State Weakness, Irregular Warfare, and the Right to Self-Defense Post-9/11
Published online by Cambridge University Press: 27 February 2017
Sovereign states have a responsibility not only to protect their own citizens, but also to protect— within their own territory—the rights and fundamental security interests of other states. Many states around the world, however, lack the resources to do so. Unable to exercise effective territorial control, these weak states frequently become safe havens for terrorist networks and other irregular groups. Yet the lack of such control is not the only reason for the existence of safe havens around the world; in some cases, the problem is not the host state's inability, but rather its unwillingness, to prevent irregular activity on its territory. The present article analyzes the challenges posed to the jus ad bellum resulting from both types of safe-haven scenarios: states that are unable, and those that are unwilling, to exercise control.
- Research Article
- American Journal of International Law , Volume 105 , Issue 2 , April 2011 , pp. 244 - 286
- Copyright ©by the American Society of International Law,2011
1 on sovereignty as responsibility, see Francis, M. Deng, Sadikiel, Kimaro, Terrence, Lyons, Donald, Rothchild, & I. William, Zartman, Sovereignty as Responsibility: Conflict Management in Africa (1996)Google Scholar .
2 U.S. Dep’t of State, Country Reports on Terrorism 2008 (Apr. 30, 2009), at http://www.state.gov/s/ct/rls/crt/2008/122438.htm.
3 See, e.g., Making States Work: State Failure and the Crisis of Governance (Simon Chesterman, Michael Ignatieff, & Ramesh Thakur eds., 2005); Gerald B. Helman & Steven R. Ratner, Saving Failed States, 89 Foreign Pol’y 3 (1992/1993); Robert H. Jackson, Quasi-States: Sovereignty, International Relations and The Third World (1990); Gerard Kreijen, State Failure, Sovereignty and Effectiveness: Legal Lessons From the Decolonization of Sub-Saharan Africa (2004); Daniel ThÜrer, Matthias Herdegen, & Gerhard Hohloch, Der Wegfall Effektiver Staatsgewalt: “The Failed State” (1995). See W. Michael Reisman, International Legal Responses to Terrorism, 22 HOUS. J. INT’L L. 3 (1999), for a standard treatment of the topic in the pre–9/11 era. See also Chiara Giorgetti, A Principled Approach to State Failure: International Community Actions in Emergency Situations (2010), which does not focus primarily on the issue of forcible intervention but provides a comprehensive analysis of the phenomenon of state failure from an international legal perspective.
4 See infra note 38 and accompanying text.
5 Tom, Ruys & Sten, Verhoeven, Attacks by Private Actors and the Right of Self-Defence, 10 J. Conflict & Sec. L. 289, 290 (2005)Google Scholar .
6 Article 51 provides:
Nothing in the present Charter shall impair the inherent right of individual or collective self-defence if an armed attack occurs against a Member of the United Nations, until the Security Council has taken measures necessary to maintain international peace and security. Measures taken by Members in the exercise of this right of self-defence shall be immediately reported to the Security Council and shall not in anyway affect the authority and responsibility of the Security Council under the present Charter to take at any time such action as it deems necessary in order to maintain or restore international peace and security.
From the very beginning, a handful of policy-oriented scholars has challenged the restrictive understanding of selfdefense. These commentators have long insisted on a context-specific and consequently more flexible interpretation of the constraints on the right to use defensive force. See, e.g., D. W., Bowett, Self-Defense in International Law (1958)Google Scholar ; Myres, S. McDougal, The Soviet-Cuban Quarantine and Self-Defense, 57 Ajil 597 (1963)Google Scholar . In the past decade, heightened concern over terrorism worldwide rekindled the debate about the limits of self-defense, prompting a number of policy intellectuals and publicists to question whether international law can and should restrain state power at all. See, e.g., John, Bolton, Is There Really ‘Law’ in International Affairs?, 10 J. Transnat’l L. & Contemp. Probs. 1 (2000)Google Scholar ; Michael, J. Glennon, The Fog of Law: Self-Defense, Inherence, and Incoherence in Article 51 of the United Nations Charter, 25 Harv. J. L. & Pub. Pol’y 539 (2002)Google Scholar .
7 Christian, J. Tarns, The Use of Force Against Terrorists, 20 Eur. J. Int’l L. 359, 388–90 (2009)Google Scholar .
8 Id. at 390.
9 The Caroline was a vessel owned by U. S. citizens and used by sympathizers in the United States to supply weapons and volunteers to Canadian insurgents against British rule. The British responded to this provocation by entering U.S. territory and setting the Caroline on fire. The ensuing exchange of diplomatic notes between Lord Ash-burton, who negotiated on behalf of Great Britain, and U.S. Secretary of State Daniel Webster culminated in Webster’s demand that the British show that the necessity of self-defense had been “instant, overwhelming, leaving no choice of means, and no moment for deliberation.” See The Caroline (exchange of diplomatic notes between Great Britain and the United States, 1842), 2 J. Moore, A Digest of International Law 409, 412 (1906).
10 Ruth, Wedgwood, The Fall of Saddam Hussein: Security Council Mandates and Preemptive Self-Defense, 97 Ajil 576, 584.Google Scholar
12 Tom, Ruys, Crossing the Thin Blue Line: An Inquiry into Israel’s Recourse to Self-Defense Against Hezbollah, 43 Stan. J. Int’l L. 265, 266 (2007)Google Scholar .
