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Abolition, Chinese Indentured Labor, and the State: Cuba, Peru, and the United States during the Mid Nineteenth Century

  • Benjamin N. Narváez (a1)

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Abolition forced planters in the post-Civil War US South to consider new sources and forms of labor. Some looked to Spanish America for answers. Cuba had long played a prominent role in the American imagination because of its proximity, geostrategic location, and potential as a slave state prior to the Civil War. Even as the United States embraced abolition and Cuba maintained slavery, the island presented Southern planters with potential labor solutions. Cuban elites had been using male Chinese indentured workers (“coolies” or colonos asiáticos) to supplement slave labor and delay the rise of free labor since 1847. Planters in coastal Peru similarly embraced Chinese indentured labor in 1849 as abolition neared. Before the Civil War, Southerners generally had noted these developments with anxiety, fearing that coolies were morally corrupt and detrimental to slavery. However, for many, these concerns receded once legal slavery ended. Planters wanted cheap exploitable labor, which coolies appeared to offer. Thus, during Reconstruction, Southern elites, especially in Louisiana, attempted to use Chinese indentured workers to minimize changes in labor relations.

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In researching Chinese indentured labor in the Americas and writing this article, I have benefited greatly from the feedback and support of many individuals, including Martha Schultz, Jonathan C. Brown, Evelyn Hu-DeHart, Kathleen López, Kevin Whalen, and León Narváez. I would also like to thank the anonymous reviewers for The Americas for their insightful comments. Finally, I am grateful to the many archives, libraries, and institutions that have made this article possible.

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1. Even as poorer, less slave-dependent planters in the East rebelled against Spain in 1868 in concert with slaves, free people of color, and Chinese, planters in the wealthier slave and coolie-rich West showed little inclination to support abolition or independence. See Ferrer, Ada, Insurgent Cuba: Race, Nation, and Revolution, 1868–1898 (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1999).

2. Corbitt, Duvon Clough, A Study of the Chinese in Cuba, 1847–1947 (Wilmore, KY: Asbury College, 1971); Helly, Denise, Idéologie et ethnicité: les Chinois Macao á Cuba (Montreal: Les Presses de L'Université de Montreal, 1979); Juan Pastrana, Jiménez, Los chinos en la historia de Cuba: 1847–1930 (Havana: Editorial de Ciencias Sociales, 1983); Lai, Walton Look, Indentured Labor, Caribbean Sugar (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1993); Meagher, Arnold J., The Coolie Trade Traffic in Chinese Laborers to Latin America, 1847–1874 (Bloomington, IN: Xlibris, 2008); de la Riva, Juan Pérez, Los culíes chinos en Cuba: contribución al estudio de la inmigración contratada en el Caribe (Havana: Editorial de Ciencias Sociales, 2000); Pastor, Humberto Rodríguez, Hijos del Celeste Imperio en el Perú (1850–1900): migración, agricultura, mentalidad y explotación (Lima: Sur Casa de Estudios del Socialismo, 2001); Stewart, Watt, Chinese Bondage in Peru: A History of the Chinese Coolie in Peru, 1849–1874 (Durham: Duke University Press, 1951); de Trazegnies Granda, Fernando, En el país de las colinas de arena. Reflexiones sobre la inmigración china en el Perú del S. XIX desde la perspectiva del derecho, vol. 2 (Lima: Fondo Editorial de la Pontificia Universidad Católica del Perú, 1994).

3. Delgado, Grace Peña, Making the Chinese Mexican: Global Migration, Localism, and Exclusion in the US-Mexico Borderlands (Stanford: Stanford University Press, 2012); González, Fredy, Paisanos Chinos: Transpacific Politics among Chinese Immigrants in Mexico (Oakland: University of California Press, 2017); López, Kathleen, Chinese Cubans: A Transnational History (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2013); McKeown, Adam, Chinese Migrant Networks and Cultural Change: Peru, Chicago, Hawaii, 1900–1936 (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2001); Romero, Robert Chao, The Chinese in Mexico, 1882–1940 (Tucson: University of Arizona Press, 2010); Camacho, Julia María Schiavone, Chinese Mexicans: Transpacific Migration and the Search for a Homeland, 1910–1960 (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2012); Siu, Lok, Memories of a Future Home: Diasporic Citizenship of Chinese in Panama (Stanford: Stanford University Press, 2005); Yun, Lisa, The Coolie Speaks: Chinese Indentured Laborers and African Slaves in Cuba (Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 2008).

4. Young, Elliot, Alien Nation: Chinese Migration in the Americas from the Coolie Era through World War II (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2014).

5. Walton Look Lai, “Introduction: The Chinese in Latin America and the Caribbean,” Journal of Chinese Overseas 5:1 (2009): 1–3.

6. Moon-Ho Jung, Coolies and Cane: Race, Labor, and Sugar in the Age of Emancipation (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2006), 4–5; Young, Alien Nation, 46–47 and 59–60.

7. Erika Lee, The Making of Asian America: A History (New York: Simon and Schuster, 2015), 34–35, 64–65, 430–431.

8. William J. Novak, The People's Welfare: Law and Regulation in Nineteenth-Century America (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1996), 239–243; Gary Gerstle, Liberty and Coercion: The Paradox of American Government from the Founding to the Present (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2015), 74–124.

9. Eric Foner, Reconstruction: America's Unfinished Revolution, 1863–1877 (New York: Harper Perennial Modern Classics, 2002 [1988]); Rebecca Scott, Degrees of Freedom: Louisiana and Cuba after Slavery (Cambridge: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 2005).

10. Jung, Coolies and Cane.

11. Foner, Reconstruction, 401–409, 595–598; John C. Rodrigue, Reconstruction in the Cane Fields: From Slavery to Free Labor in Louisiana's Sugar Parishes, 1862–1880 (Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 2001), 159–191; David M. Oshinsky, Worse than Slavery: Parchman Farm and the Ordeal of Jim Crow Justice (New York: Free Press, 1996); Gunther Peck, Reinventing Free Labor: Padrones and Immigrant Workers in the North American West, 1880–1930 (New York: Cambridge University Press, 2000).

12. For more on the pressures against slavery and the desire to whiten Cuba, see Matt Childs, The 1812 Aponte Rebellion in Cuba and the Struggle against Atlantic Slavery (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2006); Ada Ferrer, Freedom's Mirror: Cuba and Haiti in the Age of Revolution (New York: Cambridge University Press, 2014); Aisha Finch, Rethinking Slave Rebellion in Cuba: La Escalera and the Insurgencies of 1841–1844 (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2015); Franklin Knight, Slave Society in Cuba during the Nineteenth Century (Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1970); Robert L. Paquette, Sugar is Made with Blood: The Conspiracy of La Escalera and the Conflict Between Empires over Slavery in Cuba (Middletown, CT: Wesleyan University Press, 1988); Michele Reid-Vazquez, The Year of the Lash: Free People of Color in Cuba and the Nineteenth-Century Atlantic World (Athens: University of Georgia Press, 2011); Rebecca Scott, Slave Emancipation in Cuba: The Transition to Free Labor, 1860–1899 (Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press, 1985); and Christopher Schmidt-Nowara, Empire and Antislavery: Spain, Cuba, and Puerto Rico 1833–1874 (Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press, 1999). For more on the factors encouraging Chinese emigration, see Philip A. Kuhn, Chinese among Others: Emigration in Modern Times (Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield, 2008); and Look Lai, Indentured Labor, 37–49. For more on the decision to embrace Chinese coolies, see Corbitt, A Study, 1–26; López, Chinese Cubans, 15–24; Pérez de la Riva, Los culíes, 18–78; and Yun, Coolie Speaks, 5–14.

