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Latin America and the Inversion of United States Stereotypes in the 1920s and 1930s: The Case of Culture and Nature*

  • Fredrick B. Pike (a1)


In this essay I describe some often ignored North American modes of perceiving Latin Americans; and I suggest that a change in these modes contributed to the Good Neighbor era (1933-1945). I do not presume to argue that shifting attitudes and perceptions should be seen as the principal factors in shaping the Good Neighbor policy. Anyone concerned with the primary determinants of that policy must turn to security and economic considerations. Still, an intellectual—and, really, a psychological—phenomenon of shifting perceptions and stereotypes among North Americans accounted for some of the enthusiasm with which they greeted what they took to be a new approach to Latin America.

In its central thrust this essay suggests that in hemispheric relations, seen from the north-of-the-Rio-Grande perspective, the United States stands generally for culture and Latin America for nature. Symbolizing the capitalist culture of the Yankees, shaped by their struggle to subdue wilderness and nature, has been the white male, often portrayed by Uncle Sam. In contrast, Latin America has been symbolized by Indians, blacks, women, children, and also the idle poor: people assumed to lack the capitalist urge constantly to tame, dominate, and uplift nature.



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Portions of this essay were presented in a paper delivered at the 1984 American Historical Association Convention in Chicago. Comments and criticisms by Joyce Goldberg, Frederick M. Nunn, Michael Ogorzaly, Joseph S. Tulçhin and an anonymous reader proved enormously helpful in the revision of early drafts.



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1 An enormous amount of writing has appeared on the alienation of United States intellectuals from the capitalist culture. Much of that literature that is pertinent to the 1920s and ’30s is cited by Hollander, Paul in his thoughtful book Political Pilgrims: Travels of Western Intellectuals to the Soviet Union, China, and Cuba (New York, 1981). For Van Vechten on “the splended drunken twenties,” see Kellner, Bruce, Carl Van Vechten and the Irreverent Decades (Norman, 1968), esp. chapts. 6 and 9. For many Americans the United States was again becoming the alcoholic republic,” with many of the implications that Rorabaugh, W.J. attaches to such a phenomenon in his book The Alcoholic Republic: An American Tradition (New York, 1979).

2 See Perret, Geoffrey America in the Twenties: A History (New York, 1982).

3 Equating nature “out there” with inward nature is no new phenomenon with figures critical of mainstream culture. In Wilderness and the American Mind, 3rd ed. (New Haven, 1982), p. 89, Roderick Nash writes: “Much of [Henry David] Thoreau’s writing was only superficially about the natural world. Following [Ralph Waldo] Emerson’s dictum that ‘the whole of nature is a metaphor of the human mind,’ he turned to it repeatedly as a figurative tool. Wilderness symbolized the unexplored qualities and untapped capacities of every individual. The burden of his message was to penetrate the ‘wilderness … in our brains and bowels, the primitive vigor of Nature in us.‘”

4 See Roazen, Paul, Freud and His Followers (New York, 1971), p. 373 . For a telling critique of the American school of Freudian analysis with its vacuous optimism and failure to take into account the sense of the tragic inherent in Freud’s thought, see Bettelheim, Bruno, Freud and Man’s Soul (New York, 1982).

5 See Moore, R. Laurence, In Search of White Crows: Spiritualism, Parapsychology, and American Culture (New York, 1977), p. 151 .

6 Ibid., p. 165.

7 On the “introspective revolution,” see Weinstein, Fred and Piatt, Gerald M., The Wish To Be Free: Society, Psyche, and Value Change (Berkeley and Los Angeles, 1969), esp. pp. 137–67. In addition to modern art, a cresting wave of spiritualism in the United States of the 1920s attested to the introspective revolution. On the new cult of spiritualism, see Webb, James, The Harmonious Circle: The Lives and Work of G. I. Gurdjieff, P. D. Ouspensky, and their Followers (New York, 1980), and Welch, Louise, Orage with Gurdjieff in America (Boston, 1982). See also Ellwood, Robert, Religious and Spiritual Groups in Modern America (Englewood Cliffs, N.J., 1973), and Judah, J. Stillson, The History and Philosophy of the Metaphysical Movement in America (Philadelphia, 1967).

