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What's in Store: A Vision for Healthier Retail Environments through Better Collaboration

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  06 January 2021

Christine Fry*
University of California, Berkeley, Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Ian McLaughlin
University of California, Berkeley School of Law, University of California, Berkeley
Alexis Etow
American University, Washington College of Law, Princeton University
Rio Holaday
University of Pennsylvania, University of Witwatersrand, Wesleyan University


Thousands of small dealers who are barely able to make a living … would be cut off from supplying their customers with milk, butter, [etc.], which they need for use on Sundays, causing them a very serious loss and great inconvenience to thousands of people…

L.J. Callanan, grocer in New York City, March 16, 1903

Copyright © American Society of Law, Medicine and Ethics and Boston University 2015

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ChangeLab Solutions is a public health non-profit based in Oakland, California, that works with communities to use law and policy to improve health.


1 L.J. Callanan, Letter to the Editor, Grocery Stores and the Sunday Law, N.Y. Times, Mar. 14, 1903, at 10.

2 See id.

3 Id.

4 See Linda Ray, What Is the Average Gross Revenue of a Convenience Store?, Demand Media, (last visited May 13, 2015).

5 Achievements in Public Health, 1900-1999: Control of Infectious Diseases, 48 Morbidity & Mortality Wkly. Rep. 621, 621-23 (1999)Google Scholar, available at

6 Yoon, Paula W. et al., Potentially Preventable Deaths from the Five Leading Causes of Death – United States, 2008-2010, 63 Morbidity & Mortality Wkly. Rep. 369, 369, 372 (2014)Google ScholarPubMed, available at

7 See Mokdad, Ali H. et al., Actual Causes of Death in the United States, 2000, 291 JAMA 1238, 1239-41 (2004)CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed, available at

8 Adler, Nancy E. & Newman, Katherine, Socioeconomic Disparities in Health: Pathways and Policies, 21 Health Aff. 60, 60 (2002)CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed; see also Nat'l Heart Lung & Blood Inst., U.S. Dep't of Health & Human Servs., Fact Book Fiscal Year 2012, at 33-34, 38 (2013).

9 Franco, Manuel et al., Neighborhood Characteristics and Availability of Healthy Foods in Baltimore, 35 Am. J. Preventative Med., 561, 564-65 (2008)CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed.

10 Cohen, D.A. & Babey, S.H., Contextual Influences on Eating Behaviours: Heuristic Processing and Dietary Choices, 13 Obesity Revs. 766, 774 (2012)Google ScholarPubMed.

11 Dang Truong, Khoa & Sturm, Roland, Alcohol Environments and Disparities in Exposure Associated with Adolescent Drinking in California, 99 Am. J. Pub. Health, 264, 269 (2009)Google Scholar (finding that race and socio-economic status were strong predictors of alcohol availability both in residential areas and near secondary schools); Rodriguez, Daniel et al., Predictors of Tobacco Outlet Density Nationwide: A Geographic Analysis, 22 Tobacco Control 349, 349 (2013)CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed, available at (finding higher concentrations of tobacco outlets in rural areas with larger proportions of people of color).

12 We should also note that not all health departments have staff in each of these areas. According to the National Association of City and County Health Officials, 69% of local health departments provide population-level nutrition services, 68% provide population-level tobacco control services, and 24% provide population-level substance abuse services. Nat'l Ass'n of Cnty. & City Health Officials, 2013 National Profile of Local Health Departments 39 (2014), available at Larger health departments serving more than 100,000 people tend to be more likely to offer any of these services, compared to smaller health departments. Id.

13 Mokdad et al., supra note 7, at 1238.

14 Morland, Kimberly et al., Supermarkets, Other Food Stores, and Obesity: The Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study, 30 Am. J. Preventative Med. 333, 333-34, 336-37 (2006)CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed.