13 See part I below.
14 SC Res. 1368 (Sept. 12, 2001); SC Res. 1373 (Sept. 28, 2001).
15 See, e.g., Thomas, M. Franck, Terrorism and the Right of ‘Self-Defense, 95 AJIL 839, 840 (2001)Google Scholar ; Christopher, Greenwood, International Law and the Pre-emptive Use of Force: Afghanistan, Al-Qaida, and Iraq, 4 San Diego Int’l L. J. 7, 17 (2003).Google Scholar
16 Enzo, Cannizzaro, Contextualizing Proportionality: Jus ad Bellum and Jus in Bello in the Lebanese War, 88 Int’l Rev. Red Cross 779, 782 (2006).Google Scholar
17 Judith, Gail Gardam, Proportionality and Force in International Law, 87 Ajil 391, 404 (1993).Google Scholar
18 Id. at 391.
19 Cannizzaro, supra note 16, at 781.
20 YORAM DINSTEIN, WAR, AGGRESSIon, AND SELF-DEFENCE 191 (1988).
21 A sanctuary is needed for conventional forms of terrorism but not necessarily for cyberterrorism, which increasingly preoccupies policymakers and counterterrorism experts. Even though cyberterrorism has been on the national security agenda of the United States and other major diplomatic players for some time, counterterrorism efforts have been hampered because an agreed definition of cyberterrorism is lacking, as is a harmonized legal regime for preventing the use of the Internet for terrorist purposes. For an overview of the legal controversies surrounding cyberterrorism, see Council of Europe, Cyberterrorism—the use of the Internet for Terrorist Purposes (2007).
23 Robert, D. Kaplan, The Coming Anarchy, Atlantic Monthly, Feb. 1994, available at http://www.theatlantic.com/doc/199402/anarchy.Google Scholar
24 I. William, Zartman, Introduction: Posing the Problem of State Collapse, in Collapsed States: The Disintegration and Restoration of Legitimate Authority 1 , 5 (I. William, Zartman ed., 1995).Google Scholar
25 Jackson, supra note 3, at 5.
26 Corfu Channel (UK v. Alb.), 1949 ICJ Rep.4, 22 (Apr. 9).
27 Definition of Aggression, GA Res. 3314 (XXIX) (Dec. 14, 1974).
28 Military and Paramilitary Activities in and Against Nicaragua (Nicar.v. U.S.), 1986 ICJ Rep. 14, para. 195 (June 27) (citing GA Res. 3314 (XXIX), annex (Dec. 14, 1974)).
29 Id., para. 195.
30 Id para. 115.
31 Report of the International Law Commission on the Work of its Fifty-third Session, UN GAOR, 56th Sess., Supp. No. 10, para. 68, UN Doc. A/56/10 (2001). The articles, including commentaries, are available at http://untreaty.un.org/ilc/texts/instruments/english/commentaries/9_6_2001.pdf.
32 Report of the International Law Commission on the Work of its Fifty-third Session, supra note 31, at 45.
33 Prosecutor v. Tadić, Judgment, Case No. IT–94–1–A (July 15, 1999), 38 ILM 1518 (1999).
34 Memorandum for Edwin Meese III (Aug. 15, 1984), at http://www.washingtondecoded.com/files/nsdd.pdf.
37 See, e.g., Michael, Byers, Terrorism, the Use of Force and International Law After 11 September, 51 Int’l & Comp. L.Q. 401 (2002)Google Scholar ; Thomas, M. Franck, Terrorism and the Right of Self-Defense, 95 Ajil 839 (2001)Google Scholar ; Markus, Krajewski, Selbstverteidigung gegen bewaffnete Angriffe nicht-staatlicherOrganisationen–Der 11. September und seine Folgen, 40 Archiv Des Völkerrechts 183 (2002)Google Scholar ; Derek, Jinks, State Responsibility for the Acts of Private Armed Groups, 4 Chi. J. Int’l L. 83 (2003)Google Scholar ; Jordan J., Paust, Use of Armed Force Against Terrorists in Afghanistan, Iraq, and Beyond, 35 Cornell Int’l L.J., 533 (2001/2002)Google Scholar ; Steven, R. Ratner, Jus ad Bellum and Jus in Bello After September 11, 96 Ajil 905 (2002)Google Scholar ; Greg, Travalio & John, Altenburg, Terrorism, State Responsibility, and the Use of Military Force, 4 Chi. J. Int’l L. 97 (2003).Google Scholar
38 A handful of governments—the usual suspects—voiced criticism, however: Cuba, Iran, Iraq, North Korea, and Sudan are on record as having opposed the U.S. operation. See Ratner, supra note 37, at 910.
39 U.S. Dep’t of Defense, International Contributions To The War Against Terrorism (June 14, 2002), at http://www.defenselink.mil/news/Jun2002/d20020607contributions.pdf.