8 MacLeish, Archibald, “The Alternative,” an essay included in his A Continuing Journey (Boston, 1976), p. 159 .

9 McLoughlin, William B., Revivals, Awakenings, and Reform: An Essay on Religion and Social Change in America, 1607–1977 (Chicago, 1978), p. 200 . Tichi, Cecelia in her New World, New Earth: Environmental Reforms in American Literature from the Puritans through Whitman (New Haven, 1979) focuses on the concept that the New World environment had to be reformed, mastered, dominated and—as it were—“uplifted” before millennialist expectations could be fulfilled. On the other hand art historian Novak, Barbara in Nature and Culture: American Landscape and Painting 1825–1875 (New York, 1980), reveals the strength of the pantheist, transcendentalist conviction that human nature could be redeemed through submission to the wilderness. Thus ambivalence toward the physical wilderness matches that toward the psychic “inward country:” both may be seen as threatening forces that require control and, alternatively, as beneficent sources of fulfillment to which the individual must periodically surrender.

10 Quoted in Dary, David, Cowboy Culture: A Saga of Five Centuries (New York, 1981), p. 280 .

11 See Mitchell, Lee Clark, Witness to a Vanishing America: The Nineteenth-Century Response (Princeton, 1981).

12 See Hahn, Emily, Mabel: A Biography of Mabel Dodge Luhan (Boston, 1977), chap. 9, and Rudnick, Lois Palken, Mabel Dodge Luhan (Albuquerque, 1984), esp. chap. 5.

13 See Broder, Patricia Janis, Taos: A Painter’s Dream (New York, 1980), and Nelson, Mary Carroll, The Legendary Artists of Taos (New York, 1980).

14 Andrew Dasburg quoted by Fergusson, Erna, New Mexico: A Pageant of Three Peoples, 2d ed. (Albuquerque, 1973), pp. 374–75.

15 For background on the promise and the glory that “civilized” people have found in “primitive” Indians, see Fairchild, Hoxie N., The Noble Savage: A Study in Romantic Nationalism (New York, 1928). Also useful are Fiedler, Leslie, The Return of the Vanishing American (New York, 1968), and Pearce, Roy Harvey, Savages of America: A Study of the Indian and the Idea of Civilization (Baltimore, 1953).

16 Quoted by Haskell, Barbara, Marsden Hartley (New York, 1980), p. 58 .

17 See Fergusson, , New Mexico, pp. 370–71, and Taylor, Graham D., The New Deal and American Indian Tribalism: The Administration of the Indian Reorganization Act, 1934–1945 (Lincoln, 1980), esp. pp. 1113 .

18 See Broder, Patricia Janis, American Indian Painting and Sculpture (New York, 1981), p. 9 . See also Douglas, Frederic H. and d’Harnoncourt, René, Indian Art of the United States (New York, 1941), the catalogue for the Museum of Modern Art exhibition, and Sloan, John and La Farge, Oliver, Introduction to American Indian Art, 2 vols. (New York, 1931), detailing the discovery of the importance of Indian art by “high art” circles. The critical success achieved by the Indian art exhibit at the 1939 San Francisco Exposition, staged by d’Harnoncourt, is stressed by Schrader, Robert Fay, The Indian Arts and Crafts Board: An Aspect of New Deal Indian Policy (Albuquerque, 1983).

19 On North American response to the Mexican art exhibition, see Helen Delpar’s excellent paper, “The Reception of Mexican Art in the United States, 1919–1930,” presented at the November 1981 meeting of the Southern Historical Association in Louisville (unpublished).

20 See Gibson, Arrell Morgan, The Santa Fe and Taos Colonies: Age of the Muses, 1900–1942 (Norman, 1983), pp. 202–03, 207–08. A less friendly treatment of Mary Austin appears in Drinnon, Richard, Facing West: The Metaphysics of Indian-Hating and Empire Building (Minneapolis, 1980), pp. 223–31.

21 See Stocking, George W. Jr. Race, Culture, and Evolution: Essays in the History of Anthropology (New York, 1968), pp. 172–73, 229, 88.