15 Fed. Trade Comm'n, A Review of Food Marketing to Children and Adolescents: Follow-Up Report, at ES-3 (2012), available at (finding that food companies spent a reported $113 million on in-store marketing and packaging directed at children and adolescents alone); Fed. Trade Comm'n, Cigarette Report for 2011, at 1 (2013) [hereinafter Cigarette Report for 2011], available at (reporting that tobacco companies spent almost seven billion dollars on price discounts issued to cigarette retailers or wholesalers); Fed. Trade Comm'n, Self-Regulation in the Alcohol Industry 8 (2014), available at (revealing that over 33% of alcohol marketing expenditures—totaling over $1 billion—are used for point-of-sale promotions and promotional giveaways).

16 See Thomas W. Carton et al., La. Pub. Health Inst., Healthy Stores: The 4Ps of Food, Alcohol, and Tobacco in New Orleans, Louisiana (2013), available at

17 See Chen, Meng-Jinn et al., Does Alcohol Outlet Density Affect Youth Access to Alcohol?, 44 J. Adolescent Health, 582, 586 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar; Chuang, Ying-Chih et al., Effects of Neighbourhood Socioeconomic Status and Convenience Store Concentration on Individual Level Smoking, 59 J. Epidemiology & Community Health 568, 570-72 (2005)CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed; Morland et al., supra note 14, at 336.

18 See Tobacco Control Legal Consortium, Federal Regulation of Tobacco: Impact on State and Local Authority 3-4 (2009).

19 See Ian McLaughlin, Tobacco Control Legal Consortium, License to Kill?: Tobacco Retailer Licensing as an Effective Enforcement Tool 1, 6-7 (2010), available at

20 See id. at 9.

21 See Diller, Paul A. & Graff, Samantha, Regulating Food Retail for Obesity Prevention: How Far Can Cities Go?, 39 J.L. Med. & Ethics (Supplement) 89, 89-93 (2011)CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed; Wooten, Heather et al., Zoning and Licensing to Regulate the Retail Environment and Achieve Public Health Goals, 5 Duke F. for L. & Soc. Change 65, 87-95 (2013)Google Scholar.

22 Feighery, E.C. et al., An Examination of Trends in Amount and Type of Cigarette Advertising and Sales Promotions in California Stores, 2002-2005, 17 Tobacco Control 93, 93 (2008)CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed.

23 The MSA was originally between five of the largest tobacco companies in the U.S. and the attorneys general of forty-six states. Kline, Robert L., Tobacco Advertising After the Settlement: Where We Are and What Remains To Be Done, 9 Kan. J.L. & Pub. Pol'y 621, 621 (2000)Google Scholar. It ended litigation brought by the states to recover tobacco-related health care costs. Id. at 622. Under the agreement, the companies agree to eliminate or curtail certain marketing practices, including billboard and transit advertising, as well as event sponsorships. Id. at 623, 626-27; Feighery et al., supra note 22, at 93.

24 Slater, Sandy J. et al., The Impact of Retail Cigarette Marketing Practices on Youth Smoking Uptake, 161 Archives Pediatrics & Adolescent Med. 440, 441 (2007)CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed, available at

25 See Cigarette Report for 2011, supra note 15, at 1.

26 See id.

27 Patricia Clark, People Are Smoking Less. So Why Have Tobacco Shops Doubled?, Bloomberg Business (Sept. 15 2014),

28 Id.

29 Living in close proximity to a tobacco outlet is associated with greater tobacco use by adults. See Chuang et al., supra note 17, at 570-72 (2005). The shorter the distance from home to the nearest tobacco retail outlet, the more cigarettes California adults reported smoking in the previous month. Id.

30 Slater et al. found that point-of-sale advertising encouraged youth to try smoking. Slater et al., supra note 24, at 443-44. Their research revealed that rates of youth smoking initiation increased during periods of high tobacco promotional expenditures. Id. But see Paynter, Janine & Edwards, Richard, The Impact of Tobacco Promotion at the Point of Sale: A Systematic Review, 11 Nicotine & Tobacco Res. 25, 32-33 (2009)CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed (concluding that more prospective studies are needed to clarify the causal relationship between exposure to point-of-sale advertising and increased tobacco use). Paynter, however, still advocates for bans on point-of-sale advertising and displays given the severity of the health hazards imposed by smoking and the strong evidence that tobacco promotion influences children to start smoking. Paynter & Edwards, supra, at 32.

