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Foreword — Will HPV Vaccines Prevent Cervical Cancers Among Poor Women of Color?: Global Health Policy at the Intersection of Human Rights and Intellectual Property Law

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  06 January 2021

Kevin Outterson
Affiliation:
Boston University
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Abstract

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Type
Foreword
Copyright
Copyright © American Society of Law, Medicine and Ethics and Boston University 2009

References

1 Erdman, Joanna N., Human Rights in Health Equity: Cervical Cancer and HPV Vaccines, 35 Am. J. L. & Med. 365, 366 (2009).Google Scholar

2 See Gakidou, Emmanuela et al., Coverage of Cervical Cancer Screening in 57 Countries: Low Average Levels and Large Inequalities, 5 Plos Medicine 863, 863 (2008);Google Scholar Sankaranarayanan, R. et al., Effective Screening Programmes for Cervical Cancer in Low- and Middle-Income Developing Countries, 79 Bulletin of the World Health Organization 954-62 (2001).Google ScholarPubMed

3 Garland, S.M. et al., Quadrivalent Vaccine against Human Papillomavirus to Prevent Anogenital Diseases, 356 New Eng. J. Med. 1928-43 (2007).CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed

4 Tanne, J., CDC Recommends Expensive Vaccine for All Girls Aged 11–12, 333 British Med. J. 114 (2006).Google ScholarPubMed

5 Outterson, Kevin & Kesselheim, Aaron S., Market-Based Licensing For HPV Vaccines in Developing Countries, 27 Health Affairs 130, 135 (2008)CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed; Erdman, supra note 1, at 387.

6 Kamangar, F. et al., Patterns of Cancer Incidence, Mortality, and Prevalence Across Five Continents: Defining Priorities to Reduce Cancer Disparities in Different Geographic Regions of the World, 24 J. Clinical Oncology 2137-50 (2006).CrossRefGoogle Scholar

7 Outterson & Kesselheim, supra note 5, at 134-35.

8 Charo, R.A., Politics, Parents, and Prophylaxis—Mandating HPV Vaccination in the United States, 356 New Eng. J. Med. 1905-08 (2007).CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed

9 Crager, Sara E. et al., University Contributions to the HPV Vaccine and Implications for Access to Vaccines in Developing Countries: Addressing Materials and Know-how in University Technology Transfer Policy, 35 Am. J. L. & Med. 253 (2009).CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed

10 Roose-Snyder, Beirne & Doyle, Megan K., Global Health Licensing Program: A New Model For Humanitarian Licensing at the University Level, 35 Am. J. L. & Med. 281 (2009).CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed

11 Effort, April E. & Stevens, Ashley J., Using Academic License Agreements to Promote Global Social Responsibility, 43 Les Nouvelles: J. Licensing Executives Soc’y 85 (2008)Google Scholar. Ashley Stevens discussed this paper at the Symposium.

12 Andrus, Jon Kim et al., New Vaccines for Developing Countries: Will it be Feast of Famine?, 35 Am. J. L. & Med. 311 (2009).CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed

13 Mexico is not a Revolving Fund recipient country.

14 The cost effective price in Brazil has been estimated at approximately $25. Agosti, Jan M. & Goldie, Sue J., Introducing HPV Vaccine in Developing Countries – Key Challenges and Issues, 356 New Eng. J. Med. 1908, 1909-10 (2007)CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed. In poorer countries with per capital incomes around $1000, the cost effective price is in the range of $3 to $6. Helen Saxenian, Program for Appropriate Technology Health (PATH), HPV Vaccine Adoption in Developing Countries: Cost and Financing Issues 8-11 (2007).

15 See Outterson, Kevin, Pharmaceutical Arbitrage: Balancing Access and Innovation in International Prescription Drug Markets, 5 Yale J. Health Pol’y L. & Ethics 193, 203-05 (2005)Google ScholarPubMed.

16 Maybarduk, Peter & Rimmington, Sarah, Compulsory Licenses: A Tool to Improve Global Access to the HPV Vaccine?, 35 Am. J. L. & Med. 323 (2009).CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed

17 English, Abigail et al., Clinical Preventive Services for Adolescents: Position Paper of the Society for Adolescent Medicine, 35 Am. J. L. & Med. 351 (2009).CrossRefGoogle Scholar

18 U.N. Convention on the Rights of the Child, G.A. Res. 44/25, U.N. Doc. A/RES/44/25 (Nov. 20, 1989), at Art. 24. The United States is not a party to this Convention.

19 English, supra note 17.

20 Erdman, supra note 1.

21 Erdman, supra note 1, at 380.

22 Id. at 381.

23 Zimet, Gregory D., Potential Barriers to HPV Immunization: From Public Health to Personal Choice, 35 Am. J. L. & Med. 389, 393-98 (2009).Google ScholarPubMed

24 Tsu, Vivien Davis, Overcoming Barriers And Ensuring Access to HPV Vaccines in Low-Income Countries, 35 Am. J. L. & Med. 401, 409 (2009).CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed

25 Id. at 404-05.

26 Id. at 408.

27 Outterson & Kesselheim, supra note 5, at 135.

28 McElligott, Sean, Addressing Supply Side Barriers To Introduction of New Vaccines To the Developing World, 35 Am. J. L. & Med. 415 (2009).CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed

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