40 Akaki, Dvali, Instability in Georgia: A New Proliferation Threat? (Aug. 2003), at http://www.nti.org/e_research/e3_31a.html.Google Scholar
42 Neil, Arun, Russia’s Reach Unnerves Chechens, BBC News, Jan. 16, 2008, at http://news.bbc.co.Uk/2/hi/europe/7189024.stm.Google Scholar
43 Stephen, Dalziel, The Problem with the Pankisi, BBC News, Aug. 5, 2002, at http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/europe/2173878.stm.Google Scholar
44 US Rebukes Russia over Bombing, Bbc News, Aug. 25, 2002, at http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/europe/2214995.stm.Google Scholar
45 Irakly, Areshidze, Chechen Incursions Prompt Flare-up of Georgian-Russian Tension (Aug. 6, 2002), at http://www.eurasianet.org/departments/insight/articles/eav080702a.shtml.Google Scholar
46 Stephen, Dalziel, Analysis: Georgia’s Stand-off with Russia, BBC News, Aug. 25, 2002, at http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/europe/2216025.stm.Google Scholar
47 Steven, Lee Myers, Echoing Bush, Putin Asks U.N. to Back Georgia Attack, N.Y. Times, Sept. 12,2002, at A9.Google Scholar
48 Statement by Russian Federation President V. V. Putin, Annex to Letter Dated 11 September 2002 from the Permanent Representative of the Russian Federation to the United Nations Addressed to the Secretary-General, UN Doc. S/2002/1012, at 2 (2002) (paragraph break omitted).
49 Id. at 2.
50 Id. at 2–3.
51 Id. at 4.
52 Georgia Says Gorge ‘Under Control,’ Bbc News, Sept. 2, 2002, at http://news.bbc.co.Uk/2/hi/europe/2231955.stm.
53 US Warns Russia over Georgia Strike, Bbc News, Sept. 13, 2002, at http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/world/europe/2254959.stm.
54 Ivanov:‘Chemical Terrorists’ Linked to Chechens, RUSS. J., Feb. 8, 2003, available at http://www.russiajournal.com/node/14636.
55 See UN Doc. S/PV.4701 (Feb. 5, 2003).
56 Russia Threatens Pre-emptive Strikes Against Terrorists, DEUTSCHE WELLE, Sept. 8, 2004, available at http://www.dw-world.de/dw/article/0„1322127,00.html.
57 Theresa, Freese, A Georgian War on Terrorism? (Aug. 1, 2005), at http://www.eurasianet.org/departments/insight/articles/eav080205.shtml.Google Scholar
58 Georgia: Pankisi Gorge as a Militant Haven, Stratfor Global Intelligence (Mar. 31, 2005), available at http://www.stratfor.com/memberships/64562/georgia_pankisi_gorge_militant_haven.Google Scholar
60 The only exception is a short piece by Christopher Waters, Pankisi Tension and International Law (Dec. 19, 2002), at http://www.eurasianet.org/departments/insight/articles/eavl22002.shtml.
61 In his letter to the Security Council, the Russian representative spoke of “attacks on adjoining areas in the Russian Federation”—which, in his view, triggered Moscow’s right to self-defense; he did not use the term “armed attack.” See supra note 48 and accompanying text.
62 [Letter from Georgian President Eduard Shevardnadze], Annex to Identical Letters Dated 15 September 2002 from the Permanent Representative of Georgia to the United Nations Addressed to the Secretary-General and the President of the Security Council, UN Doc. A/57/408–S/2002/1033, at 2, 2–3 (2002).
63 Id. at 3.
64 See UN Doc. S/PV.4618 (Resumption 1) (Oct. 4, 2002).
65 Jaba, Devdariani & Blanka, Hancilova, Georgia’s Pankisi Gorge: Russian, US and European Connections (June 1, 2002), at http://aei.pitt.edu/1985/.Google Scholar
66 Georgia Says Gorge ‘Under Control,’ supra note 52.
67 Areshidze, supra note 45.
68 Waters, supra note 60.
69 UN Doc. S/2002/1012, supra note 48, at 3.
70 Sergei, Blagov, Moscow May Seek International Backing for Pankisi Military Operation (Aug. 13, 2002),at http://www.eurasianet.org/departments/insight/articles/eav081402.shtml.Google Scholar
71 Christopher, Waters, Pankisi Tension and International Law (Dec. 9, 2002), at http://www.eurasianet.org/departments/insight/articles/eav122002.shtml.Google Scholar
72 Stephen, Sestanovich, Putin Has His Own Candidate for Pre-emption, N.Y. Times, Oct. 6, 2002, at 14.Google Scholar
73 Myers, supra note 47; see also US Warns Russia over Georgia Strike, supra note 53.
74 U.S. Dep’t of Defense News Release No. 217-02, Georgia “Train and Equip “Program Begins (Apr. 29, 2002), at http://www.defense.gov/Releases/Release.aspx?ReleaseID=3326.
75 Parliamentary Assembly of the Council of Europe, Recommendation 1580, The Situation in Georgia and Its Consequences for the Stability of the Caucasus Region, Sept. 25, 2002, at http://assembly.coe.int/Main.asp?link=/Documents/AdoptedText/ta02/ERECl580.htm.
76 Since Uganda’s intervention in the DRC took place in 1998, it does not technically qualify as post–9/11 state practice. Nevertheless, the ICJ judgment was not handed down years until 2005, which does make the judgment an important indicator of the development of international jurisprudence on the law of self-defense after 9/11.
77 John F., Clark, Explaining Uganda Intervention in Congo: Evidence and Interpretations, 39 J. Mod. Afr. Stud. 261, 262 (2001)Google Scholar . For an overview of the complex dynamics of the conflict, see also Gérard Prunier, Rebel Movements and Proxy Warfare: Uganda, Sudan and the Congo (1986–99), 103 Afr. Aff. 359 (2004).
