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The Once and Future Law of State Responsibility

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  20 October 2020

Martins Paparinskis
Affiliation:
Reader in Public International Law, University College London. Email: m.paparinskis@ucl.ac.uk. I am grateful to Christiane Ahlborn, Roger O'Keefe, and Meagan Wong for their insightful comments.
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Abstract

The current (once) international law of state responsibility is shaped by the International Law Commission's Articles on responsibility of States for internationally wrongful acts, generally endorsed in state and judicial practice as consonant with custom. This Essay makes the case that the global pandemic and associated practice may affect foundational elements of the (future) law of state responsibility. It outlines the contours of systemic grain of possible developments by reference to the tension between bilateralism and community interests in international law.

Type
The International Legal Order and the Global Pandemic
Copyright
Copyright © 2020 by The American Society of International Law

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References

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16 GA Res. 74/180, paras. 1, 4 (Dec. 18, 2019).

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23 Supra notes 17–18. On erga omnes, Application of the Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide (Gam. v. Myan.), para. 41, (Int'l Ct. Just. Jan. 23, 2020) [hereinafter Myanmar Genocide].

24 Cf. David D. Caron, The ILC Articles on State Responsibility: The Paradoxical Relationship Between Form and Authority, 96 AJIL 857 (2002); Cargill, Incorporated v. Mexico, ICSID Additional Facility Case No. ARB(AF)/05/2, paras. 381–82, 420 (Sept. 18, 2009).

25 Cf. Sloane, supra note 13; Compilation 2019, supra note 18, at 25–27.

26 Int'l L. Comm'n, Conclusions on identification of customary international law, Conclusion 8(1), UN Doc. A/73/10 (2018) 119. Cf. the plausible expectation of consistency with tension between investment-importing and exporting, or coastal and flag states. Id., Commentary 4.

27 EDF International SA and Ors v. Argentina, ICSID Case No. ARB/03/23, para. 319 (Feb. 5, 2016).

28 Compilation 2019, supra note 18.

29 Sixth Committee, Summary Record of 34th Meeting (Nov. 11, 2019), paras. 13–21, UN Doc. A./C.6/74/SR.34 (Nov. 29, 2019).

30 Paddeu, To Convene or Not to Convene?, supra note 20, at 120–23.

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48 Bosnia Genocide, supra note 44, paras. 420, 432.

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51 James Crawford, Third Report on State Responsibility, II Y.B. Int'l L. Comm'n, pt. 1, paras. 41–42, 162–64 (2000), UN Doc. A/CN.4/SER.A/2000/Add. 13.

52 II Y.B. Int'l L. Comm'n, pt. 1, 95, para. 74 (2011), UN Doc. A/CN.4/SER.A/2011/Add. 1 (Part 1) (“[The World Health Organization] . . . criticised the principle [of full compensation because it] ‘could lead to excessive exposure taking into account that international organizations in general do not generate their own financial resources.’”); Duzgit Integrity, supra note 19, para. 26 (diss. op., Kateka, J.) (“The main concern [of some members of the ILC] was the potentially crippling effect of compensation payments [on the developing countries].”).

53 ConoccoPhillips Petrozuata BV and Ors v. Venezuela, ICSID Case No. ARB/07/30 (Mar. 8, 2019); Tethyan Copper Company Pty Limited v. Pakistan, ICSID Case No. ARB/12/1 (July 12, 2019).

54 Martins Paparinskis, A Case Against Crippling Compensation in International Law of State Responsibility, 83 Mod. L. Rev. (2020), available at https://doi.org/10.1111/1468-2230.12562.

55 ILC Articles, supra note 13, pt. 2, ch. III.

56 E.g., right of self-determination, Int'l L. Commission, Draft conclusions on peremptory norms of general international law (jus cogens), Annex (h), Commentary 12, UN Doc. A/74/10 142 (2019) [hereinafter 2019 ILC Draft Conclusions].

57 ILC Articles, supra note 13, Art. 41; 2019 ILC Draft Conclusions, supra note 56, Conclusion 19, Commentaries 3–8; cf. Dire David Tladi, Third report on peremptory norms of general international law (jus cogens) (Feb. 12, 2018), paras. 86–102, 160 (Draft Conclusions 20–21), UN Doc. A/CN.4/714.

58 Dupuy, supra note 12.

59 Obligations Concerning Negotiations Relating to Cessation of the Nuclear Arms Race and to Nuclear Disarmament (Marsh. Is. v. UK), 2016 ICJ Rep. 833, paras. 44–58 (Oct. 5) [hereinafter Obligations].