13. For more on abolition in Peru, see Carlos Aguirre, Agentes de su propia libertad: los esclavos de Lima y la desintegración de la esclavitud, 1821–1854 (Lima: Fondo Editorial de la Pontificia Universidad Católica del Perú, 1993); Peter Blanchard, Slavery and Abolition in Early Republican Peru (Wilmington, DE: Scholarly Resources Inc., 1992); and Christine Hünefeldt, Paying the Price of Freedom: Family and Labor among Lima's Slaves, 1800–1854, Alexandra Stern, trans. (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1994). For more on the turn to coolie labor in Peru, see Rodríguez Pastor, Hijos, 25–34; and Stewart, Chinese Bondage, 3–30.

14. For a detailed look at the coolie experience in Cuba and Peru, see Corbitt, A Study; Helly, Idéologie; Evelyn Hu-Dehart, “Chinese Coolie Labour in Cuba in the Nineteenth Century: Free Labour or Neo-slavery?” Slavery and Abolition 14:1 (1993): 67–86; Jiménez Pastrana, Los chinos; López, Chinese Cubans, 15–53; Rodríguez Pastor, Hijos; Stewart, Chinese Bondage; Pérez de la Riva, Los culíes; Trazegnies Granda, En el país; Young, Alien Nation, 21–94; and Yun, Coolie Speaks.

15. Causa criminal sobre el parte dado por D. Gabriel Menocal de haber herido el asiático Dámaso al de su clase Jayme ambos de la dotación del ingenio Australia, 1864, Archivo Nacional de Cuba [hereafter ANC], Fondo Miscelánea de Expedientes [hereafter ME], leg. 2825, exp. G; Expediente del asiático Juan según lo dispuesto por el Gobierno Superior Civil el 12 de junio de este año, 1863, ANC, ME, leg. 4152, exp. Am; Félix Erenchun, Anales de la isla de Cuba. Diccionario administrativo, económico, estadístico y legislativo. Año de 1855, vol. C (Havana: Imprenta la Antilla, 1858), 1063–1073; International Population Census Publications: Latin America and the Caribbean: Cuba, 1768, 1827, 1841, 1846, 1861, 1877, 1887, 1899, 1907, 1919, 1931, 1943 (New Haven: Research Publications, Inc., 1980–1983), microfilm; Corbitt, A Study, 3–4; Hu-DeHart, “Chinese Coolie Labour,” 82–83; Verena Martínez-Alier, Marriage, Class, and Colour in Nineteenth-Century Cuba: A Study of Racial Attitudes and Sexual Values in a Slave Society (Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 1989), 77. Cuba, as a colonial slave society with few Indians, developed a semi-dichotomous system of race that divided the island between “whites” and “people of color” (that is, people of African descent). Cuban officials sought to fit the Chinese into this semi-binary system, opting to classify the Chinese as white, since only people of African descent could be enslaved legally. Moreover, based on the same reasons and a longer history of racial ambivalence toward Indians than blacks, Spanish officials in Cuba technically categorized Indians on the island as white as well. For further discussion of race in nineteenth-century Cuba, the association of blackness with slavery, and greater Spanish ambivalence toward indigenous people than blacks in Latin America, see Knight, Slave Society, 85–100, 116, 189–192; and Peter Wade, Race and Ethnicity in Latin America, 2nd ed. (London: Pluto Press, 2010), 24–35.

16. For this coolie legislation, see El Peruano (Lima) March 8 and 15, 1856, and March 23, 1861.

17. For examples of the free labor claim in Cuba, see Erenchun, Anales, vol. C, 1063–1064; and Ramón de la Sagra, Historia física económico-política, intelectual y moral de la isla de Cuba (Paris: Hachette y Cía., 1861), 149.

18. Expediente general sobre la colonización asiática en Cuba, 1853, Archivo Histórico Nacional de España [hereafter AHN], Ultramar, leg. 85, exp. 2; Expediente general sobre la colonización asiática en Cuba, 1857, AHN, Ultramar, leg. 85, exp. 4; La Compañía General Marítima pide importar colonos asiáticos, 1857, AHN, Ultramar, leg. 90, exp. 25; Ferrocarril de La Bahía de la Habana a Matanzas. Informe presentado por su Administrador General. Para demostrar el estado de los fondos y de los trabajos ejecutados hasta fin del mes de Diciembre del año de 1858, 1859, ANC, Junta de Fomento [hereafter JF], leg. 164, exp. 1909; Marcel Dupierris, Memorias sobre la topografía médica de la Habana y sus alrerededores, y sobre el estudio físico y moral de los colonos asiáticos: modo de dirigirlos en sus trabajos: medidas que deben tomarse para conservarlos en buena armonía con sus patronos: enfermedades mas frecuentes en los chinos, y medios de obtener su curación con los mas sencillos y prontos resultados (Havana: La Habanera, 1857), 69–80; De la Sagra, Historia física, 149–150; José Suárez Argudín, Inmigración africana. para las islas de Cuba y Puerto Rico y el imperio del Brasil (Havana: La Habanera, 1860), 147, 216, 219; Henry Ashworth, A Tour in the United States, Cuba, and Canada (London: A. W. Bennett, 1861), 62; Cristóbal Madan, El trabajo libre y el libre-cambio en Cuba (Paris: Bonaventure y Ducessois, 1864), 3; El Nacional (Lima), July 22 and August 29, 1871; El Nacional, June 16 and 18, 1873; El Nacional, December 24, 1874; El Nacional, September 14, 1875; El Nacional, January 8 and September 5, 1876; El Comercio (Lima), August 4, 1873; Stewart, Chinese Bondage, 20–21.