31 Henriksen, Lisa et al., Is Adolescent Smoking Related to the Density and Proximity of Tobacco Outlets and Retail Cigarette Advertising Near Schools?, 47 Preventive Med. 210, 213 (2008)CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed. A 2012 study found a positive association between tobacco retailer density, greater exposure to point-of-sale tobacco advertising, and an increased belief, among youths that smoking was “cool.” Loomis, Brett R. et al., The Density of Tobacco Retailers and Its Association with Attitudes Toward Smoking, Exposure to Point-of-Sale Tobacco Advertising, Cigarette Purchasing, and Smoking Among New York Youth, 55 Preventive Med. 468, 471 (2012)CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed.

32 For example, being able to identify one tobacco brand. Paynter & Edwards, supra note 30, at 26.

33 Id.

34 Id.; Wakefield, Melanie A. et al., Association of Point-of-Purchase Tobacco Advertising and Promotions with Choice of Usual Brand Among Teenage Smokers, 7 J. Health Comm. 113, 118 (2002)CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed.

35 Tobacco Control Legal Consortium, supra note 18, at 2.

36 Id.

37 Id. at 18-19.

38 Nat'l Ass'n of Cnty. & City Health Officials, supra note 12, at 4, 40.

39 Cohen, D.A. & Babey, S.H., Contextual Influences on Eating Behaviours: Heuristic Processing and Dietary Choices, 13 Obesity Revs. 766, 766 (2012)CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed. Americans spend almost half of their food dollars at restaurants. Wootan, Margo G. & Osborn, Melissa, Availability of Nutrition Information from Chain Restaurants in the United States, 30 Am. J. Preventative Med. 266, 266 (2006)CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed.

40 Larson, Nicole I. et al., Neighborhood Environments: Disparities in Access to Healthy Foods in the U.S., 36 Am. J. Preventative Med. 74, 75 (2009)CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed.

41 Michele Ver Ploeg et al., U.S. Dep't of Agric., Access to Affordable and Nutritious Food — Updated Estimates of Distance to Supermarkets Using 2010 Data, at iii (2012), available at

42 Fielding, Jonathan E. & Simon, Paul A., Food Deserts or Food Swamps?, 171 Archives Internal Med. 1171, 1171 (2011)CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed; see also Donald Rose et al., Deserts in New Orleans? Illustrations of Urban Food Access and Implications for Policy 15-16 (2009), available at

43 Cal. Ctr. for Pub. Health Advocacy et al., Designed for Disease: The Link Between Local Food Environments and Obesity and Diabetes 2 (2008).

44 Morland et al., supra note 14, at 336; Powell, Lisa M. et al., Associations Between Access to Food Stores and Adolescent Body Mass Index, 33 Am. J. Preventative Med. S301, S305-06 (2007)CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed.

45 Cal. Ctr. for Pub. Health Advocacy et al., supra note 43, at 1, 4.

46 Laska, Melissa N. et al., Neighbourhood Food Environments: Are They Associated with Adolescent Dietary Intake, Food Purchases and Weight Status?, 13 Pub. Health Nutrition 1757, 1760-61 (2010)CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed. Studies examining the effect shelf space has on consumer purchasing decisions suggest that health interventions should focus on decreasing the presence of less-healthy foods in stores, rather than attempting to only increase access to healthier options. Glanz, Karen et al., Retail Grocery Store Marketing Strategies and Obesity: An Integrative Review, 42 Am. J. Preventative Med. 503, 505, 508 (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar.