22 See Gleason, Philip, “Americans All: World War II and the Shaping of American Identity,Review of Politics, 43 (1981), pp. 491, 514.

23 See Berkhofer, Robert F. Jr. The White Man’s Indian: Images of the American Indian from Columbus to the Present (New York, 1978), esp. pp. 178–86, and Hertzberg, Hazel L., The Search for an American Indian Identity: Modern Pan-Indian Movements (Syracuse, 1971), pp. 287–98. Extended, evenhanded treatment of Collier’s controversial administration of Indian affairs is provided by Philp, Kenneth R., John Collier’s Crusade for Indian Reform, 1920–1945 (Tucson, 1977). On Collier’s life and activities up to 1928, see Kelly’s, Lawrence C. masterful The Assault on Assimilation: John Collier and the Origins of Indian Policy Reform (Albuquerque, 1983). On the mystical visions that Collier brought to the formulation of Indian policy (resembling the attitudes that shaped Waldo Frank’s attitudes toward Latin Americans discussed below), see his On the Gleaming Way, 2d ed. (Chicago, 1962).

24 See the concluding chapter of Herrick’s autobiographical novel Waste (New York, 1924), esp. pp. 405–06, 418–20. A central character in this novel, Cynthia Lane, is loosely modeled on Mabel Dodge Luhan.

25 On the influence of Masonry on one indigenista movement in Peru, the APRA, see Pike, Fredrick B., “Visions of Rebirth: The Spiritualist Facet of Peru’s Haya de la Torre,Hispanic American Historical Review, 63 (1983), p. 501 .

26 See American Indian Tepee, 7 (1925), pp. 6–7, quoted by Hertzberg, , Search for an American Indian Identity, pp. 223–24.

27 See Onwood, Maurice, “Impulse and Honor: The Place of Slave and Master in the Ideology of Plantations,Plantation Society in America, 1 (1979), esp. pp. 3337 . On stereotypes extending back to the tenth century B.C. that depict slaves as people essentially dominated by their animalistic, instinctual nature, and slave owners as persons of consciousness and rational control, see Evans, William McKee, “From the Land of Canaan to the Land of Guinea: The Strange Odyssey of the Sons of Ham,American Historical Review, 85 (1980), 1453 . As slavery came gradually to be reserved primarily for Africans, stereotypes once associated with the slave were imputed to blacks in general.

28 See Hughes’s, Langston autobiography, The Big Sea (New York, 1940), and Lewis, David Levering, When Harlem Was in Vogue (New York, 1981). See also Anderson, Jervis, This Was Harlem: A Cultural Portrait, 1900–1950 (New York, 1982), Huggins, Nathan I., Harlem Renaissance (New York, 1971), Kellner, Bruce ed., “Keep A-Inchin’ Along”: Selected Writings of Carl Van Vechten about Black Art and Letters (Westport, Conn., 1979), and Moses, Wilson J., The Golden Age of Black Nationalism, 1850–1925 (Hamden, Conn., 1978).

29 Jean Toomer, quoted in Webb, , The Harmonious Circle, p. 416 . On the inspiration that “high art” began to find in children’s art, in part because of the way it was thought to lead one into the realm of the unconscious, see Homer, William Innes, Alfred Stieglitz and the American Avant-Garde (Boston, 1977), pp. 144–46, 289, note 20, and 297–98. The interest that the Greenwich Village counterculture of World War I years accorded children’s art, about which Homer writes, reappeared in the counterculture of the 1920s and ’30s.

30 Toomer stands in a long line of writers who have seen in black slaves, servants, and workers a source of regeneration. See Sollors, Werner, “Literature and Ethnicity,Harvard Encyclopedia of American Ethnic Groups, ed. Thernstrom, Stephen (Cambridge, Mass., 1980), p. 655 . On the perception of blacks as uniquely endowed, by dint of long suffering, to lead the way toward the secular millennium, see Moses, Wilson J., Black Messiahs and Uncle Toms: Social and Literary Manipulators of a Religious Myth (College Station, Pa., 1982).