19. Cuban examples of this type of language include Expediente criminal en que el Coronel D. Miguel Molina manifiesta la libertad que gozan algunos asiáticos encausados por haber querido asesinar al mayoral, 1850, ANC, ME, leg. 4071, exp. Ac; Criminales contra los asiáticos Diego, Ramón, Domingo y Agustino por homicidio del asiático Ambrosio del Ingenio Santa Elena, 1856, ANC, ME, leg. 754, exp. A; Expediente promovido con motivo de la queja producida por los asiáticos Ramón, Rafael y Enrique sobre maltrato de parte de sus patronos, el cual se refiere también a los abusos cometidos por los importadores de colonos chinos, 1856, ANC, ME, leg. 4144, exp. Cd; Contra los asiáticos Ángel y Tiburcio por heridas al negro Eugenio Congo, 1857, ANC, ME, leg. 2577, exp. R; Contra Francisco o José Francisco Valdés, José Martínez y otros por ocultación de colonos asiáticos, 1859, ANC, ME, leg. 2404, exp. X; Por seducción de colonos, asiáticos prófugos, hurto de cédulas, contratos y falsificación de las mismas, procesados D. Francisco Nogueira y otros, 1859, ANC, ME, leg. 2629, exp. C; Por seducción de colonos, asiáticos prófugos, hurto de cédulas, contratos y falsificación de las mismas, 2ª pieza, 1859, ANC, ME, leg. 2629, exp. E; Contra los asiáticos Benito, Luís, Agustín, Domingo y otros, por homicidio de José Gómez, 1861, ANC, ME, leg. 2582, exp. A; Contra el asiático José por uso de armas prohibidas, 1862, ANC, ME, leg. 2582, exp F; Criminal seguido contra el asiático Bruno por heridas a D. José Ramírez, 1863, ANC, ME, leg. 824, exp. Q; Contra los asiáticos Rafael, Lorenzo, Roque y Joaquín por homicidio del también asiático Esteban, 1863, ANC, ME, leg. 2495, exp L; Expediente promovido por D. Pedro Fluriach reclamando el asiático José que se halla en el Depósito, 1863, ANC, ME, leg. 4152, exp. Ñ; Expediente instruido para averiguar si los 416 chinos, que han llegado en la fragata belga Leopold Cateu, consignados a los Sres. Troncoso Bustamante y Compañía, han sido contratados por su voluntad y el trato que han recibido a bordo durante la travesía, 1863, ANC, ME, leg. 4165, exp. B; Criminal seguido de oficio contra D. Juan Álvarez por muerte del asiático Luís y sevicia de los demás del ingenio Triunvirato, 1864, ANC, ME, leg. 2923, exp. L; Criminal seguido en la Alcaldía mayor de Güines por don Pedro Plutarco Renté contra los asiáticos Mauro, Sucero y Luís, colonos del ingenio Amistad de don Fernando Díaz por heridas y muerte de su compañero Meliton, 1865, ANC, ME, leg. 818, exp. A; Diligencias formuladas para averiguar el autor de las roturas de cabeza del asiático Luís a cargo de D. Bernardino Suárez, 1865, ANC, ME, leg. 787, exp. Bb; Por hallazgo de una osamenta humana en el ingenio Mamey que se supone del esclavo asiático Gavino, 1865, ANC, ME, Leg. 2475, exp. B; Por sevicia a los asiáticos del ingenio Paz, 1865, ANC, ME, leg. 2841, exp. Ll; Causa criminal contra el asiático Miguel contratado con D. Manuel V. Lavarría y Pablo Aragón por hurto a D. José Santana, 1866, ANC, ME, leg. 2879, exp. G; Contra el asiático José, colono de José Crusellas, por heridas simples a su patrono, 1867, ANC, ME, leg. 2696, exp. Ñ; Contra el asiático Gil por heridas y muerte del negro Andrés Lucumí, 1868, ANC, ME, leg. 2497, exp. N; Contra Ceferino López por lesiones al asiático Victoriano Valdés, 1868, ANC, ME, leg. 2798, exp. J; Contra D. Pedro Anayado por heridas inferidas al asiático Clemente, 1868, ANC, ME, leg. 2826, exp. P; Criminales contra los asiáticos Bartolo, Pablo y otros por lesiones al mayoral del Ingenio Combate D. José Matos, 1869, ANC, ME, leg. 760, exp. E; Averiguación de la procedencia del asiático Antonio Macao, 1869, ANC, ME, leg. 4144, exp. L; Contra los asiáticos Claudio y Cástulo por homicidio del negro José de la Cruz, 1871, ANC, ME, leg 2529, exp Az; Contra el asiático Eustaquio Apa por falsedad de una cédula de vecindad, 1871, ANC, ME, leg. 2925, exp. Ñ; Expediente promovido por el Cónsul de Portugal pidiendo que se expida pasaporte para los Estados Unidos al asiático Remigio Pedro González por haber terminado sus comprisos de colono, 1871, ANC, ME, leg. 4148, exp. E; Expediente promovido por el asiático Loreto en queja contra su patrón D. Eugenio Morel, 1872, ANC, ME, leg. 4146, exp. O; Expediente promovido por el Teniente Gobernador de Cárdenas con motivo de haber obtenido cédula de colono portugués el colono José del patronato de D. Andrés Pintalanoa, 1872, ANC, ME, leg. 4148, exp. Ah; Expediente promovido por el Teniente Gobernador de Jaruco con motivo de la remisión de altas y bajas de asiáticos y de los cumplidos por contrata, 1872, ANC, ME, leg. 4151, exp. I; Promovido por el Cónsul de Portugal remitiendo una circular expuesta al público en caracteres chinos referente á la Agencia de Asiáticos de Straus, 1872, ANC, ME, leg. 4151, exp. Al; Promovido por el Alcalde Corregidor de la Habana proponiendo un proyecto de decreto sobre asiáticos indocumentados, 1877, ANC, ME, leg. 4151, exp. All; Ferrocarril de La Bahía de la Habana a Matanzas, Informe presentado por su Administrador General, para demostrar el estado de los fondos y de los trabajos ejecutados hasta fin del mes de diciembre del año de 1858, 1859, ANC, JF, leg. 164, exp. 1909; Dispatch 52, May 2, 1868, US Consul-Havana, roll 50, microfilm, Austin, TX, Benson Latin American Collection, University of Texas at Austin; Erenchun, Anales, vol. C, 1059; Diario de la Marina, July 5, 1871; Antonio Gallenga, The Pearl of the Antilles (New York: Negro University Press, [1873] 1970), 88. Peruvian examples include Antonio y Dámaso Haedo, robo, 1854, Archivo General de la Nación del Perú [hereafter AGN], Causas Criminales, Corte Superior de Justicia de Lima (R.P.J.) [hereafter Criminales], leg. 131; Asam, hurto, 1858, AGN, Criminales, leg. 160; José Cruz y Achon, fraude, 1858, AGN, Criminales, leg. 161; Manuel Achay, inquietar, 1860, AGN, Criminales, leg. 183; Mariano Pagador, querella, 1862, AGN, Criminales, leg. 214; Manuel Lorenzo Casas, flajelación, 1863, AGN, Criminales, leg. 215; Ayon y Ayú, asalto y robo, 1870, AGN, Criminales, leg. 296; Ayán, Apén, Asi, Achan y Allan, hurto, 1870, AGN, Criminales, leg. 300; El Nacional, June 15, 16, 17, and 20, 1871.

20. Cuban examples of negative racialization include Expediente general sobre la colonización asiática en Cuba, 1852, AHN, Ultramar, leg. 85, exp. 1; Expediente general sobre la colonización asiática en Cuba, 1855–1857, AHN, Ultramar, leg. 85, exp. 4; Quince asiáticos piden la libertad, 1873, AHN, Ultramar, leg. 4436, exp. 70; El Teniente Gobernador de Colón consulta lo que debe hacerse con los chinos libres que no trabajan, 1866, ANC, Gobierno Superior Civil [hereafter GSC], leg. 1451, exp. 56902; Contra el asiático Luís por haber tomado, 1863, ANC, ME, leg. 2721, exp. E; Promovido por la Sociedad de Lombillo Montalvo y Compañía participando el fletamento de la fragata francesa Nelly, Capitán Poilbont, con 902 toneladas para conducir á este puerto 444 colonos asiáticos, 1869, ANC, ME, leg. 4151, exp. Ab; Boletín de Colonización (Havana), December 4, 1872; Boletín de Colonización, February 28, March 15, July 15, and October 15, 1873; Información sobre reformas en Cuba y Puerto-Rico: celebrada en Madrid en 1866 y 67, por los representantes de ambas islas, 2nd ed., vols. 1 and 2 (New York: Imprenta Hallet y Breen, 1877), 151–152, 165, 173; Suárez Argudín, Inmigración africana, 156–157, 191, 218, 222; Madan, El trabajo, 3; Dupierris, Memorias, 73–77; Eliza McHatton Ripley, From Flag to Flag: A Woman's Adventures and Experience in the South during the War, in Mexico, and in Cuba (New York: D. Appleton and Company, 1889), 18; Corbitt, A Study, 7–9; Pérez de la Riva, Los culíes, 188; and Schmidt-Nowara, Empire, 104. Peruvian examples include: El Comercio, October 6, 1851; El Comercio, July 28 and August 1, 1855; El Comercio, February 11, March 28, and April 23, 1856; El Comercio, June 2 and November 30, 1859; El Comercio, February 12, April 14, and October 6, 1860; El Comercio, November 21, 1861; El Comercio, January 10 and July 14, 1866; El Comercio, October 21, 1872; El Comercio, June 9, July 15, and August 4, 1873; El Nacional, June 7, September 29, November 3 and 9, 1870; El Nacional, March 1, April 20, and November 21, 1871; El Nacional, May 23, 1873; El Nacional, October 23 and November 21, 1874; El Nacional, January 2, 2nd ed., and December 16, 1875; El Nacional, September 16, 1876; El Peruano, November 16, 1870; and La Opinión Nacional (Lima) April 29, May 27, and June 1, 1874.