78 Armed Activities on the Territory of the Congo (Dem. Rep. Congo v. Uganda), 2005 ICJ Rep. 168, paras. 29–31, 48–50 (Dec. 19).Google Scholar
79 Id., paras. 43-54. Article 2(4) provides: “All Members shall give the United Nations every assistance in any action it takes in accordance with the present Charter, and shall refrain from giving assistance to any state against which the United Nations is taking preventive or enforcement action.”
80 Armed Activities on the Territory of the Congo, para. 92.
81 Id, paras. 131, 138, 266.
82 Id, para. 109.
84 Id., para. 133.
85 Id, para. 146.
86 Id., para. 147.
88 Verbatim Record, Armed Activities on the Territory of the Congo (Dem. Rep. Congo v. Uganda), ICJ Doc. CR 2005/7, para. 80 (Apr. 18, 2005).
89 Counter-memorial Submitted by the Republic of Uganda, para. 366 (Apr. 21,2001), Armed Activities on the Territory of the Congo.
90 Armed Activities on the Territory of the Congo, supra note 78.
91 Id., paras. 131-40.
92 Id., para. 146.
93 Id, para. 147.
94 Christian, J. Tams, Note Analytique—Swimming with the Tide or Seeking to Stem It? Recent ICJ Rulings on the Law of Self-Defence, 18 Rev. Quebecoise De Droit Int’l 275, 286 (2005).Google Scholar
95 For an analysis of recent ICJ jurisprudence on matters of self-defense, including Oil Platforms (Iran v. U.S.), 2003 ICJ Rep. 161 (Nov. 6), and Legal Consequences of the Construction of a Wall in the Occupied Palestinian Territory, Advisory Opinion, 2004 ICJ Rep. 136 (July 9), see Tams, supra note 94, at 282-90.
96 Armed Activities on the Territory of the Congo, supra note 78, Sep. Op. Kooijmans, J., para. 28.
97 Id., Sep. Op. Simma, J., para 11.
98 Armed Activities on the Territory of the Congo, supra note 78, para. 301.
99 Sep. Op. Simma, J., supra note 97, para. 12.
100 Sep. Op. Kooijmans, J., supra note 96, para. 33.
101 Id, para. 34.
102 Sep. Op. Simma, J., supra note 97, para 14.
103 Armed Activities on the Territory of the Congo, supra note 78, para. 147.
104 Mark, Doyle, DR Congo Outsources Its Military, BBC News, Feb. 27,2009, at http://news.bbc.co.uk/go/pr/fr/-/2/hi/africa/7910081.stm Google Scholar .
106 Constitutive Act of the African Union, Art. 4(h), July 11, 2000, 2158 UNTS 3. This act, AU conventions, and other agreements are available at http://www.au.int/en/treaties/.
107 Ben, Kioko, The Right of Intervention Under the African Union’s Constitutive Act: From Non-interference to Nonintervention, 85 Int’l Rev. Red Cross 807, 819 (2003).Google Scholar
108 Constitutive Act of the African Union, supra note 106, Art. 4(o).
109 African Union Non-aggression and Common Defence Pact, Art. 5(b), Jan. 31, 2005.
110 Id, Art. 5(c).
111 Id., Art. l(c)(xi).
112 See supra note 27.
113 ICC Res. RC/Res. 6 (June 11, 2010).
114 David, Scheffer, Aggression Is Now a Crime, N.Y. Times, July 1,2010, available at http://www.nytimes.com/2010/07/02/opinion/02iht-edscheffer.html?_r=l&ref=aggression.Google Scholar
115 ICC Res. RC/Res. 6, supra note 113, Annex I, Art. 8 bis (1).
116 Id, Art. 8 bis (2).
118 See Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court, Art. 13, July 17, 1998, 2187 UNTS 90.
119 ICC Res. RC/Res. 6, supra note 113, Annex I, Art. 15 bis (8).
120 Id., Art. 15 bis (4).
121 Id., Art. 15 bis (5).
122 Id., Annex III, Understanding 2.
123 David, Scheffer, States Parties Approve New Crimes for International Criminal Court, ASIL Insights (June 22, 2010), at http://www.asil.org/insights100622.cfm.Google Scholar
124 Scheffer, supra note 114.
125 Report of the Commission of Inquiry on Lebanon Pursuant to Human Rights Council Resolution S-2/1, para. 37, UN Doc. A/HRC/3/2 (Nov. 23, 2006).
126 Esther, Pan, Lebanon’s Weak Government (July 20, 2006), at http://www.cfr.0rg/publicati0n/11135/.Google Scholar
129 See, e.g., Identical Letters Dated 8 June 2004 from the Chargé d’Affaires A.I. of the Permanent Mission of Israel to the United Nations Addressed to the Secretary-General and the President of the Security Council, UN Doc. A/58/837-S/2004/465, at 1 (2004).
130 Identical Letters Dated 12 May 2005 from the Permanent Representative of Israel to the United Nations Addressed to the Secretary-General and the President of the Security Council, UN Doc. A/59/802-S/2005/312, at 2 (2005). The Security Council had previously called upon Lebanon to disarm all militias operating on its territory, but to no avail. See, e.g., SC Res. 1559 (Sept. 2, 2004).
131 Letter Dated 17 November 2004 from the Permanent Representative of Israel to the United Nations Addressed to the Secretary-General, UN Doc. A/59/571–S/2004/906, at 1 (2004).
