Skip to main content Accessibility help

Geological and Cultural Context of the Nogahabara I Site

  • Charles E. Holmes (a1), Ben A. Potter (a2), Joshua D. Reuther (a3), Owen K. Mason (a4), Robert M. Thorson (a5) and Peter M. Bowers (a6)...


Interpretation of the Nogahabara I assemblage as a Late Pleistocene abandoned toolkit rests primarily on the premise of a single brief occupation at the site. The limited contextual data presented do not discount a palimpsest of noncontemporaneous assemblages in secondary contexts associated with a lag deposit. Spatial patterning, lithic assemblage patterning, artifact surface alteration, and disparate radiocarbon dates at the site, as well as geological data from the Nogahabara and nearby Kobuk dunes, indicate that the cultural material was subjected to post-depositional disturbance. Alternate hypotheses of site formation and avenues for testing these hypotheses are considered.


La colección de Nogahabara I ha sido interpretada como un conjunto de herramientas abandonadas durante el pleistoceno tardío. Esta interpretación asume como premisa una breve y única ocupación del sitio. Con los datos contextuales limitados que se han presentado, no se puede desacreditar un palimpsesto de contextos no contemporáneos en condiciones secundarias asociadas con un depósito de residuos sedimentarios. El patrón espacial, la composición del conjunto lítico, la alteración superficial en los artefactos, y la diferencia en los fechados de carbono 14 del sitio, así como los datos geológicos de las dunas de Nogahabara y Kobuk, indican que el material cultural estuvo sujeto a alteraciones post-deposición. En este artículo, se consideran hipótesis alternativas de la formación de sitios y vías para probarlas.