47 Michael Moss, The Extraordinary Science of Addictive Junk Food, N.Y. Times (Feb. 20, 2013),

48 The in-store placement of products is one of the most important determinants of sales. See Glanz et al., supra note 46, at 506-07. A prominent location—whether in the checkout aisle, eye-level on the shelf, or as a free-standing product display—increases visibility and the rate at which the product is purchased. Id. Indeed, vendors pay slotting fees to retailers to ensure that their products are placed in one of these prime locations. Id. at 504.

49 Cohen & Babey, supra note 39, at 766, 775 (“The ubiquity of less healthful choices can overwhelm and undermine cognitive, deliberate decision-making.”). The detrimental impact of these contextual risk factors makes this a promising area for regulation and obesity control efforts. See id.

50 Mary Story & Simone French, Food Advertising and Marketing Directed at Children and Adolescents in the US, Int'l J. Behav. Nutrition & Physical Activity (Feb. 10, 2004),

51 Id. Evidence indicates that children influence $200 billion of spending per year. Id.

52 Only 10% of these products met IOM nutrition standards. Glanz et al., supra note 46, at 507.

53 Stacy Dean, New Fact Sheets Show SNAP's Effectiveness in All 50 States, Off Charts (Jan. 17, 2013, 9:13 AM),; WIC--The Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants and Children, U.S. Department Agric., (last updated Apr. 2014).

54 See Press Release, U.S. Dep't of Agric., USDA Releases New Report on Trafficking and Announces Additional Measures to Improve Integrity in the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (Aug. 15, 2013) (on file with author), available at

55 Nat'l Ass'n of Cnty. & City Health Officials, supra note 12, at 40. Food safety laws are those designed to prevent contamination and foodborne illness.

56 Minneapolis Dep't of Health & Family Support, Minneapolis Healthy Corner Store Program 3 (2012), available at; Dylan Scott, A Fresh Start: City Requires Corner Stores to Sell Healthy Produce, Governing (Oct. 11, 2012),

57 Alcohol consumption by underage drinkers contributes to the three leading causes of death among adolescents: unintentional injuries, suicide, and homicide. U.S. Dep't of Health & Human Servs., The Surgeon General's Call to Action: To Prevent and Reduce Underage Drinking 5 (2007), available at; Elder, Randy W. et al., The Effectiveness of Tax Policy Interventions for Reducing Excessive Alcohol Consumption and Related Harms, 38 Am. J. Preventative Med. 217, 217 (2010)CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed, available at

58 Chen et al., supra note 17, at 582.

59 Studies have found that minors successfully purchase alcohol thirty to seventy percent of the time depending on the density of alcohol outlets in the area. Id. The higher percentage of underage sales occurs in areas with higher alcohol retailer densities. Id.

60 Hurtz, Shannon Q. et al., The Relationship Between Exposure to Alcohol Advertising in Stores, Owning Alcohol Promotional Items, and Adolescent Alcohol Use, 42 Alcohol & Alcoholism 143, 143 (2007)CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed.

61 Id.

62 Mosher, James F., Joe Camel in a Bottle: Diageo, the Smirnoff Brand, and the Transformation of the Youth Alcohol Market, 102 Am. J. Pub. Health 56, 57 (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar. Alcopops, like Smirnoff Ice, were specifically designed for the youth market, to hide the harsh taste of hard alcohol and compete with the successful beer industry. Id.

63 Hurtz et al., supra note 60, at 143, 147.

64 Kuo, Meichun et al., The Marketing of Alcohol to College Students: The Role of Low Prices and Special Promotions, 25 Am. J. Preventative Med. 204, 207-08 (2003)CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed; Wechsler, Henry et al., Secondhand Effects of Student Alcohol Use Reported by Neighbors of Colleges: The Role of Alcohol Outlets, 55 Soc. Sci. & Med. 425, 432 (2002)CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed; see also Weitzman, Elissa R. et al., The Relationship of Alcohol Outlet Density to Heavy and Frequent Drinking and Drinking-Related Problems Among College Students at Eight Universities, 9 Health & Place 1, 4-5 (2003)CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed.