132 Anthony, Shadid & Scott, Wilson, Hezbollah Raid Opens 2nd Front for Israel, Wash. Post, July 13, 2006, at A1.Google Scholar
133 Identical Letters Dated 12 July 2006 from the Permanent Representative of Israel to the United Nations Addressed to the Secretary-General and the President of the Security Council, UN Doc. A/60/937–S/2006/515, at 1 (2006).
135 See UN Doc. S/PV.5489 (July 14, 2006).
136 See UN Doc. S/PV.5898 (Resumption 1) (May 27, 2008).
137 UN Doc. S/PV.5489, supra note 135.
138 Council of the European Union Press Release No. 11575/06 (July 17–18, 2006), at http://register.consil ium.europa.eu/pdf/en/06/st11/st11575.en06.pdf.
139 UN Doc. S/PV.5489, supra note 135.
141 See UN Doc. S/PV.5492 (July 20, 2006).
143 SC Res. 1701 (Aug. 11, 2006).
145 Andreas, Zimmermann, The Second Lebanon War: Jus ad Bellum, Jus in Bello and the Issue of Proportionality, 11 Max Planck Y.B. UN L. 99, 108–09 (Armin von, Bogdandy & Rüdiger, Wolfrum eds., 2007).Google Scholar
146 Cannizzaro, supra note 16, at 782–83.
147 Israel Ministry of Foreign Affairs, PM Olmert: Lebanon Is Responsible and Will Bear the Consequences (July 12, 2006), at http://www.mfa.gov.il/MFA/Government/Communiques/2006/.
148 Ruys, supra note 12, at 267.
149 Zimmermann, supra note 145, at 109–15.
150 See, e.g., SC Res. 1583 (Jan. 28, 2005); SC Res. 1614 (July 29, 2005); SC Res. 1655 (Jan. 31, 2006).
151 It would have been a different situation, however, if Hezbollah had led the Lebanese government, as Hamas did in the Palestinian territories at the time. Ruys, supra note 12, at 276–77.
152 Zimmermann, supra note 145, at 122.
153 G-8 Press Release, supra note 140; UN Doc. S/PV.5492, supra note 141.
154 Cannizzaro, supra note 16, at 792.
155 Id. at 780.
156 Israel Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Responding to Hizbullah Attacks from Lebanon: Issues of Proportionality (July 25, 2006), at http://www.mfa.gov.il/MFA/Government/Law/Legal%20Issues%20and%20Rulings/.
157 G-8 Press Release, supra note 140; UN Doc. S/PV.5492, supra note 141. Some commentators, however, considered the strikes to be a proportionate and legitimate exercise of Israel’s right to defend itself. Michael Walzer, for instance, reasoned that “the first purpose of any state is to defend the lives of its citizens; no state can tolerate random rocket attacks on its cities and towns.” Since Lebanon failed to live up to its sovereign responsibilities, Israel had the right to take military measures to prevent Hezbollah from continuing to threaten Israeli citizens. These measures were entirely proportionate as “Israel’s goal is to prevent future raids, as well as to rescue the soldiers, so proportionality must be measured not only against what Hamas and Hezbollah have already done, but also against what they are (and what they say they are) trying to do.” See Michael Walzer, How Aggressive Should Israel Be? War Fair (July 31, 2006), at http://www.chicagopeacenow.org/walzer.pdf.
158 The Commission of Inquiry on Lebanon established by the Human Rights Council observed a “significant pattern of excessive, indiscriminate and disproportionate use of force by IDF against Lebanese civilians and civilian objects, failing to distinguish civilians from combatants and civilian objects from military targets.” Report of the Commission of Inquiry, supra note 125.
159 G-8 Press Release, supra note 140; UN Doc. S/PV.5492, supra note 141.
160 UN Doc. S/PV.5492, supra note 141.
161 Interview with John Bolton, 25th United States Ambassador to the United Nations (May 21, 2008) (transcript on file with author).
162 Confidential interview (May 21, 2008) (transcript, source protected, on file with author).
163 Again, while this was the view shared by most states and analysts commenting on the Lebanon war, there is room for legitimate debate over how to interpret the principle of proportionality in the context of asymmetric warfare. See Walzer, supra note 157, who defends the raids as a proportionate exercise of Israel’s duty to protect its own citizens. Amichai Cohen also argues that in the context of asymmetric warfare, a more expansive interpretation of the proportionality principle is warranted, citing the Lebanon war as “one of these cases where it seems that the application of the norm of proportionality required a flexible interpretation.” Amichai Cohen, The Lebanon War and the Application of the Proportionality Principle (May 1, 2007), at http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstracted=983436.
164 Costas, Antonopoulos, The Turkish Military Operation in Northern Iraq of March–April 1995 and the International Law on the Use of Force, 1 J. Conflict & Sec. L. 33, 52 (1996).Google Scholar