60 ILC Articles, supra note 13, Art. 42(b)(i); Obligations, supra note 59, para. 44.

61 Questions Relating to the Obligation to Prosecute or Extradite (Belg. v. Sen.), 2012 ICJ Rep. 449, para. 68 [hereinafter Questions]; Myanmar Genocide, supra note 23, para. 41. But note the skepticism of judges with a professional background in the foreign service of certain states. Questions, at 481, paras. 10–22 (sep. op., Skotnikov, J.); Questions, at 571, paras. 2–23 (diss. op., Xue, J.); Questions, at 584, para. 11 (dec., Donoghue, J.); Obligations, supra note 60, at 1029, para. 8 (dec., Xue, J.); Myanmar Genocide, supra note 23, para. 8 (sep. op., Xue, V-P.).

62 Cf. 2019 ILC Draft Conclusions, supra note 56, Conclusion 17(2) (“Any State is entitled to invoke the responsibility of another State for a breach of … jus cogens.”), with the only two examples of application in the International Court of Justice, to a particular criminal cooperation procedure: Questions, supra note 60, and perhaps the most-endorsed contemporary peremptory rule, Myanmar Genocide, supra note 23, Annex (b), Commentary 6.

63 The ILC left the question open, ILC Articles, supra note 13, Art. 54; 2019 ILC Draft Conclusions, supra note 56, Conclusion 19(1), and while legal writings support such a right, Martin Dawidowicz, Third-Party Countermeasures in International Law (2017), there is resistance in state practice, The Declaration of the Russian Federation and the People's Republic of China on the Promotion of International Law, para. 6 (June 25, 2016), available at https://www.mid.ru/en/foreign_policy/position_word_order/-/asset_publisher/6S4RuXfeYlKr/content/id/2331698; Declaration of the Russian Federation and Islamic Republic of Iran on the Promotion of International Law, UN Doc. A/74/930–S/2020/588, para. 9 (June 25, 2020).

64 Supra note 20, para. 17, also para. 37 (Russia); id.

65 ILC Articles, supra note 13, Arts. 23–25.

66 See generally Paddeu, Justification, supra note 13, ch. 8.

67 Compilation 2019, supra note 18, at 25–27.

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75 Id., Commentary 11; Iran v. U.S., Award No. 604-A15 (II:A)/A26 (IV)/B43-FT, paras. 1796–99 (Full Tribunal Iran-U.S. Claims Tribunal Mar. 10, 2020).

76 Id., Commentaries 12–13; Molla Sali v. Greece, App. No. 20452/14, Joint Partly Dissenting Opinion, paras. 47–49 (Eur. Ct. Hum. Rts. June 18, 2020, Lemmens, Koskelo, and Eicke, JJ.).

77 Certain Activities Carried Out by Nicaragua in the Border Area (Costa Rica v. Nicar.), 2018 ICJ Rep. 15, para. 31 (Feb. 20).

78 It is less obvious that contribution to injury is particularly relevant to claims regarding the spread of the Pandemic. ILC Articles, supra note 13, Art. 39; Duzgit Integrity, supra note 19, paras. 197–99.

79 Allot, supra note 70, at 22–24.

80 Brian Egan, Remarks on International Law and Stability in Cyberspace (Nov. 10, 2016), in Digest of United States Practice in International Law 2016, at 815, 822 (CarrieLyn D. Guymon ed., 2017).

81 Cf. Appeal Relating to the Jurisdiction of the ICAO Council Under Article 84 of the Convention on International Civil Aviation (Bahr. and Ors v. Qatar), para. 49, (Int'l Ct. Justice July 14, 2020); id. (sep. op., Cançado Trindade, J.).

82 Cf. Egan, supra note 80; ILC Articles, supra note 13, Arts. 49–53, particularly 50, 52(1)(b), (3)(b).

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84 Lewis Carroll, The Hunting of the Snark (1876) (“for the Snark was a Boojum, you see”) (emphasis in the original).

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86 UN Press Release, COVID-19 Fast Becoming Protection Crisis, Guterres Warns Security Council (July 2, 2020), at https://news.un.org/en/story/2020/07/1067632.

87 Cf. Koskenniemi, Martti, Solidarity Measures: State Responsibility as the New International Order?, 72 Brit. Y.B. Int'l L. 337 (2001)Google Scholar; James Crawford, Chance, Order, Change: The Course of International Law, 365 R.C.A.D.I. 19, ch. 8 (2013).

88 Crawford, supra note 87, at 21–22.

89 GA Res. 74/180, supra note 16, para. 9.

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