31 On the woman-and-nature theme, see Easlea, Brian, Witch Hunting, Magic and the New Philosophy (Atlantic Highlands, N.J., 1980), Griffin, Susan, Woman and Nature: The Roaring Inside Her (New York, 1978), Lloyd, Genevieve, The Man of Reason: “Male” and “Female” in Western Philosophy (New York, 1984), McMillan, Carol, Woman, Reason and Nature (Princeton, 1982), Merchant, Carolyn, The Death of Nature: Women, Ecology and the Scientific Revolution (New York, 1980), and Ortner, Sherry B., “Is Female to Male as Nature Is to Culture?” in Rosaldo, Michelle Zimbalist ed., Woman, Culture and Society (Stanford, 1974), pp. 6787 .

32 See Hirschman, Albert O., The Passions and the Interests: Political Arguments for Capitalism before Its Triumph (Princeton, 1977).

33 Hale, Sarah quoted in Ann Douglas, The Feminization of American Culture (New York, 1977), p. 128 .

34 Kessler-Harris, Alice, Out to Work: A History of Wage Earning Women in the United States (New York, 1982), makes a major contribution in showing the extent to which the 1920s represented a turning point for women.

35 See Fishbein, Leslie, Rebels in Bohemia: The Radicals of the “Masses,” 1911–1917 (Chapel Hill, 1982), p. 137 .

36 Similar notions of a millennialist future to be achieved through liberation of the dark-skinned victims of Western colonialism underlay the anti-imperialist urge that gripped many European intellectuals and artists around the turn of the century and found a reflection among United States avant-garde thinkers in the 1920s and ’30s. For an indication of this thought, see Lipp, Julius, The Savage Strikes Back (New Haven, 1937).

37 See Parry, Elwood, The Image of the Indian and the Black Man in American Art, 1590–1900 (New York, 1974), p. 130 .

38 See Weinberg, Albert K., Manifest Destiny: A Study of Nationalist Expansion in American History (Baltimore, 1935), pp. 7299 , and DeLeón, Arnoldo, They Called Them Greasers: Anglo Attitudes Toward Mexicans in Texas, 1821–1900 (Austin, 1983). See also García, Juan Ramón, “The Mexican in Popular Literature, 1875 to 1925,” in Down Mexico Way, ed. Turner, Teresa L. (Tucson, 1984), pp. 114 , Horsman, Reginald, Race and Manifest Destiny: The Origins of American Racial Anglo-Saxonism (Cambridge, Mass., 1981), esp. pp. 189228 , Langum, David J., “Californios and the Image of Indolence,Western Historical Quarterly, 9 (1978), 181–96, Pitt, Leonard, The Decline of thfe Californios (Berkeley and Los Angeles, 1966), esp. chap. 3, Weber, David J. ed., Foreigners in Their Native Land (Albuquerque, 1973), and Weber, , “‘Scarce More than Apes.’ Historical Roots of Anglo American Stereotypes of Mexicans in the Border Region,” in his edited book, New Spain’s Far Northern Frontier (Albuquerque, 1979), pp. 295307 .

39 See Rogin, Michael Paul, Fathers and Children: Andrew Jackson and the Subjugation of the American Indian (New York, 1975).

40 Andrew Jackson, quoted in Takaki, Ronald T., Iron Cages: Race and Culture in Nineteenth-Century America (New York, 1979), pp. 8384 .

41 On Roosevelt’s lumping together of Filipinos and Apaches, see ibid., p. 279. For the General Davis quotation, see Carr, Raymond, Puerto Rico: A Colonial Experiment (New York, 1984), p. 333 . In his provocative book Facing West, Richard Drinnon notes how attitudes originally applied to Indians were transferred to the inhabitants of Pacific islands and even of mainland China as the United States embarked upon imperialism. In imperialist expansion the United States faced not only to the west beyond its own west, but also to the south. The transfer of attitudes shaped by the frontier experience to people of nature occupying lands to the immediate south, rather than to inhabitants of the far-off west across the Pacific, has never received adequate attention.

42 On attempts to uplift Indians (attempts that will suggest to anyone knowledgeable on turn-of-the century United States-Latin American relations the degree to which attitudes toward the area south of the border grew out of attitudes toward Native Americans), see Prucha, Francis Paul ed., Americanizing the American Indians: Writings of the “Friends of the Indian” 1880–1900 (Lincoln, 1973).