21. Yun, Coolie Speaks, 29–32, 105–142. For examples of this defense, see Por seducción de colonos, asiáticos prófugos, hurto de cédulas, contratos y falsificación de las mismas. Procesados D. Francisco Nogueira y otros, 1859, ANC, ME, leg. 2629, exp. C; Ramón Montero, maltrato, 1860, AGN, Criminales, leg, 183; Francisco Ricardo Menéndez, maltrato, 1861, AGN, Criminales, leg. 184; El Comercio, April 17, 1869; El Nacional, November 9, 1870, and June 20, 2nd ed., 1873; Ripley, Flag to Flag, 176–177; and Corbitt, A Study, 33–39.

22. For comparable analysis of how the racialization of African slaves as subhuman served to justify exploitation, see David Brion Davis, Inhuman Bondage: The Rise and Fall of Slavery in the New World (New York: Oxford University Press, 2006). During the late nineteenth and twentieth centuries, anti-Chinese movements throughout the Americas used many of the negative depictions of the Chinese from the coolie era to justify exclusion. See Najia Aarim-Heriot, Chinese Immigrants, African Americans, and Racial Anxiety in the United States, 1848-82 (Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 2003); Delgado, Making the Chinese Mexican; Alan Knight, “Racism, Revolution, and Indigenismo: Mexico, 1910–1940” in The Idea of Race in Latin America, 1870–1940, Richard Graham, ed. (Austin: University of Texas Press, 1990), 71–113; Evelyn Hu-DeHart, “Indispensable Enemy or Convenient Scapegoat? A Critical Examination of Sinophobia in Latin America and the Caribbean, 1870s to 1930s,” Journal of Chinese Overseas 5:1 (2009): 55–90; Erika Lee, At America's Gate: Chinese Immigration During the Exclusion Era, 1882–1943 (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2003); López, Chinese Cubans; Romero, Chinese in Mexico; and Young, Alien Nation.

23. For Cuban examples, see Expediente criminal en que el Coronel D. Miguel Molina manifiesta la libertad que gozan algunos asiáticos encausados por haber querido asesinar al mayoral, 1850, ANC, ME, leg. 4071, exp. Ac; Criminal por maltrato a los asiáticos de la dotación del Ingenio Sociedad (Cárdenas), 1851, ANC, ME, leg. 803, exp. V; Actuación de Audiencia contra D. Vicente Vizoso por golpes y heridas al asiático Gonzalo, 1859, ANC, ME, leg. 2602, exp. R; Contra los asiáticos Benito, Luís, Agustín, Domingo y otros, por homicidio de José Gómez, 1861, ANC, ME, leg. 2582, exp. A; Criminal seguido de oficio contra D. Juan Álvarez por muerte del asiático Luís y sevicia de los demás del ingenio Triunvirato, 1864, ANC, ME, leg. 2923, exp. L; Por sevicia a los asiáticos del ingenio Paz, 1865, ANC, ME, leg. 2841, exp. Ll; Por haberse arrojado a un pozo el asiático Julio, colono contratado con los Sres. Gutiérrez y Casal dueño del ingenio Guamuticas, y contra D. Emilio Gutiérrez por sevicia a la dotación de asiáticos de dicho ingenio, 1866, ANC, ME, leg. 2753, exp. A; Contra los asiáticos Ernesto y Buenaventura por heridas a D. Antonio Suárez, 1867, ANC, ME, leg. 785, exp. V; Contra el asiático José, colono de José Crusellas, por heridas simples a su patrono, 1867, ANC, ME, leg. 2696, exp Ñ; Por haberse presentado en el ingenio Margarita un asiático herido, 1868, ANC, ME, leg. 2692, exp. P; Criminales contra los asiáticos Bartolo, Pablo y otros por lesiones al mayoral del ingenio Combate D. José Matos, 1869, ANC, ME, leg. 760, exp E; Criminal contra los asiáticos Alfredo y otros por sublevación y lesiones a D. Roberto Bannatyne, 1871, ANC, ME, leg. 2893, exp. R; and Dupierris, Memorias, 81–82. For Peruvian examples, see Francisco Ricardo Menéndez, maltrato, 1861, AGN, Criminales, leg. 184; El Comercio, July 10, 1868 and April 17, 1869; El Nacional, February 4, 2nd ed., 1870; El Nacional, September 9, 12, 13, 16, and 20, 1870; El Peruano, April 29 and September 28, 1870.

24. For internal criticism, see El Comercio, February 7, 1856; El Comercio, March 29, 1862; El Comercio, July 1, 6, and 11, 1868; El Comercio, February 27, March 26, December 6 and 28, 1869; El Comercio, September 7, 1870; El Comercio, August 5, 1873; El Nacional, November 29, 1866; El Nacional, August 2 and November 17, 1868; El Nacional, March 1, 6, and August 27, 1869; El Nacional, August 9 and October 21, 1870; El Nacional, January 13, June 1, 6, 20, 23, and September 1, 1871; El Nacional, February 20, September 23 and 25, 1873; El Nacional, February 10, 1876; El Peruano, March 8 and 15, 1856; El Peruano, March 23, 1861; El Peruano, September 23, 1871; Félix Cipriano C. Zegarra, La condición jurídica de los estranjeros en el Perú (Santiago: Imprenta de la Libertad, 1872), 103–142; Special Report of the Anti-Slavery Conference, Held in Paris, in the Salle Herz, on the Twenty-sixth and Twenty-seventh August, 1867 (London: Committee of the British and Foreign Anti-Slavery Society, 1867), 127–128. Also see Stewart, Chinese Bondage, 108–137; and Humberto Rodríguez Pastor, La rebelión de los rostros pintados. Pativilca 1870 (Huancayo: Instituto de Estudios Andinos, 1979), 87–92. For international criticism, see Real Orden relativa a un artículo publicado en el ‘China Mail’ periódico de Hong Kong, 1856, ANC, Real Órdenes y Cédulas [hereafter ROC], leg. 190, exp. 206; Dispatch 232, July 27, 1855, US Consul-Havana, roll 30, microfilm; Dispatch 235, August 6, 1855, US Consul-Havana, roll 30, microfilm; Dispatch 4, March 9, 1858, US Consul-Havana, roll 39, microfilm; Dispatch 52, May 2, 1868, US Consul-Havana; Dispatch 499, July 15, 1871, US Consul-Havana, roll 64, microfilm; Dispatch 539, September 14, 1871, US Consul-Havana, roll 65, microfilm; Dispatch 551, September 28, 1871, US Consul-Havana, roll 65, microfilm; Dispatch 134, October 10, 1872, US Consul-Havana, roll 67, microfilm; Dispatch 270, August 19, 1873, US Consul-Havana, roll 69, microfilm; Dispatch 157, December 27, 1872, US Consul-Havana, roll 67, microfilm; Dispatch 41, November 28, 1866, US Ministers Peru-Lima, roll 21, microfilm, Austin, TX, Benson Latin American Collection, University of Texas at Austin; Dispatch 48, April 4, 1873, US Ministers Peru-Lima, roll 25, microfilm; Dispatch 11, September 20, 1870, US Consul-Callao, roll 6, microfilm, Austin, TX, Benson Latin American Collection, University of Texas at Austin; Dispatch 119, October 1, 1872, US Consul-Callao, roll 7, microfilm; Anti-Slavery Reporter (London), August 2, 1852. See also the following issues of the Anti-Slavery Reporter, February 1, 1855; April 1 and June 1, 1858; June 1, July 1, and October 1, 1859; March 1, April 2, and October 1, 1860; May 1, 1861; June 1, 1867; July 15, 1868; July 1, October 1, and December 31, 1869; March 31, June 30, and December 31, 1870; July 1 and December 31, 1871; March 30, July 1, and October 1, 1872; January 1, April 1, July 1, and October 1, 1873; January 1, April 1, July 1, and October 1, 1874; January 1, March 1, and September 1, 1875; July 1, 1876; September 1, 1877; and February 14 and May 14, 1878. In addition, see Edgar C. Holden, “A Chapter on the Coolie Trade,” Harper's New Monthly, 29:169 (June 1864): 1–10; New York Times, June 20, July 23, and October 11, 1853; New York Times, April 16, 1855; New York Times, July 31 and August 18, 1860; New York Times, July 1, 1866; New York Times, January 16, July 2, and August 9, 1871; New York Times, August 2 and September 22, 1872; New York Times, June 7 and July 19, 1873; New York Times, October 6, 1874; and New York Times, July 16, 1876. Further, see Corbitt, A Study, 18–61; López, Chinese Cubans, 45–50; Pérez de la Riva, Los culíes, 159–174, 307–309; and Stewart, Chinese Bondage, 138–205.