65 Hurtz et al., supra note 60, at 143.

66 Id. at 207; Wechsler et al., supra note 64, at 429; Weitzman et al., supra note 64, at 4-5.

67 Hurtz et al., supra note 60, at 143, 147.

68 U.S. Const. amend. XXI; Nat'l Highway Traffic Safety Admin., U.S. Dep't of Transp., The Role of Alcohol Beverage Control Agencies in the Enforcement and Adjudication of Alcohol Laws 1 (2005).

69 Nat'l Highway Traffic Safety Admin., supra note 68, at 1.

70 Off-premise liquor licenses allow stores to sell alcohol for off-premise consumption only.

71 Gruenewald, Paul J. et al., Ecological Models of Alcohol Outlets and Violent Assaults: Crime Potentials and Geospatial Analysts, 101 Addiction 666, 674 (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar; Tony H. Grubesic & William Alex Pridemore, Alcohol outlets and clusters of violence, Int'l J. Health Geographics (May 4, 2011), Notably, these effects were not related to bar densities, but were only related to off-premise establishments. Gruenewald et al., supra, at 674.

72 Grubesic & Pridemore, supra note 71.

73 Many off-premise retail outlets in urban areas “serve as de-facto taverns … where people buy alcohol and congregate for social interaction during consumption.” Id.

74 Cunradi, Carol B. et al., Alcohol Outlets, Neighborhood Characteristics, and Intimate Partner Violence: Ecological Analysis of a California City, 88 J. Urb. Health 191, 195 (2011)CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed, available at

75 Although this comprises a relatively small percentage of total robberies, there has been little change in the proportion of convenience store robberies. Alicia Altizio & Diana York, U.S. Dep't of Justice, Robbery of Convenience Stores 2 (2007), available at

76 Loomis, Dana et al., Homicide on the Job: Workplace and Community Determinants, 154 Am. J. Epidemiology 410, 415 (2001)CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed.

77 Altizio & York, supra note 75, at 24.

78 Tobacco Control Legal Consortium, supra note 18, at 2-3.

79 Tobacco Control Legal Consortium, Regulating Tobacco Products Based on Pack Size 1 (2012), available at

80 Ann Boonn, Campaign for Tobacco-Free Kids, State Cigarette Excise Tax Rates & Rankings (2015), available at

81 See, e.g., WIC Vendors — Grocery, Wis. Department Health Services, (last modified Apr. 6, 2015).

82 Sarah Bagge, Families USA, Alcohol Taxes and Public Health 2 (2012), available at; Preventing Excessive Alcohol Consumption: Increasing Alcohol Taxes, Community Guide, (last updated Feb. 23, 2015).

83 The 1984 National Minimum Drinking Age Act, Alcohol Policy Info. Sys., (last visited May 13, 2015).

84 Letter from Joann M. Givens, Acting Dir., Food & Drug Admin. Ctr. for Food Safety & Applied Nutrition, to Jaisen Freeman et al., Phusion Projects, LLC (Nov. 17, 2010) (on file with Food & Drug Admin.), available at

85 Id.

86 Ann Boonn, Campaign for Tobacco-Free Kids, Top Combined State-Local Cigarette Tax Rates (2015), available at

87 See Philadelphia Dep't of Pub. Health, Increasing Cigarette Taxes in Philadelphia: Reducing Smoking, Improving Health, and Creating Savings & Revenue (2013), available at; Pa. Action Ctr., Am. Cancer Soc'y, Philadelphia Tobacco Tax Increase Will Save Lives, Protect Kids, Cancer Action Network (Sept. 24, 2014),; Ann Boonn, Campaign for Tobacco-Free Kids, Cigarette Tax Increases by State Per Year 2000-2015, at 3 (2015), available at

88 Christine Fry et al., Health on the Shelf: A Guide to Healthy Small Food Retailer Certification Programs 5 (2013), available at

89 Bagge, supra note 82, at 2.

90 21 C.F.R. § 1140.16(c) (2014); Tobacco Control Legal Consortium, Placement of Tobacco Products 4 (2011) (listing states that have banned self-service).