43 By the 1920s, United States Indian policy began to reflect a general shift in racial attitudes. Increasingly, whites had come to abandon the vision of an integrated society, in which all alien elements somehow were to be elevated to the standards of the WASP. In place of integration, cultural pluralism had come to prevail; and culture pluralism assumed the survival of pockets of otherness within American society. (See Hoxie, Frederick A., A Final Promise: The Campaign to Assimilate the Indians, 1880–1920 [Lincoln, 1984], pp. 240–44.) The same transition in values and expectations occurred in the attitudes of many North Americans toward Latin Americans. The transition was especially evident in the 1930s.

44 See Johnson, John J., Latin America in Caricature (Austin, 1980). This is one of the most revealing studies ever published on underlying United States attitudes toward Latin Americans. On the significance of the women and the child as symbols in United States thought, see Hofstadter, Richard, Anti-Intel-lectualism in American Life (New York, 1964), esp. p. 47 , and King, Richard, The Party of Eros: Radical Social Thought and the Realm of Freedom (Chapel Hill, 1972), p. 23 .

45 See Whitaker, Arthur P., The United States and the Independence of Latin America, 1800–1830 (Baltimore, 1941), p. 37 .

46 John Adams, quoted by Takaki, , Iron Cages, p. 4 .

47 The desire to prolong childhood appears in many countercultures regardless of time and location. In Germany, for example, the Youth Movement that began in 1901 as a hiking society for boys, and soon spread throughout the country, revealed this characteristic. “One of its chief convictions was the idea that youth was not merely a transitional phase on the way to adulthood, but a value in and of itself.” See Wolin, Richard, Walter Benjamin: An Aesthetic of Redemption (New York, 1983), p. 4 .

48 See Rosenstone, Robert A., “Learning from those ‘Imitative’ Japanese: Another Side of the American Experience in the Mikado’s Empire,American Historical Review, 85 (1980), p. 594 , referring to Professor Ernest F. Fenollosa.

49 Fenollosa, , “Chinese and Japanese Traits,Atlantic Monthly, 69 (1892), p. 775 , quoted in Rosenstone, , “Learning from those ‘Imitative’ Japanese,” p. 594 .

50 According to the Literary History of the United States, ed. Spiller, Robert, et al. (New York, 1948), II, 1387 , Frank was the “only serious North American author who exercised a direct influence in Latin America during the 1930s.” Moreover, Frank’s reputation endured in Latin America, in marked contrast to the precipitous decline it suffered in the United States. See Dudley, William S., “Waldo Frank, North American Pensador,” in Columbia Essays in International Affairs: The Dean’s Papers, Vol. 3, ed. Cordier, A.W. (New York, 1968).

51 See Gleason, Philip, “American Identity and Americanization,Harvard Encyclopedia of American Ethnic Groups, p. 38 .

52 See Scholem, Gershom, On the Kabbalah and Its Symbolism, trans. Manheim, Ralph (New York, 1969), pp. 108 , 130. For useful background material, see Sharot, Stephen, Messianism, Mysticism, and Magic: A Sociological Analysis of Jewish Religious Movements (Chapel Hill, 1982).

53 See Frank, Waldo, South American Journey (New York, 1943), pp. 4557 .

54 On Frank’s fiction, see Bittner, William, The Novels of Waldo Frank (Philadelphia, 1958).

55 See Webb, , The Harmonious Circle, pp. 271–72. On Frank see also Ogorzaly, MichaelWaldo Frank: Prophet of Hispanic Regeneration,” Ph.D. diss., University of Notre Dame (1982).

56 Trachtenberg, Alan introduction to Memoirs of Waldo Frank, ed. Trachtenberg, (Amherst, 1973), p. viii.

57 For development of these themes, see Frank’s, The Re-Discovery of America: An Introduction to a Philosophy of American Life (New York, 1929).

58 Frank, Waldo America Hispana: A Portrait and a Prospect (New York, 1932), p. 370 . In his Memoirs, p. 134, Frank wrote: “How could the Americas become a New World (rather than ‘the grave of Europe’) unless they produced new men?”