25. Criminal records involving the Chinese in the ANC, AGN, and the Archivo Regional de La Libertad (Trujillo, Peru) [hereafter ARLL], Havana's Diario de la Marina, and the Lima newspapers El Comercio and El Nacional contain numerous examples of these everyday and radical forms of resistance. Also see López, Chinese Cubans, 39–44, 117–122; Pérez de la Riva, Los culíes, 186–189, 195, 259–261, 265–274; Rodríguez Pastor, Hijos, 89–113 and La rebelión; Stewart, Chinese Bondage, 69–72, 103–105, 120–129, 139–142; Young, Alien Nation, 21–41, 83–86; and Yun, Coolie Speaks. In many ways, Chinese resistance resembled slave resistance. For further reading on slave resistance (especially everyday forms) and slave agency, see Aguirre, Agentes; Camillia Cowling, Conceiving Freedom: Women of Color: Gender and the Abolition of Slavery in Havana and Rio de Janeiro (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2013); María Elena Díaz, The Virgin, the King, and the Royal Slaves of El Cobre: Negotiating Freedom in Colonial Cuba, 1670–1780 (Stanford: Stanford University Press, 2002); Eugene Genovese, Roll, Jordan Roll: The World the Slaves Made (New York: Vintage Books, 1976); and Scott, Slave Emancipation.

26. Helly, Denise, “Introduction,” in The Cuba Commission Report: A Hidden History of the Chinese in Cuba, Mintz, Sidney, trans. (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1993), 1114.

27. Jung, Coolies and Cane, 17–19, 30–31; Cohen, Lucy M., Chinese in the Post-Civil War South: A People Without a History (Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1984), 2224.

28. Eric Foner, Free Soil, Free Labor, Free Men: The Ideology of the Republican Party before the Civil War (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1995 [1970]); David Roediger, The Wages of Whiteness: Race and the Making of the American Working Class (London: Verso, 1991); Jung, Coolies and Cane, 17, 19–28; Cohen, Chinese, 31–39; Aarim-Heriot, Chinese Immigrants, 30–36; Carey McWilliams, Factories in the Fields: The Story of Migratory Labor in California (Berkeley: University of California Press, 2000 [1935]), 66–80; Matthew Frye Jacobson, Barbarian Virtues: The United States Encounters Foreign Peoples at Home and Abroad (New York: Hill and Wang, 2000), 75–82; Kuhn, Chinese among Others, 205–218; Henry Shih-shan Tsai, The Chinese Experience in America (Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1986), 16–17.

29. Before the Civil War, Southern belief in slavery's durability stemmed from: 1) masters' use of paternalism, which they contrasted with supposedly more exploitative capitalist free labor; 2) confidence in federalism and states' rights; 3) the possibility of expanding slavery's borders westward and into the Caribbean and Central America; and 4) a self-reproducing slave population that offset the end of the Atlantic slave trade. See Genovese, Roll; Lacy K. Ford, Deliver Us from Evil: The Slavery Question in the Old South (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2009); Eric Foner, Forever Free: The Story of Emancipation and Reconstruction (New York: Vintage Books, 2005), 3–33 and Free Soil; Thomas R. Hietala, Manifest Design: American Exceptionalism and Empire (Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1985); John Craig Hammond, Slavery, Freedom, and Expansion in the Early American West (Charlottesville: University of Virginia Press, 2007); Michael A. Morrison, Slavery and the American West: The Eclipse of Manifest Destiny (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1999); Adam Rothman, Slave Country: American Expansion and the Origins of the Deep South (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 2007); Louis Pérez, Cuba and the United States: Ties of Singular Intimacy (Athens: University of Georgia Press, 2003); and Robert E. May, Manifest Destiny's Underworld: Filibustering in Antebellum America (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2004).

30. Jung, Coolies and Cane, 19–20, 28–33; Cohen, Chinese, 24–31.

31. The law is often referred to as the Anti-Coolie Act, but was officially titled “An Act to prohibit the ‘Coolie Trade’ by American Citizens in American Vessels.”

32. Jung, Coolies and Cane, 33–38, 62–72; Cohen, Chinese, 40–45; Aarim-Heriot, Chinese Immigrants, 63–83.

33. Foner, Reconstruction, 173–174; Jung, Coolies and Cane; Cohen, Chinese, 46–132; Guterl, Matthew Pratt, American Mediterranean: Southern Slaveholders in the Age of Emancipation (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 2008), 114168.

34. Estimates of Chinese entering Cuba reach as high as 150,000, while those for Peru reach 100,000. These totals do not include deaths at sea (approximately 16,000 for Cuba, and 10,000 for Peru). Specific numbers for the US South are harder to attain, but around 3,000 seems reasonable. Nearly all of these Chinese immigrants were men. See Pérez de la Riva, Los culíes, 177–179; Stewart, Chinese Bondage, 61–66, 72–75; Rodríguez Pastor, Hijos, 31–32; Trazegnies Granda, En el país, 121–122; Jung, Coolies and Cane, 76–198; and Cohen, Chinese, 46–101, 144–145, 152.

35. Between 1865 and 1874, 64,473 Chinese indentured laborers entered Cuba, and 69,674 arrived in Peru. See Pérez de la Riva, Los culíes, 179; and Rodríguez Pastor, Hijos, 32.

36. Jung, Coolies and Cane; and Cohen, Chinese.

37. See Knight, Slave Society; Paquette, Sugar; Reid-Vazquez, Year of the Lash; Scott, Slave Emancipation; Schmidt-Nowara, Empire; and Ada Ferrer, Insurgent Cuba.

38. Pérez de la Riva, Los culíes, 65–98, 124–132; Stewart, Chinese Bondage, 33–34, 83; Trazegnies Granda, En el país, 87, 130–133, 261–262, 269–271; Yun, Coolie Speaks, 14.

39. Erenchun, Anales, vol. C, 1063–1073; “Memorandum concerning Legislation of Spanish and Colonial Governments regarding Chinese Immigrants,” in Cuba Commission, 132. In its published report, the Chinese commission that visited Cuba in 1874 included a “Memorandum” on coolie legislation that contained the 1860 regulations and rules from other years. Also see Pérez de la Riva, Los culíes, 210–215.