91 Retail Store Eligibility USDA Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program, U.S. Department Agric., (last modified July 25, 2013).

92 Beer Retailer & Distributor Laws,, (last visited May 13, 2015).

93 Cal. Bus. & Prof. Code § 25612.5(c)(7) (Supp. 2015).

94 47 Pa. Cons. Stat. Ann. §§ 3-301, 3-305, 4-431 (1997).

95 Nat'l Alcohol Beverage Control Ass'n, Mississippi (2013), available at; Nat'l Alcohol Beverage Control Ass'n, North Carolina (2013), available at

96 Is it legal to ban tobacco sales in pharmacies?, ChangeLab Solutions, (last visited May 13, 2015).

97 Tobacco Control Legal Consortium, Location, Location, Location: Regulating Tobacco Retailer Locations for Public Health 6-7 (2014), available at

98 Fry et al., supra note 88, at 5.

99 News Release, U.S. Dep't of Agric., Obama Administration Details Healthy Food Financing Initiative (Feb. 19, 2010) (on file with author), available at

100 Cal. Health & Safety Code § 104661 (West Supp. 2015).

101 S.B. 1221, 96th Gen. Assemb., Reg. Sess. (Ill. 2009).

102 Mich. Comp. Laws Ann. §§ 207.842, 207.847 (West 2014).

103 McLaughlin, supra note 19, at 9.

104 Most Frequently Asked Questions, Commonwealth of Mass. Alcoholic Beverages Control Commission, (last visited May 13, 2015).

105 47 Pa. Cons. Stat. Ann. § 3-304(b) (West Supp. 2014).

106 Center for Pub. Health & Tobacco Pol'y, Tobacco Retail Licensing 4 (2013), available at; McLaughlin, supra note 19, at 9.

107 Center for Pub. Health & Tobacco Pol'y, supra note 106, at 8.

108 David H. Jernigan et al., Using Public Health and Community Partnerships to Reduce Density of Alcohol Outlets, Preventing Chronic Disease (Apr. 11, 2013),

109 Nat'l Alcohol Beverage Control Ass'n, Virginia (2013), available at

110 See, e.g., Chronic Disease Control Branch, Cal. Department Pub. Health, (last modified Apr. 24, 2015).

111 See supra Table 1.

112 As we were making final edits to this paper, the City of Berkeley, California, enacted a sugary drink tax, and the Navajo Nation enacted a junk food tax that covers, among other products, sugary drinks. Stephanie Strom, Election Day Entailed Casting Votes for Soda Taxes and Food Issues Too, N.Y. Times, Nov. 6, 2014, at B5, available at; Navajo lawmakers approve junk food tax, Associated Press (Nov. 15, 2014),

113 Healthy Stores for a Healthy Community Technical Report, Healthy Stores for Healthy Community (Mar. 5, 2014),

114 Id.

115 See, e.g., Katherine A. Stamatakis et al., State Practitioner Insights Into Local Public Health Challenges and Opportunities in Obesity Prevention: a Qualitative Study, Preventing Chronic Disease (Mar. 13, 2014),

116 Ethan P. Davis, Liquor Laws and Constitutional Conventions: A Legal History of the Twenty-First Amendment (Apr. 1, 2008) (unpublished scholarship paper, Yale Law School) (on file with Yale Law School Legal Scholarship Repository), available at

117 See Pauly, Philip J., Is Liquor Intoxicating? Scientists, Prohibition, and the Normalization of Drinking, 84 Am. J. Pub. Health 305, 306-08 (1994)CrossRefGoogle Scholar, available at

118 Proctor, Robert N., The History of the Discovery of the Cigarette—Lung Cancer Link: Evidentiary Traditions, Corporate Denial, Global Toll, 21 Tobacco Control 87, 89 (2012)CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed, available at

119 See generally Graff, Samantha K. et al., Policies for Healthier Communities: Historical, Legal, and Practical Elements of the Obesity Prevention Movement, 33 Ann. Rev. Pub. Health 307, 308-09 (2012)CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed, available at (describing the history of food access legislation and subsequent shift to focus on the obesity epidemic).

