1 Case T–90/03, Fédération des industries condimentaires de France (FICF) v. Commission (Eur. Ct. First Instance July 11, 2007). The decisions of the Court of First Instance and Court of Justice of the European Communities are available at <http://curia.europa.eu>.
2 Case T–317/02, Fédération des industries condimentaires de France (FICF) v. Commission, 2004 ECR II–4325.
3 Council Regulation 2641/84 of 17 September 1984 on the
Strengthening of the Common Commercial Policy with Regard to the Protection Against Illicit Commercial Practices, 1984 O.J. (L 252) 1. For further analysis, see
Marco, Bronckers & Natalie, McNelis,
The EU Trade Barriers Regulation Comes of Age
, 35 J. World Trade
427 (2001). EU legal documents are available at <http://eur–lex.europa.eu>.
4 Council Regulation (EC) No. 3286/94 of 22 December 1994 Laying Down Community Procedures in the Field of the Common Commercial Policy in Order to Ensure the Exercise of the Community’s
Rights Under International Trade Rules, in Particular Those Established Under the Auspices of the WTO, 1994 O.J. (L 349) 71, as amended by Council Regulation (EC) No 356/95, 1995 O.J. (L 41) 3.
5 For a detailed comparative analysis of section 301 and the TBR, see
Christian, Cascante, Rechtsschutz Von Privatrechtssubjekten Gegen WTO–widrige Massnahmen in den USA und in der EG (2003).
6 Apr. 14, 1994, Marrakesh Agreement Establishing the World Trade Organization, Annex 1A, in
World Trade Organization, The Results of the Uruguay Round of Multilateral Trade Negotiations: The Legal Texts
69 (1995). WTO legal documents are available at <http://www.wto.org>.
7 Appellate Body Report, European Communities—Measures Concerning Meat and Meat Products (Hormones), WT/DS26 & 48/AB/R (adopted Feb. 13, 1998).
The Communitarization of WTO Dispute Settlement Reports: An Exception to the Rule of Law
, 10 Eur. Foreign Aff. Rev.
9 Decision by Arbitrators, European Communities—Measures Concerning Meat and Meat Products (Hormones), WT/DS26/ARB (July 12, 1999).
Treaty Establishing the European Community, Mar. 25, 1957, 298 UNTS 11
, as amended by
Treaty of Amsterdam, Oct. 2, 1997, 1997 O.J. (C 340) 1, as amended by
Treaty of Nice, Feb. 26, 2001, 2001 O.J. (C 80) 1,
consolidated version reprinted in
2002 O.J. (C 325) 33.
13 According to the jurisprudence of the European Court of Justice and the CFI, provisions of the EC Treaty can have direct effect if they are sufficiently clear, precise, and unconditional as to be applied without any further implementing act. See the seminal European Court judgment in Van Gend & Loos v. Nederlandse Administratie der Belastingen, 1963 ECR 1.
Piet, Eeckhout, External Relations of the Eu (2004).
Robert, M. Maclean & Bettina, Volpi, EU Trade Barrier Regulation
16 See WTO dispute DS217, US—Offset Act (Byrd Amendment).
Peter van den, Bossche, The Law and Policy of the WTO (2006).
Dispute Settlement in the WTO: Characteristics and structural implications for the EU
, 35 Common Mkt. L. Rev.
325, 358–62 (1998).
19 For a recent analysis, see
Private Appeals to WTO Law: An Update
, 42 J. World Trade