40. Promovido por la Sociedad La Alianza y Compañía con motivo del fletamento del buque español Dos Hermanos para la importación de 251 colonos asiáticos, 1870, ANC, ME, leg. 4151, exp. Ae; Promovido por la Sociedad La Alianza y Compañía con motivo por haber fletado la barca francesa Lucie para la conducción de 360 colonos asiáticos, 1871, ANC, ME, leg. 4151, exp. Af; Promovido por la Sociedad La Alianza y Compañía con motivo de haber fletado la fragata española Altagracia para la conducción de 361 colonos asiáticos, 1871, ANC, ME, leg. 4151, exp. Ag; Promovido por la Sociedad la Alianza y Compañía con motivo de haber fletado el vapor francés Alexandre Lavallay para conducir á este puerto 630 colonos asiáticos, 1873, ANC, ME, leg. 4151, exp. Ah; Promovido por D. Francisco F. Ibáñez con motivo de haber fletado el vapor francés Charles Albert para conducir á este puerto 600 colonos asiáticos, 1873, ANC, ME, leg. 4151, exp. Ai. Also see Corbitt, A Study, 51, 57–59; and Pérez de la Riva, Los culíes, 150.

41. Corbitt, A Study, 29–33, 50.

42. “Memorandum,” Cuba Commission, 132.

43. Promovido por la Sociedad de Lombillo Montalvo y Compañía participando el fletamento de la fragata francesa Nelly, Capitán Poilbont, con 902 toneladas para conducir á este puerto 444 colonos asiáticos, 1869, ANC, ME, leg. 4151, exp. Ab.

44. Promovido por la Sociedad La Alianza y Compañía con motivo del fletamento del buque español Dos Hermanos para la importación de 251 colonos asiáticos, 1870, ANC, ME, leg. 4151, exp. Ae; Promovido por la Sociedad La Alianza y Compañía con motivo por haber fletado la barca francesa Lucie para la conducción de 360 colonos asiáticos, 1871, leg. 4151, exp. Af.

45. Dispatch no. 232, July 27, 1855, US Consul-Havana.

46. Promovido por la Sociedad La Alianza y Compañía con motivo del fletamento del buque español Dos Hermanos para la importación de 251 colonos asiáticos, 1870, ANC, ME, leg. 4151, exp. Ae.

47. Promovido por la Sociedad La Alianza y Compañía con motivo por haber fletado la barca francesa Lucie para la conducción de 360 colonos asiáticos, 1871, ANC, ME, leg. 4151, exp. Af. Also see Corbitt, A Study, 53, 55, 57–58; and Pérez de la Riva, Los culíes, 150.

48. Promovido por la Sociedad La Alianza y Compañía con motivo de haber fletado la fragata española Altagracia para la conducción de 361 colonos asiáticos, 1871, ANC, ME, leg. 4151, exp. Ag.

49. Promovido por la Sociedad La Alianza y Compañía de haber fletado el vapor Cataluña para la conducción de 531 colonos asiáticos, 1871, ANC, ME, leg. 4151, exp. Ad; Promovido por la Sociedad La Alianza y Compañía con motivo de haber fletado el vapor francés Alexandre Lavallay para conducir á este puerto 630 colonos asiáticos,1873, ANC, ME, leg. 4151, exp. Ah; Promovido por D. Francisco F. Ibáñez con motivo de haber fletado el vapor francés Charles Albert para conducir á este puerto 600 colonos asiáticos, 1873, ANC, ME, leg. 4151, exp. Ai. Also see Don Aldus, Coolie Traffic and Kidnapping (London: McCorquodale and Co., “The Armoury,” 1876), 219; Corbitt, A Study, 56–59; Pérez de la Riva, Los culíes, 149–150; Stewart, Chinese Bondage, 61, 77–79; and Meagher, Coolie Trade, 163.

50. Erenchun, Anales, vol. C, 1057–1078; “Memorandum,” Cuba Commission, 125–140; Corbitt, A Study, 67–69; Pérez de la Riva, Los culíes, 205–221; Yun, Coolie Speaks, 30, 74, 105–133.

51. Knight, Slave Society, 96–97.

52. Schmidt-Nowara, Empire, 58.

53. Contra varios asiáticos por heridas a D. Mariano Santoyo maestro de azúcar del ingenio El Cármen de D. León Crespo, 1863, ANC, ME, leg. 2811, exp. R; Sublevación de asiáticos del ingenio Santa Rita avisada por su mayoral D. Félix Cabrera, 1869, ANC, ME, leg. 2953, exp. Aa; Criminal contra los asiáticos Alfredo y otros por sublevación y lesiones a D. Roberto Bannatyne, 1871, ANC, ME, leg. 2893, exp. R. Also see New York Times, March 26, 1867; Ripley, Flag to Flag, 170–174.

54. “Memorandum,” Cuba Commission, 125–140; Yun, Coolie Speaks, 30, 74, 105–133.

55. Contra el asiático José por uso de armas prohibidas, 1862, ANC, ME, leg. 2582, exp. F; Expediente criminal contra Pedro Rodríguez y Elías Delgado, por muerte de los asiáticos Cándido y Federico, colonos de D. Ramón Menéndez, 1865, ANC, ME, leg. 2860, exp. T; James O'Kelly, The Mambi-Land, or Adventures of a Herald Correspondent in Cuba (Philadelphia: Lippincott, 1874), 44–45.

56. Examples include Gaceta de la Habana, October 29, 1861; and Dispatch 52, May 2, 1868, US Consul-Havana.

57. Dispatch 539, September 14, 1871, US Consul-Havana; Dispatch 551, September 28, 1871, US Consul-Havana; “Memorandum,” Cuba Commission, 125–130; Yun, Coolie Speaks, 132.

58. Erenchun, Anales, vol. C, 1059.

59. “Memorandum,” Cuba Commission, 152–153.

60. Por seducción de colonos, asiáticos prófugos, hurto de cédulas, contratos y falsificación de las mismas. Procesados D. Francisco Nogueira y otros, 1859, ANC, ME, leg. 2629, exp. C. Documents from this case are also in Contra Francisco o José Francisco Valdés, José Martínez y otros por ocultación de colonos asiáticos, 1859, ANC, ME, leg. 2404, exp. X; and Por seducción de colonos, asiáticos prófugos, hurto de cédulas, contratos y falsificación de las mismas, 2ª pieza, 1859, ANC, ME, leg. 2629, exp. E.

61. Yun, Coolie Speaks, 111–133. Testimonies in the Cuba Commission stress the difficulty in procuring these documents and gaining freedom. The “Memorandum” also contains the 1860 re-contracting law.