165 Turkey-Iraq Agree Security Pact, BBC News, Sept. 28, 2007, at http://news.bbc.co.Uk/2/hi/7017919.stm.Google Scholar
166 Turkish Troops Pull Out of Iraq, BBC News, Feb. 29, 2008, at http://news.bbc.co.Uk/2/hi/7270566.stm.Google Scholar
167 Antonopoulos, supra note 164, at 33.
169 Dozens Die in Turkey Border Clash, BBC News,Oct.21, 2007,at http:/lnews.bbc.coMkJ2/hi/7055004.stm.Google Scholar
171 Patrick, Cockburn, The New Invasion of Iraq, Independent, Feb. 23, 2008, available at http://www.independent.co.uk/news/world/middle-east/the-new-invasion-of-iraq-786142.html.Google Scholar
172 Sarah, Rainsford, Iraq Troop Withdrawal Baffles Turks, BBC News, Feb. 29, 2008, at http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/europe/7272108.stm.Google Scholar
173 See, e.g., Turkey Hits Rebel Targets in Iraq, BBC News, Mar. 29, 2008, at http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/europe/7320508.stm Google Scholar ; Turkey Launches Raids on N Iraq, BBC News, Apr. 26, 2008, at http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/736854l.stm Google Scholar ; Turkey ‘Kills 150 Kurdish Rebels,’ BBC News, May 3, 2008, at http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/middle_east/7382150.stm Google Scholar ; Turkish Jets Target PKK in Iraq, BBC News, July 24, 2008, at http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/7523020.stm Google Scholar ; Turkish Warplanes ‘Bomb PKK Base, ‘BBC News, Aug. 17, 2008, at http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/7566322.stm.Google Scholar
174 But see Tom Ruys, Quo Vadit Jus ad Bellum?: A Legal Analysis of Turkey’s Military Operations Against the PKK in Northern Iraq, 9 Melb. J. Int’l L. 334 (2008).Google Scholar
175 See, for example, Prime-Minister Erdogan’s statement made in October 2007 at a meeting of his party, where he declared that “[w]e have reached the point of self-defense, and we are ready to do whatever is necessary in light of common sense.” Sebnem Arsu, Iraq Moves to Deter Turkey from Cross-border offensive, N.Y. TIMES, Oct. 17, 2007, at A8.
176 Europe Again Warns Against Turkish Intervention in Iraq, Deutsche Welle, Oct. 22, 2007, at http://www.dw-world.de/dw/article/0„2834888,00.html.
177 Tulin, Daloglu, Kurdish Terror and the West, Wash. Times, Oct. 30, 2007, available at http://www.washingtontimes.com/news/2007/oct/30/kurdish-terror-and-the-west/.Google Scholar
178 Ruys, supra note 174, at 12.
179 Stefan, Nicola, Analysis: Turkey’s Risky PKK War, UPI.com, Feb. 26, 2008, at http://www.upi.com/Top_News/Special/2008/02/26/Analysis-Turkeys-risky-PKK-war/UPI-74401204060244/.Google Scholar
180 Ruys, supra note 174, at 345.
181 Europe Again Warns Against Turkish Intervention in Iraq, supra note 176.
183 Embassy of the People’s Republic of China in the United Kingdom of the Great Britain and Northern Ireland, Foreign Ministry Spokesperson Liu Jianchao’s Regular Press Conference on 23 October 2007’(Oct. 24,2007), at http://www.chinese-embassy.org.uk/eng/zt/fyrth/t375079.htm.
184 Nicola, supra note 179.
185 European Union Presidency, Statement on the Military Action Undertaken by Turkey in Iraqi Territory (Feb. 25, 2008), at http://www.eu2008.si/en/News_and_Documents/CFSP_Statements/February/0225MZZ turkey.html.
187 Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Russian Federation, Russian MFA Spokesman Mikhail Kamynin Answers a Media Question Regarding Situation on Turkish-Iraqi Border (Feb. 22, 2008), at http://www.un.int/russia/new/ MainRoot/docs/off_news/220208/newen2.htm.
189 Rainsford, supra note 172.
190 Bush Pledges to Pursue Turkish Kurd Rebels in Iraq (June 25, 2004), at http://www.ekurd.net/mismas/articles/misc/bushpledges.htm
192 Iraq Warns Turkey over Incursion, BBC News, Feb. 23, 2008, at http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/7260478.stm.Google Scholar
193 Iraq Incursion Finished, Turkey Says, CNN, Feb. 29, 2008, at http://www.cnn.com/2008/WORLD/meast/02/29/iraq.main/index.html.Google Scholar
195 Raphaël van, Steenberghe, Self-Defence in Response to Attacks by Non-state Actors in the Light of Recent State Practice: A Step Forward?, 23 Leiden J. Int’l L. 183, 202 (2010).Google Scholar
196 Id. at 205.
197 Note Verbale Dated 26 March 2008 from the Permanent Mission of Turkey to the United Nations office at Geneva Addressed to the Secretariat of the Human Rights Council, UN Doc. A/HRC/7/G/15 (2008).
198 Sarah, Rainsford, Turkey Determined to Crush PKK, BBC News, Feb. 26, 2008, at http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/europe/7265677.stm.Google Scholar
199 Turkey Urges PKK to End Struggle, BBC News, Mar. 1, 2008, at http://news.bbc.co.Uk/go/pr/fr/-/2/hi/europe/7272184.stm.Google Scholar
200 Ned, Parker & Asso, Ahmed, Iraq Pledges to Confront Kurdish Rebels, L.A. Times, Oct. 24,2007, available at http://articles.latimes.com/2007/oct/24/world/fg-kurds24.Google Scholar
201 At one point, Iraqi President Jalal Talabani, himself a Kurd, communicated Iraq’s refusal to extradite PKK fighters by stating that Iraq would not “hand over any Kurd to Turkey, not even a Turkish cat.” Europe Again Warns Against Turkish Intervention in Iraq, supra note 176.