120 See id. at 308.

121 See Greenwood, D.C. et al., Association Between Sugar-Sweetened and Artificially Sweetened Soft Drinks and Type 2 Diabetes: Systematic Review and Dose—Response Meta-Analysis of Prospective Studies, 112 Brit. J. Nutrition 725, 729 (2014)CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed; Habib Malik, Aaqib et al., Impact of Sugar-Sweetened Beverages on Blood Pressure, 113 Am. J. Cardiology 1574, 1577 (2014)Google Scholar; Woodward-Lopez, Gail et al., To What Extent Have Sweetened Beverages Contributed to the Obesity Endemic?, 14 Pub. Health Nutrition 499, 505 (2010)Google Scholar.

122 See Patrice Carter et al., Fruit and vegetable intake and incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus: systematic review and meta-analysis, thebmj (Aug. 19, 2010),; Xia Wang et al., Fruit and vegetable consumption and mortality from all causes, cardiovascular disease, and cancer: systematic review and dose-response meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies, thebmj (July 29, 2014),

123 For example, a common argument against the New York City sugary drink portion size limit was that it was unfair to small businesses. See, e.g., Jason Kessler, Groups: NYC soda ban unfair to small, minority-owned businesses, CNN (Jan. 25, 2013),

124 The California Governor's Office of Business and Economic Development operates a website that allows a business owner to determine how many licenses and permits will be required for a specific type of business in any county in California. See CalGold, (last visited May 13, 2015).

125 Morain, Stephanie & Mello, Michelle M., Survey Finds Public Support For Legal Interventions Directed at Health Behavior to Fight Noncommunicable Disease, 32 Health Aff. 486, 488 (2013)CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed, available at

126 Id. at 490-91.

127 See Public Trust in Government: 1958-2014, Pew Res. Center (Nov. 13, 2014),

128 Judith Graham, Obesity fight needs ambitious campaign, health leaders say, USA Today (May 5, 2012, 6:00 AM), (“The similarities between the [anti-tobacco and the anti-obesity movements] are compelling.”).

129 Susan Kansagra, Assistant Comm'r, N.Y.C. Dep't of Health & Mental Hygiene, Remarks on Maximum Size for Sugary Drinks: Proposed Amendment of Article 81 (Jun. 12, 2012), available at