62. Contra unos asiáticos del ingenio Jesús María por homicidio de D. José Castilla, 1857, ANC, ME, leg. 2545, exp. Ak; Contra los asiáticos Ángel y Tiburcio por heridas al negro Eugenio Congo, 1857, ANC, ME, leg. 2577, exp. R; Contra el asiático Silvestre por homicidio del moreno Bondo, 1860, ANC, ME, leg. 2395, exp. Ag; Contra los asiáticos Roberto, José María y Pantaleón por homicidio del de su clase Serapio, del ingenio Jesús María, 1861, ANC, ME, leg. 2547, exp. Ap; Contra los asiáticos Benito, Luís, Agustín, Domingo y otros, por homicidio de José Gómez, 1861, ANC, ME, leg. 2582, exp. A; Contra los asiáticos Martín, Ramón, Lázaro y Saturnino por homicidio de D. Francisco Facenda, 1861, ANC, ME, leg. 2624, exp. Ai; Criminal seguido contra el asiático Bruno por heridas a D. José Ramírez, 1863, ANC, ME, leg. 824, exp. Q; Contra el asiático Augusto y otros por homicidio de Francisco Mendoza, 1863, ANC, ME, leg. 2495, exp. C; Contra los asiáticos Rafael, Lorenzo, Roque y Joaquín por homicidio del también asiático Esteban, 1863, ANC, ME, leg. 2495, exp. L; Contra varios asiáticos por heridas a D. Mariano Santoyo maestro de azucar del ingenio El Cármen de D. León Crespo, 1863, ANC, ME, leg. 2811, exp. R; Cuaderno de Audiencia de los criminales seguidos contra el asiático Casimiro, por homicidio del de igual clase Epifanio, 1864, ANC, ME, leg. 2851, exp. H; Expediente criminal para averiguar el trato que se dá en el ingenio Pepilla a los colonos asiáticos, 1865, ANC, ME, leg. 2836, exp. B; Expediente criminal contra Pedro Rodríguez y Elías Delgado, por muerte de los asiáticos Cándido y Federico, colonos de D. Ramón Menéndez, 1865, ANC, ME, leg. 2860, exp. T; Contra los asiáticos Ernesto y Buenaventura por heridas á D. Antonio Suárez, 1867, ANC, ME, leg. 785, exp. V; Contra el asiático Severino Segundo por heridas al negro Blás criollo de las que murió, 1868, ANC, ME, leg. 2490, exp. I; Contra el asiático Gil por heridas y muerte del negro Andrés Lucumí, 1868, ANC, ME, leg. 2497, exp. N; Causa criminal contra unos chinos del ingenio Santa Teresa sobre maltrato, 1868, ANC, ME, leg. 2618, exp. E; Criminales contra los asiáticos Bartolo, Pablo y otros por lesiones al mayoral del ingenio Combate D. José Matos, 1869, ANC, ME, leg. 760, exp. E; Heridas al asiático Nicolas, 1871, ANC, ME, leg. 2895, exp. F; Expediente promovido por varios asiáticos contratados con la Empresa del alumbrado de gas de esta Capital, en queja del maltrato que reciben, 1874, ANC, ME, leg. 3779, exp. W.

63. Cuba Commission, 53–55, 61–62, 67–68, 91.

64. El Peruano, March 23, 1861, and October, 26, 1864; Stewart, Chinese Bondage, 33–34, 39–54, 62–63, 77–79, 83; Trazegnies Granda, En el país, 87, 130–133, 261–262, 269–271, 275–276.

65. Manuel Achay, inquietar, 1860, AGN, Criminales, leg. 183; Ramón Montero, maltrato, 1860, AGN, Criminales, leg. 183; Francisco Ricardo Menéndez, maltrato, 1861, AGN, Criminales, leg. 184; Asi y Asan, hurto, 1861, AGN, Criminales, leg. 186; Ajasún, Amán, Ajáo, Tancao, Poti, Asén, Lisán, Alaí, Comén, Añia, Sancudo, Ajui, Agué, Allin y Acaz, homicidio, 1861, AGN, Criminales, leg. 188; Mariano Pagador, querella, 1862, AGN, Criminales, leg. 214; Manuel Lorenzo Casas, flajelación, 1863, AGN, Criminales, leg. 215. Also see De oficio contra Assuy Benjamín y doce asiáticos más, por el homicidio perpetrado en la persona de Don Antonio Larco, 1866, ARLL, Corte Superior, Causas Criminales [hereafter Criminales], Código 932, leg. 710, exp. 4268; and Zegarra, La condición, 131.

66. El Comercio, August 4, 1869; El Nacional, August 14, 1869.

67. Criminal de oficio contra el asiático Buenaventura Canabal, por sospechas de complicidad en los acontecimientos de Pativilca, 1870, ARLL, Criminales, Código 935, leg. 717, exp. 4362. For another example, see El Comercio, February 12, 1868.

68. El Comercio, June 6, 1851; El Comercio, February 11 and September 6, 1857; El Comercio, February 12, March 7, and October 6, 1860; El Comercio, February 8, 1868; El Comercio, June 9, 1873; El Nacional, July 12 and August 18, 1871; El Nacional, November 21, 30, December 10, and 22, 1874; El Nacional, January 13, 23, February 3, 9, 15, 23, March 23, October 22, and December 22, 1875; El Nacional, September 16, 1876; La Opinión Nacional, December 15, 1873; La Opinión Nacional, April 29, June 2, July 10, August 17, October 29 and 31, 1874.

69. El Nacional, El Comercio, and El Peruano contain these postings.

70. Warnings appear by 1853 and continue into the mid 1870s. See El Comercio, April 1, 1853; and El Nacional, March 17, 1875.

71. José Cruz y Achon, fraude, 1858, AGN, Criminales, leg. 161; Manuel Achay, inquietar, 1860, AGN, Criminales, leg. 183.

72. El Comercio, October 20, 1867.

73. El Peruano, June 5, 1869.

74. El Peruano, March 8 and 15, 1856.

75. El Peruano, March 23, 1861.

76. El Comercio, October 20, 1867.

77. Stewart, Chinese Bondage, 133–136.

78. El Peruano, August 19, 1870.

79. El Nacional, April 17, 1869, and September 16, 1870; Rodríguez Pastor, La rebelión, 87–91.

80. Francisco Ricardo Menéndez, maltrato, 1861, AGN, Criminales, leg. 184.

81. Stewart, Chinese Bondage, 133–136.

82. Peter Flindell Klarén, Peru: Society and Nationhood in the Andes (New York: Oxford University Press, 2000), 158–182; Brooke Larson, Trials of Nation Making: Liberalism, Race, and Ethnicity in the Andes, 1810–1910 (New York: Cambridge University Press, 2004), 151.

83. Stewart, Chinese Bondage, 25–30.

84. Muecke, Ulrich, Political Culture in Nineteenth-Century Peru: The Rise of the Partido Civil, Andrusz, Katya, trans. (Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press, 2004), 162191.

85. Zegarra, La condición, 131.

86. Gonzales, Michael J., Plantation Agriculture and Social Control in Northern Peru, 1875–1933 (Austin: University of Texas Press, 1985), 106111, 114–116; Rodríguez Pastor, La rebelión, 104–111; Stewart, Chinese Bondage, 108–111.

87. Zegarra, La condición, 131.

88. Dispatch 160, January 21, 1864, US Ministers Peru-Lima, roll 19, microfilm. Experiments with Spanish and Polynesian indentured labor occurred, but most laborers on Peru's coastal plantations were indentured Chinese.

89. De oficio contra Assuy Benjamín y doce asiáticos más, por el homicidio perpetrado en la persona de don Antonio Larco, 1866, ARLL, Criminales, Código 932, leg. 710, exp. 4268; Dispatch 231, September 14, 1870, US Ministers Peru-Lima, roll 24, microfilm; Dispatch 11, September 20, 1870, US Consul-Callao; El Peruano, October 11, 1870; El Nacional, November 7, 9, and December 15, 1870; El Comercio, July 8, 1873. Also see Rodríguez Pastor, La rebelión; and Stewart, Chinese Bondage, 120–124, 218–221.

90. Foner, Reconstruction; Jung, Coolies and Cane, 39–80; Scott, Degrees, 30–60.

91. Aarim-Heriot, Chinese Immigrants; Jung, Coolies and Cane; Cohen, Chinese; Guterl, American Mediterranean, 147–184.

92. New Orleans Times, June 27, 1865.

93. Augusta Chronicle, August 12, 1865.

94. New Orleans Daily Picayune, October 22, 1865.

95. 39th US Congress, First Session, House Executive Documents, (Washington DC: GPO, 1866), No. 66, 6.

96. Jung, Coolies and Cane, 77–79.

97. New Orleans Daily Picayune, October 22, November 7 and 23, 1865; New Orleans Daily Picayune, August 14 and October 26, 1867; New Orleans Daily Picayune, July 30 and August 6, 1869; New Orleans Times, July 27, August 7, and October 26, 1867; Louisiana Democrat (Alexandria, LA), August 11, 1869; Charleston Daily News, August 3, 1867; Charleston Daily News, July 3 and 30, 1869; Edgefield Advertiser (Edgefield, SC), September 4, 1867 (republished from the Memphis Bulletin).