202 Turkey Extends Iraq Raid Window, BBC News, Oct. 8, 2008, at http://news.bbc.co.Uk/2/hi/7659194.stm.Google Scholar
203 Van Steenberghe, supra note 195, at 194.
204 Douglas, Farah & Glenn R., Simpson, Ecuador at Risk: Drugs, Thugs, Guerillas and the Citizens Revolution (Jan. 24, 2010), at http://www.strategycenter.net/research/pubID.221/pub_detail.asp.Google Scholar
205 U.S. Dep’t of State, supra note 2.
206 James, C. McKinley Jr., Nicaragua Breaks Ties with Bogotá over Crisis, N.Y. Times, Mar. 7, 2008, at A6.Google Scholar
207 Farah & Simpson, supra note 204.
209 Gabriel, Marcella, War Without Borders: The Colombia-Ecuador Crisis of 2008, at 13 (Dec. 2008), at http://www.strategicstudiesinstitute.army.mil/Pubs/Display.Cfm?pubID=891.Google Scholar
210 Id. at v.
211 Regional Tensions Rise as Venezuela, Ecuador Send Troops to Border with Colombia, Xinhua News Agency, Mar. 3, 2008, at http://news.xinhuanet.com/english/2008-03/03/content_7707811.htm.
212 No Risk of War with Neighbors: Colombian official, Reuters, Mar. 6, 2008, at http://www.reuters.com/assets/print?aid=USL0632108620080306.
213 Regional Tensions Rise as Venezuela, Ecuador Send Troops to Border with Colombia, supra note 211.
214 For one of the few scholarly analyses of the raids, see Tatiana Waisberg, The Colombia-Ecuador Armed Crisis of March 2008: The Practice of Targeted Killing and Incursions against Non-state Actors Harbored at Terrorist Safe Havens in a Third Party State, 32 Stud. Conflict & Terrorism 476 (2009).
215 Ecuador, Venezuela Raise the Stakes Against Colombia, CBC News, Mar.4, 2008, at http://www.cbc.ca/world/story/2008/03/03/ecuador-border.html.Google Scholar
216 Marcella, supra note 209, at 1.
217 Declaration of the Heads of State and Government of the Rio Group on the Recent Events Between Ecuador and Colombia (Mar. 7, 2008), at http://scm.oas.org/doc_public/ENGLISH/HIST_08/CP19791Ell.doc.
219 Permanent Council of the Organization of American States, Convocation of the Meeting of Consultation of Ministers of Foreign Affairs and Appointment of a Commission, OAS Doc. OAS/CP/RES. 930 (1632/08) (Mar. 5, 2008), available at http://www.oas.org/consejo/resolutions/res930.asp.Google Scholar
220 Permanent Council of the Organization of American States, Convocation of the Twenty-third Meeting of Consultation of Ministers of Foreign Affairs, OAS Doc. OAS/CP/RES. 796 (1293/01) (Sept. 19,2001), available at http://www.oas.org/consejo/resolutions/res796.asp.Google Scholar
221 Farah & Simpson, supra note 204.
223 Según Rafael, Correa, Computations de Raúl Reyes no estaban en el campamento de las Farc (May 18, 2008), at http://www.diariocritico.com/ecuador/2008/Mayo/noticias/76160/computadores-de-raul-reyes.html.Google Scholar
224 Farah & Simpson, supra note 204.
226 Stephan, Küffner, Ecuador officials Linked to Colombia Rebels, Time, Dec. 15, 2009, at http://www.time.com/time/printout/0,8816,1948040,00.html.Google Scholar
227 Farah & Simpson, supra note 204.
228 Marcella, supra note 209, at 10, 13.
229 Id. at 10.
230 US Jails Colombian Rebel Leader, BBC News, Jan. 29, 2008, at http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/72l4540.stm.Google Scholar
231 McKinley, supra note 206.
232 Kintto, Lucas, Ecuador-Colombia: No Thaw in Sight (Nov. 19, 2008), at http://ipsnews.net/print.asp?id news=44772.Google Scholar
233 Marcella, supra note 209, at 10.
234 Nicholas, Schmidle, Like the Wild, Wild West, Plus Al-Qaeda, Wash. Post, Mar. 30, 2008, at Bl.Google Scholar
235 K. Alan, Kronstadt, Pakistan-U.S. Relations 6–7 (Feb. 6, 2009), available at http://www.fas.org/sgp/crs/row/RL33498.pdf.Google Scholar
236 U.S. Dep’t of State, supra note 2.
237 Kronstadt, supra note 235, at 10.
238 Id. at 7.
239 While public interest in the drone strikes was generally low during the Bush administration, the expansion of the drone program under the Obama administration has generated more media interest; academic treatments of the topic, however, remain few and far between. For a journalistic analysis, see, for example, Peter, Bergen & Katherine, Tiedemann, The Drone War, New Republic, June 3, 2009, available at http://www.newamerica.net/publications/articles/2009/drone_war_13672 Google Scholar ; Jane, Mayer, The Predator War, New Yorker, Oct. 26, 2009, at 36, available at http://www.newyorker.com/reporting/2009/10/26/091026fa_fact_mayer Google Scholar . For a scholarly analysis, see Kenneth, Anderson, Targeted Killing in U.S. Counterterrorism Strategy and Law (May 11, 2009), at http://www.brookings.edu/~/media/Files/rc/papers/2009/0511_counterterrorism_anderson/0511_counterterrorism_ander son.pdf Google Scholar ; Sean D., Murphy, The International Legality of U.S. Military Cross-border Operations from Afghanistan into Pakistan (Nov. 9, 2008), at http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id= 1296733 Google Scholar ; Mary Ellen, O’Connell, Unlawful Killing with Combat Drones: A Case Study of Pakistan, 2004-2009 (July 2010), at http://ssrn.com/abstract= 1501144 Google Scholar ; Jordan J., Paust, Self-Defense Targetings of Non-state Actors and Permissibility of U.S. Use of Drones in Pakistan, 19 J. Transnat’l L. & Pol’y 237 (2010), available at http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=1520717.Google Scholar
240 Eric, Schmitt, Threats and Responses: The Battlefield; U.S. Would Use Drones to Attack Iraqi Targets, N.Y. Times, Nov. 6, 2002, at A16.Google Scholar