130 Minneapolis, Minn., Food Code tit. 10, § 203.10(b) (2014).

131 Tobacco Control Act, U.S. Food & Drug Admin., (last updated May 5, 2015).

132 Minneapolis, Minn., Food Code tit. 10, § 203.10(e) (2014).

133 City of Providence Tobacco Sales Laws,, (last visited May 13, 2015).

134 See Food Insecurity Nutrition Incentive (FINI) Grant Program, U.S. Department Agric., (last visited May 13, 2015).

135 N.Y.C., N.Y., Administrative Code § 17-706 (2014).

136 Haw. Rev. Stat. Ann. § 328J-18 (LexisNexis Supp. 2014).

137 See Houston Community Transformation Healthy Checkout Aisle Program, CAN DO Houston, (last visited May 13, 2015).

138 Del. Code Ann. tit. 4, § 701 (2001).

139 Minneapolis, Minn., Food Code tit. 10, § 203.10 (2014).

140 Racine, Wis., Code of Ordinances § 114-1038(c)(1) (2014).

141 Vt. Dep't of Health, Small Change Big Impact: Healthy Retailers Guidebook 1 (n.d.), available at

142 Detroit, Mich., Municipal Code § 61-12-91 (2008).

143 Santa Rosa, Cal., Council Ordinance no. 3990 (2012); Santa Rosa, Cal., Council Ordinance no. 4004 (2013).

144 Huntington Park, Cal. Municipal Code tit. 4, § 19.03(h)(1) (2011).

145 City of San Pablo, San Pablo General Plan 2030, at 8-29 (2011), available at

146 Cal. Bus. & Prof. Code § 23958 (West 1997).

147 Sarah Marie Borron, Cong. Hunger Ctr., Food Policy Councils: Practice and Possibility 6 (2003), available at

148 See McCullough, Marjorie L. et al., Diet Quality and Major Chronic Disease Risk in Men and Women: Moving Toward Improved Dietary Guidance, 76 Am. J. Clinical Nutrition 1261, 1264 (2002)CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed.

149 See id. at 1267.

150 Dembe, Allard E., Book Review, 22 J. Pub. Health Pol'y 236, 236-37 (2001)CrossRefGoogle Scholar.

151 See Hau, Monica et al., Development of a Guide to Applying Precaution in Local Public Health, 20 Int'l J. Occupational & Envtl. Health 174, 182 (2014)Google ScholarPubMed; Kriebel, David & Tickner, Joel, Reenergizing Public Health Through Precaution, 91 Am. J. Pub. Health 1351, 1353 (2001)CrossRefGoogle Scholar. But cf. Gonzales, Joseph F. et al., Applying the Precautionary Principle to Nutrition and Cancer, 33 J. Am. C. Nutrition 239, 240-44 (2014)Google ScholarPubMed (describing the advantages and disadvantages of potential dietary recommendations in areas in which dietary influence on cancer risk is substantial yet inconclusive).

152 Policy Statements Adopted by the Governing Council of the American Public Health Association, November 15, 2000, 91 Am. J. Pub. Health 476, 495-96 (2001)Google Scholar (listing policy number 200011, entitled “The Precautionary Principle and Children's Health”).

153 See Cahn, Zachary & Siegel, Michael, Electronic Cigarettes as a Harm Reduction Strategy for Tobacco Control: A Step Forward or a Repeat of Past Mistakes?, 32 J. Pub. Health Pol'y 16, 25-29 (2011)Google ScholarPubMed.

154 See, e.g., Conference of the Parties to the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control, Sixth Session, Moscow, Russ., Oct. 13-18, 2014, ¶ 35, Doc. FCTC/COP/6/10 Rev.1 (Sept. 1, 2014).

155 Lawrence O. Gostin, Public Health Law: Power, Duty, Restraint 47-70 (2d ed. 2008).

156 See id. at 54-62.

157 See Jessica Guilfoyle, Campaign for Tobacco Free Kids, Enforcing Laws Prohibiting Cigarette Sales to Kids Reduces Youth Smoking 1 (2010), available at

158 See supra Part II.

159 See Hannah Burton Laurison, ChangeLab Solutions, Providing Fresh Produce in Small Food Stores: Distribution Challenges & Solutions for Healthy Food Retail 6-7 (2014), available at

160 See Graff et al., supra note 119, at 313-14.

161 See id.

162 Minneapolis, Minn., Food Code tit. 10, § 203.10 (2014).

163 See Minneapolis Dep't of Health & Family Support, supra note 56, at 3.

164 See id. at 4.

165 U.S. Dep't of Health Educ. & Welfare, Smoking and Health: Report of the Advisory Committee to the Surgeon General of the Public Health Service (1964).

166 History of the Surgeon General's Reports on Smoking and Health, CDC, (last updated July 6, 2009).

167 See, e.g., N.Y.C., N.Y., Administrative Code § 17-503(c) (2014).

168 See, e.g., South Pasadena, Cal., Municipal Code §§ 17.83-17.84 (2014).

169 U.S. Dep't of Health & Human Servs., The Health Consequences of Involuntary Exposure to Tobacco Smoke: A Report of the Surgeon General 12-13 (2006).

170 See supra Part I.