnen am meistens geerbt und auch die Augenfalten, besonders die höchste Falte die, mehr oder weniger unabhängig com Epikanthis ist. In Malesischen Kreuzungen sind das Kopf und das Gesicht oft sehr eng. Eine starke Absonderung in den « siblings » kann in der Form des Kopfes, in der Farbe und der Forme des Haares, in der Farbe der Haut und in anderen Merkmalen begegnet werden. Es war schon beweist dass die Haut in der F, von Eingeborenen × Weiss fast weiss ist. Im Fall von Papuaser × Weiss ist es das gleich und, ausserdem, ist das Haar des Kinders blond oder fast blond, obwohl die Papuasern ein schwarzes oder fast schwarzes Haar immer haben.

Nebenbei hat man auch bemerkt dass die Papuasern starke Falten, vertiefte Nasalwurzel und ausgehöhlte Augenhöhlen wie die Australianern Eingeborenen haben; darum denkt man dass die zwei Rassen einige gemeinschaftlichen Ahnen haben.

Die gewöhnlich vorspringende Papuasische Nase ist etwas verschieden von der semitischen Nase und scheint eine unabhängige (parallele) Entwicklung zu sein.

Alle menschlichen verschiedene Rassenmerkmale, wie die Form und die Farbe des Haares, die Form des Kopfes, die Falten, die Vertiefung der Nasalwurzel, die Grösse des Ohres und des Mundes sind von einer kleinen Nummer von gewöhnlich non-dominanten Genen wahrscheinlich abhängig. Nur durch andere Untersuchungen kann man wissen bis wo sind sie allele, oder auf Genen in unabhängigen loci gegründet.

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References

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Studies in race crossing. IX. Crosses of Australians and Papuans with Caucasians, Chinese, and other races

  • R. Ruggles Gates

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