98. New Orleans Daily Picayune, September 8, 12, 14, October 28, and November 13, 1866; Semi-Weekly Natchitoches Times (Natchitoches, LA), October 10, 1866; Daily Phoenix (Columbia, SC), August 15, September 11, and October 6, 1866; Daily Union and American (Nashville, TN), September 7, 1866. Also see Cohen, Chinese, 50–52.

99. Semi-Weekly Natchitoches Times, January 30, April 10, and May 3, 1867; New Orleans Daily Picayune, February 15, April 29, June 7 and 26, July 27, and November 16, 1867; New Orleans Times, July 27, 1867; Daily Phoenix, August 30 and November 13, 1867; New York Times, April 7, 1867. Also see Cohen, Chinese, 52–62; and Jung, Coolies and Cane, 81–86.

100. Jung, Coolies and Cane, 86–92.

101. Memphis Daily Appeal, June 27, July 1, 11, 12, 14, 15, 16, 20, 23, and 27, 1869; Charleston Daily News, July 5, 13, 15, 16, 17, 19, 20, and 21, 1869; Cohen, Chinese, 63–64.

102. Cohen, Chinese, 73–81; Jung, Coolies and Cane, 117–127.

103. Galveston Tri-Weekly News, December 31, 1869; Flake's Bulletin (Galveston, TX), November 10, December 25, and 31, 1869; San Antonio Daily Express, December 31, 1869; Dallas Herald, January 8, 1870; Georgia Weekly Telegraph (Macon, GA), January 4, July 12 and 19, and August 9, 1870; Daily Columbus Inquirer (Columbus, GA), January 8 and 13, 1870; Daily Sun (Columbus, GA), June 23, July 14 and 15, 1870; Mobile Register, June 18, 1870; Daily Phoenix, September 6, 1870; Somers, Robert, The Southern States Since the War. 1870-1 (New York: Macmillan and Co., 1871), 163. Also see Jung, Coolies and Cane, 153–163, 185; Cohen, Chinese, 74, 83–95, 121–122; McWilliams, Factories, 66–80; and Aarim-Heriot, Chinese Immigrants.

104. 39th US Congress, Second Session, Journal of the House of Representatives of the United States, vol. 64 (Washington DC: GPO, 1867), 169; 39th US Congress, Second Session, Journal of the Senate of the United States of America, vol. 59 (Washington DC: GPO, 1867), 103; 39th US Congress, Second Session, Congressional Globe (Washington DC: GPO, 1867), 483.

105. Daily Phoenix, August 23, 1867 (republished from the New York Tribune).

106. Jung, Coolies and Cane, 80.

107. Edgefield Advertiser, August 21, 1867, and a Memphis Bulletin article reprinted in the Edgefield Advertiser, September 4, 1867; Louisiana Democrat, August 11, 1869; Charleston Daily News, July 24, 1869.

108. Dispatch 331, July 12, 1867 and Dispatch 340, August 23, 1867, US Consul-Havana, roll 49, microfilm; New Orleans Times, July 26, 1867; New Orleans Tribune, July 26, 1867.

109. New Orleans Times, July 26, August 7, and October 26, 1867; New Orleans Tribune, July 26 and October 27, 1867; New Orleans Daily Picayune, August 14 and October 26, 1867; New York Times, August 14, 1867; Jung, Coolies and Cane, 81–82; Cohen, Chinese, 58–61.

110. New Orleans Daily Picayune, November 16, 1867; Cohen, Chinese, 61–62.

111. Jung, Coolies and Cane, 92.

112. The New Orleans Daily Picayune published Secretary Boutwell's letter on July 29, 1869. Newspapers discussing Boutwell's response include the Charleston Courier, July 26 and 27, 1869; Charleston Daily News, July 26, 1869; Evansville Journal (Evansville, IN), July 26, 1869; Flake's Weekly Galveston Bulletin, July 28, 1869; Galveston Tri-Weekly News, July 26, 1869; New Orleans Daily Picayune, July 25 1869; The South-Western (Shreveport, LA), July 28, 1869; and Staunton Spectator (Staunton, VA), August 3, 1869. Also see Jung, Coolies and Cane, 111–114. The Burlingame Treaty was chiefly a commercial and migration treaty, largely benefiting the United States. The treaty stipulated that the Chinese had the right to freely migrate to the United States as long as they did so voluntarily. Chinese in the United States would have the same rights as citizens and subjects of other most favored nations, except they would not be allowed to naturalize. For more information on the Burlingame Treaty, see Aarim-Heriot, Chinese Immigrants, 109–111.

113. Jung, Coolies and Cane, 120–123; Cohen, Chinese, 75–78.

114. Cohen, Chinese, 79.

115. Article I (Bill of Rights), Section XXII of the Constitution of the State of Texas (1869), accessed September 25, 2018, tarlton.law.utexas.edu/c.php?g=812156&p=5795227.

116. Cohen, Chinese, 72; Aarim-Heriot, Chinese Immigrants, 125.

117. New Orleans Times, November 12, 1865.

118. Louisiana Democrat, December 1 and 8, 1869; Aarim-Heriot, Chinese Immigrants, 141–143.

119. Aarim-Heriot, Chinese Immigrants, 140–155.

120. Cohen, Chinese; Jung, Coolies and Cane.

121. Rodrigue, Reconstruction; Eric Foner, Forever Free, 268–269; and Reconstruction, 363, 372–379; Vincent, Charles, Black Legislators in Louisiana during Reconstruction (Carbondale, IL: Southern Illinois University Press, 2011), 98112.

122. Galveston Tri-Weekly News, September 2, 1870; Houston Daily Union, September 2, 1870; Belton Weekly Journal (Belton, TX), October 1 and 22, 1870; Mobile Register, September 23, 1870; Cohen, Chinese, 89; Rhoads, Edward J. M., “The Chinese in Texas,” Southwestern Historical Quarterly, 81:1 (July 1977): 136, 6.

123. Memphis Daily Appeal, March 15, 18, 21, 29, June 15, 16, 17, and September 29, 1871. Also see Cohen, Chinese, 92–95.

124. Cohen, Chinese, 115–129, 131; Jung, Coolies and Cane, 190–195.

125. New Orleans Daily Picayune, December 3, 1871.

126. New York Times, October 7, 1871 (republished from the Planters' Banner) and November 5, 1873 (republished letter in the New Orleans Times by D. Dennet).

127. New York Times, November 5, 1873 (republished letter in the New Orleans Times by D. Dennet); Donaldsonville Chief (Donaldsonville, LA), January 17 and March 14, 1874. Also see Cohen, Chinese, 133–148; and Jung, Coolies and Cane, 197–214.

128. Donaldsonville Chief, May 2, 1874.

129. New York Times, April 22, 1871 (republished from the New Orleans Times); Georgia Weekly Telegraph, May 2, 1871.

130. New York Times, October 7, 1871 (republished from the Planters' Banner), and November 5, 1873 (republished letter in the New Orleans Times by D. Dennet). Also see Jung, Coolies and Cane, 184–187.

131. Cohen, Chinese, 111–114; Jung, Coolies and Cane, 188–189.

In researching Chinese indentured labor in the Americas and writing this article, I have benefited greatly from the feedback and support of many individuals, including Martha Schultz, Jonathan C. Brown, Evelyn Hu-DeHart, Kathleen López, Kevin Whalen, and León Narváez. I would also like to thank the anonymous reviewers for The Americas for their insightful comments. Finally, I am grateful to the many archives, libraries, and institutions that have made this article possible.

Abolition, Chinese Indentured Labor, and the State: Cuba, Peru, and the United States during the Mid Nineteenth Century

  • Benjamin N. Narváez (a1)

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