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The Mexican Connection and the Far West of the U.S. Southeast

  • Nancy Marie White (a1) and Richard A. Weinstein (a2)

Abstract

New World archaeologists have long agreed that there was prehistoric cultural interaction between the southeastern United States and Mesoamerica, but seldom are the details of such potential relationships discussed, especially recently. The farthest westward extent of Southeastern cultural influences, as shown through the distributions of fiber-tempered pottery, Archaic and Woodland mounds, later platform mounds, ceramic styles, and other material culture, seems to be east Texas. Only a few Mexican artifacts have been found at the edges of the Southeast-obsidian at Spiro and coastal Texas, asphalt-covered pottery extending northward from Mexico into southern Texas-though general ideological connections, not to mention the sharing of maize agriculture, seem obvious. In northeast Mexico, outside the Mesoamerican heartland, Huastecan people made artifacts similar to types in the Southeast. But long-distance interactions overland or via the Gulf of Mexico were apparently sporadic, despite some common cultural foundations. Strong Southeastern cultural identities plus the presence of the north Mexico/south Texas desert may have discouraged movement into the Southeast of many important Mesoamerican traditions, such as cotton growing and beer drinking.

Résumé

Por mucho tiempo arqueólogos del Nuevo Mundo han estado de acuerdo en que hubo interacción prehistórica entre el Sudeste de los Estados Unidos y Mesoamérica, pero rara vez se han discutido los detalles de estas relaciones, especialmente en años recientes. La extensión mas al oeste de la influencia cultural del Sudeste es el lado este de Tejas, mostrado por los distribuciónes de las cerámicas muy tempranas templadas con fibra de planta, montículos muy tempranos del Arcáico y otros de más tarde, montículos piramidales del periodo prehistorico tardio, estilos ceramicos, y otras formas de cultura material. A los margenes del Sudeste sabemos muy pocos artefactos Mexicanos-obsidiana de Hidalgo y Querètero en Oklahoma y en la costa de Tejas; cerámicas asfaltadas en el sur de Tejas-aunque parece que las conexiones de ideología general y de agricultura de maiz son evidentes. En el nordeste de Mexico, afuera del hogar central de Mesoamerica, la gente Huasteca hicieron algunos artefactos parecidos a tipos del Sureste, como pipas y concha grabada. Pero interacciones de larga distancia, por tierra o por el Golfo de Mexico, eran evidamente esporàdicas, a pesar de que había fundaciónes culturales en común. Las fuertes identidades culturales en el Sudeste, y además la presencia del desierto en el norte de Mexico y el sur de Tejas, probablemente impedían la entrada en el Sudeste de tradiciones Mesoamericanas muy importantes, como la producción de algodón y bebidas fermentadas.

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References

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