242 Bergen & Tiedemann, supra note 239.
243 Scott, Shane, C.I.A. to Expand Use of Drones in Pakistan, N.Y. Times, Dec. 4, 2009, at Al.Google Scholar
244 Bergen & Tiedemann, supra note 239.
245 American Civil Liberties Union, Request Under Freedom of Information Act, at 3 (Jan. 13, 2009), at http://www.aclu.org/files/assets/2010-1-13-PredatorDroneFOIARequest.pdf.Google Scholar
246 O’Connell, supra note 239, at 2.
247 Paust, supra note 239, at 279–80.
248 Shane, supra note 243.
249 Eric, Schmitt & Mark, Mazzetti, Secret Order Lets U.S. Raid Al Qaeda, N.Y. Times, Nov. 10, 2008, at A1.Google Scholar
250 See id. on Somalia, see Steve, Bloomfield, Somalia: The World’s Forgotten Catastrophe, Independent, Feb. 9, 2008, available at http://www.independent.co.uk/news/world/africa/somalia-the-worlds-forgotten-catastro phe-778225.html.Google Scholar on the Yemen, strikes, see Norman G., Printer Jr., The Use of Force Against Non-state Actors Under International Law: An Analysis of the U.S. Predator Strike in Yemen, 8 Ucla J. Int’l L. & Foreign Aff. 331 (2003).Google Scholar
251 Schmitt and Mazzetti, supra note 249, at 2, write that “Bush administration officials have shown a determination to operate under an expansive definition of self-defense that provides a legal rationale for strikes on militant targets in sovereign nations without those countries’ consent.”
252 See Anderson, supra note 239, at 4; Paust, supra note 239, at 279–80. For a more cautious assessment, see Murphy, supra note 239, at 47–48.
253 W., Hays Parks, Memorandum of Law: Executive Order 12333 and Assassination (Nov. 2, 1989), at http://www.hks.harvard.edu/cchrp/Use%20of%20Force/October%202002/Parks_final.pdf.Google Scholar
254 3 C.F.R. 200 (1981).
255 Parks, supra note 253, at .
256 Id. at .
257 Scott, Shane & Eric, Schmitt, C.I.A. Deaths Prompt Surge in U.S. Drone Strikes, N.Y. Times, Jan. 22, 2010, at Al.Google Scholar
258 Shane, supra note 243.
259 Anderson, supra note 239, at 29.
260 Eric, Schmitt & Mark, Mazzetti, Bush Said to Give Orders Allowing Raids in Pakistan, N.Y. Times, Sept. 11, 2008, at Al.Google Scholar
261 See, e.g., id.; Shane & Schmitt, supra note 257.
262 O’Connell, supra note 239, at 18.
263 Schmitt & Mazzetti, supra note 260.
264 Bergen & Tiedemann, supra note 239.
265 Sean D., Naylor, Spec Ops Raids into Pakistan Halted, Army Times, Sept. 26, 2008, available at http://www.armytimes.com/news/2008/09/Army_border_ops_092608w/.Google Scholar
268 Mayer, supra note 239.
269 Shane & Schmitt, supra note 257.
270 Kronstadt, supra note 235, at 22.
271 O’Connell, supra note 239, at 18.
272 Anderson, supra note 239, at 20.
275 Murphy, supra note 239, at 32.
276 ID at 13–46.
277 Id. at 29–30.
278 Id. at 30.
279 Id. at 48.
280 O’Connell, supra note 239, at 21.
281 Kronstadt, supra note 235, at 12.
282 Id. at 2.
283 Id. at 7.
284 Id. at 14.
285 Id. at 17.
286 Joby, Warrick, U.S. officials: Pakistani Agents Helped Plan Kabul Bombing, Wash. Post, Aug. 1,2008, at Al.Google Scholar
287 Kronstadt, supra note 235, at 15.
288 Printer, supra note 250, at 343.
289 Jayshree, Bajoria & Greg, Bruno, Al-Qaeda (a.k.a. al-Qaida, al-Qa’ida) (Dec. 30, 2009), at http://www.cfr.org/publication/9126/.Google Scholar
290 Printer, supra note 250, at 343.
291 David, Kilcullen & Andrew McDonald, Exum, Death from Above, Outrage Down Below, N.Y. Times, May 17, 2009, at WK13.Google Scholar
292 American Civil Liberties Union, supra note 245, at 4.
293 Mayer, supra note 239.
294 Robert, Kagan, The Sovereignty Dodge: What Pakistan Won’t Do, the World Should, Wash. Post, Dec. 2, 2008, at A21.Google Scholar
295 Oil Platforms, supra note 95, para. 72.
296 McDougal, supra note 6, at 601.