59 This was Frank’s message to Argentines, as described by Meyer, Doris in Victoria Ocampo: Against the Wind and the Tide (New York, 1979), p. 105 . Frank’s belief that the two halves of the New World were destined to form an organic whole adds a new dimension to some of the viewpoints described by Whitaker, Arthur P. in his masterful study The Western Hemisphere Idea: Its Rise and Decline (Ithaca, 1954). Whitaker ignored the mystical, esoteric element inherent in the vision of Western hemispheric unity. An important void in intellectual history might be filled by a study approaching inter-American movements from this perspective.

60 Luis Alberto Sánchez, quoted in Bernardete, I.J. ed., Waldo Frank in America Hispana (New York, 1930), p. 119 .

61 From D. H. Lawrence’s Mornings in Mexico, quoted by Lewis, Wyndham Paleface: The Philosophy of the “Melting Pot” (New York, 1969 , originally published in 1929), p. 174. In this caustic book, Lewis is alternately insightful and mean-spirited as he examines feminism and the cults of the Indian, the Negro, and the child that engulfed many United States intellectuals in the 1920s.

62 Brooks, Van Wyck Days of the Phoenix: The Nineteen-Twenties I Remember (New York, 1957), pp. 2728 .

63 Borkenau, Franz The Spanish Cockpit (Ann Arbor, 1963, originally published in 1937), pp. 299300 .

64 See de Rivera, José Antonio Primo Obras de …, edición cronològica, comp. Cisneros, Agustín del Rio 4th ed. (Madrid, 1966), p. 787 .

65 See Pike, Fredrick B.The Spanish Background to the Civil War in Spain and the U.S. Response to the War,” in Falcoff, Mark and Pike, , eds., The Spanish Civil War: American Hemispheric Perspectives (Lincoln, 1982), pp. 3037 .

66 See Ogorzaly, , “Waldo Frank,” p. 189 . As it turned out, Frank did not undertake his lecture tour until 1942. On it see his South American Journey, and Ustedes y Nosotros: Nuevo mensaje a Ibero América, trans, from an English manuscript by Frieda Weber (Buenos Aires, 1942).

67 See Daniels, Josephus Shirt-Sleeve Diplomat (Chapel Hill, 1947), p. 309 .

68 See Cronon, E. David Josephus Daniels in Mexico (Madison, 1960), p. 113 .

69 See Frank, , Ustedes y Nosotros, pp. 165–67.

70 Wallace, Henry A. Democracy Reborn. Selected from the Public Papers and edited with an introduction and notes by Russell Lord (New York, 1944), p. 159 . José Manuel Puig Casauranc, Mexican ambassador to the United States at the time, offered a 1931 toast in Washington that echoes the sentiments of Waldo Frank and Henry Wallace: “America! Our America, without distinction of race or language, must become more and more united. Without boasting and without the slightest offense to Europe, it must be recognized that the axis of the Western civilization is turning; that it has already turned from where it was only a quarter of a century ago. We believe that axis is now at the point of passing, from North to South, to the American Continent.” Several years later Puig Casauranc, then Mexico’s minister of foreign relations, repeated the same toast to United States Ambassador Josephus Daniels. See Daniels, , Shirt-Sleeve Diplomat, p. 100 .

71 Wallace, , Democracy Reborn, p. 138 .

72 Wallace, Henry A. The Price of Freedom (Washington, D.C., 1940), p. 9 .

73 Wallace, , Democracy Reborn, pp. 230–31.

74 Ibid., p. 44.

75 Wallace, Henry A. Soviet Asia Mission, with the collaboration of Steiger, Andrew J. (New York, 1946), p. 20 .

76 See ibid., pp. 102, 124, and Democracy Reborn, p. 198.

77 Daniels, , Shirt-Sleeve Diplomat, p. 347 .

78 Herschel Johnson, quoted in Cronon, , Josephus Daniels, p. 85 .

79 Daniels, , Shirt-Sleeve Diplomat, p. 25 .

80 Ibid., p. 308.

81 Daniels, quoted in Cronon, , Josephus Daniels, p. 130 .

82 Ibid., p. 130. Cronon, p. 61, also detects an underlying Wilsonian influence on Daniels.

83 See Daniels, , Shirt-Sleeve Diplomat, p. 199 .

84 Tannenbaum, Frank Peace by Revolution: An Interpretation of Mexico (New York, 1933), p. 6 .

85 See Britton, John A.In Defense of Revolution: American Journalists in Mexico, 1920–1929,Journalism History, 5 (1978–79), pp. 126–28.

86 See Daniels, , Shirt-Sleeve Diplomat, p. 300 .

87 On Tannenbaum’s 1938 meeting with Haya de la Torre, see Davies, Thomas M. Jr. and Villanueva, Victor eds., Secretos electorales del APRA: Correspondencia y documentos de 1939 (Lima, 1982), pp. 1719 . On Frank’s 1942 meeting with Haya, see Frank, , South American Journey, p. 383 . His political rights stripped by the Peruvian government, Haya de la Torre was officially in hiding in the Lima area at the time of the Tannenbaum and Frank visits. However, the Peruvian government and the United States Embassy knew where Haya was most of the time.

88 See Salisbury, Richard V.The Middle American Exile of Víctor Raúl Haya de la Torre,The Americas, 40 (1983), pp. 116 .

89 See Daniels, , Shirt-Sleeve Diplomat, p. 258 .

90 See Daniel Aaron’s introduction to Herrick’s, Robert Memoirs of an American Citizen, a novel originally published in 1905 (Cambridge, Mass., 1963), p. xxviii. See also Budd’s, Louis J. introduction to Herrick’s, novel The Web of Life,(New York, 1970, originally published in 1900), pp. v–xxi, and Nevius, Blake, Robert Herrick: The Development of a Novelist (Los Angeles and Berkeley, 1970).

91 Welles, Sumner, Where Are We Heading? (New York, 1946), p. 236 . For a novel interpretation of Welles’s confrontations with State Department hardliners, see Bennett, Randall, The Roosevelt Foreign-Policy Establishment and the “Good Neighbor” : The United States and Argentina, 1941–1945 (Lawrence, Kan., 1979).

92 For classic statements of an economic interpretation of the Good Neighbor policy, see Gardner, Lloyd, Economic Aspects of New Deal Diplomacy (Madison, 1964), and Green, David, The Containment of Latin America (New York, 1971). On the security motivations of the policy see Haglund, David G., Latin America and the Transformation of U.S. Strategic Thought, 1936–1940 (Albuquerque, 1984), Langley, Lester D., “The World Crisis and the Good Neighbor Policy,The Americas, 24 (1967), pp. 137–52, and Wood, Bryce, The Making of the Good Neighbor Policy (New York, 1961). A judicious blending of economic and security factors distinguishes Dallek, Robert, Franklin D. Roosevelt and American Foreign Policy, 1932–1945 (New York, 1979), containing an excellent treatment of the Good Neighbor policy, and Gellman, Irwin F., Good Neighbor Diplomacy: United States Policies in Latin America, 1933–1945 (Baltimore, 1979).

93 See Ravitch, Diane, The Troubled Crusade: American Education 1945–1980 (New York, 1983), p. 78 .

94 See Howe, Irving, A Margin of Hope: An Intellectual Biography (New York, 1982), p. 233 . In this book, Howe faults the intelligentsia of the 1950s for being loath to do what he still felt in 1984 they must continually do: welcome into their ranks “the unruly, the uncouth, the barbaric,” and heed Emerson’s call to attend to “the literature of the poor, the feelings of the child, the philosophy of the street. …” See the report in the February 1, 1984 New York Times on the January 27 discussion at the New York Public Library on “Excellence: Theory and Practice in the Humanities.”

* Portions of this essay were presented in a paper delivered at the 1984 American Historical Association Convention in Chicago. Comments and criticisms by Joyce Goldberg, Frederick M. Nunn, Michael Ogorzaly, Joseph S. Tulçhin and an anonymous reader proved enormously helpful in the revision of early drafts.

Latin America and the Inversion of United States Stereotypes in the 1920s and 1930s: The Case of Culture and Nature*

  • Fredrick B. Pike (a1)


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