Hide All
Anderson, Douglas D. 1984 Prehistory of North Alaska. In Arctic edited by David Damas, pp. 8093, Handbook of North American Indians, Vol. 5, William C. Sturtevant, general editor, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C.
Anderson, Douglas D. 1988 Onion Portage: The Archaeology of a Stratified Site from the Kobuk River, Northwest Alaska. Anthropological Papers of the University of Alaska 22(1–2).
Bacon, Glenn H. 1977 The Prehistory of Alaska: A Speculative Alternative. In Problems in the Prehistory of the North American Subarctic, edited by James W. Helmer, Stanley Van Dyke, and Francois J. Kense, pp. 110. Proceedings of the Ninth Annual Conference of the Archaeological Association of the University of Calgary.
Bacon, Glenn H. 1987 A Cultural Chronology for Central Interior Alaska: A Critical Appraisal. The Quarterly Review of Archaeology June, pp. 35.
Bigelow, Nancy, Begét, Jim, and Powers, Roger 1990 Latest Pleistocene Increase in Wind Intensity Recorded in Eolian Sediments from Central Alaska. Quaternary Research 34(2): 160168.
Binford, Lewis R. 1978 Dimensional Analysis of Behavior and Site Structure: Learning from an Eskimo Hunting Stand. American Antiquity 43(3):330361.
Binford, Lewis R. 1987 Researching Ambiguity: Frames of Reference and Site Structure. In Method and Theory for Activity Area Research: An Ethnoarchaeological Approach, edited by Susan Kent, pp. 449512. Columbia University Press, New York.
Bowers, Peter M. 1980 The Carlo Creek Site: Geology and Archaeology of an Early Holocene Site in the Central Alaska Range. Anthropology and Historic Preservation Cooperative Park Studies Unit. University of Alaska Fairbanks, Alaska.
Bowers, Peter M. 1999 AMS Dating of the Area 22 American PaleoArctic Tradition Microblade Component at the Lisburne Site, Arctic Alaska. Current Research in the Pleistocene 16:1214.
Campbell, John M. 1961 The Tuktu Complex of Anaktuvuk Pass. Anthropological Papers of the University of Alaska 9:6180.
Carter, L. David 1993 Late Pleistocene Stabilization and Reactivation of Eolian Sand in Northern Alaska: Implications for the Effects of Future Climatic Warming on an Eolian Landscape in Continuous Permafrost. In Proceedings, 6th International Conference on Permafrost, pp. 7883. South China University Technology Press, Beijing.
Carter, L. David, and Galloway, John P. 1979 Southward-progressing Stabilization of Holocene Sand on the Western Arctic Coastal Plain. In The Geological Survey in Alaska: Accomplishments during 1978, U.S. Geological Survey Circular 804B, pp. B3739.
Clark, Donald W. 1977 Hahanudan Lake: an Ipiutak-Related Occupation of Western Interior Alaska. Archaeological Survey of Canada Mercury Series, Paper 71. National Museum of Man, Ottawa.
Clark, Donald W. 1981 Prehistory of the Western Subarctic. In Subarctic, edited by June Helm, pp. 107129. Handbook of North American Indians, Vol. 6, William C. Sturtevant general editor, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C.
Clark, Donald W. 2001 Microblade-Culture Sytematics in the Far Interior Northwest. Arctic Anthropology 38(2):6480.
Clark, Donald W., and Clark, Annette McFadyen 1993 Batza Téna Trail to Obsidian: Archaeology at an Alaskan Obsidian Source. Archaeological Survey of Canada Mercury Series, Paper 147. Canadian Museum of Canadian Civilization, Hull.
Collins, Michael B. 1999 Clovis Blade Technology. University of Texas Press, Austin.
Cook, John P. 1969 The Early Prehistory of Healy Lake, Alaska. Unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, Department of Anthropology, University of Wisconsin, Madison.
Cook, John P. 1975 The Archaeology of Interior Alaska. Western Canadian Journal of Anthropology 5(3–4): 125133.
Cox, George W., and Lawrence, William T. 1983 Cemented Horizon in Subarctic Alaskan Sand Dunes. American Journal of Science 283:369373.
Dean, Jeffrey S. 1978 Independent Dating and Archaeological Analysis. In Advances in Archaeological Method and Theory, Vol. 1, edited by Michael B. Schiffer, pp. 223255. Academic Press, New York.
Dijkmans, Jos W. A., Koster, Eduard A., Galloway, John P., and Mook, Willem G. 1986 Characteristics and Origin of Calcretes in a Subarctic Environment, Great Kobuk Sand Dunes, Northwestern Alaska: Arctic and Alpine Research , 18(4):377387.
Dijkmans, Jos W. A., and Koster, Eduard A. 1990 Morphological Development of Dunes in a Subarctic Environment, Central Kobuk Valley, Northwestern Alaska. Geografiska Annaler. Series A, Physical Geography 72(1):93109.
Dixon, E. James Jr. 1985 Cultural Chronology of Central Interior Alaska. Arctic Anthropology 22(1):4766.
Dixon, E. James., Smith, George S., Andrefsky, William, Saleeby, Becky, and Utermohle, Charles J. 1985 Susitna Hydroelectric Project Cultural Resource Investigations: 1979–1985. Report prepared for the Alaska Power Authority by the University of Alaska Museum, Fairbanks. Available from University of Alaska Fairbanks, Rasmuson Library.
Frison, George C., and Bradley, Bruce 1999 The Fenn Clovis Cache. One Horse Land and Cattle Co., Santa Fe.
Galloway, John P., Huebner, Mark, Lipkin, Robert, and Dijkmans, Jos W.A. 1992 Early Holocene Calcretes from the Subarctic Active Nogahabara Sand Dune Field, Northern Alaska. In Geologic Studies in Alaska by the U.S. Geological Survey, 1990, edited by Dwight C. Bradley and Arthur B. Ford, pp. 100111. U.S. Geological Survey Bulletin 1999, United States Government Printing Office, Washington.
Garrison, Ervan G. 2003 Techniques in Archaeological Geology. Springer, Berlin.
Holliday, Vance T., Johnson, Eileen, and Stafford, Thomas W. Jr. 1999 AMS Radiocarbon Dating of the Type Plainview and Firstview (Paleoindian) Assemblages: The Agony and Ecstasy. American Antiquity 64(3):444454.
Holliday, Vance T., and Stein, Julie K. 1989 Variability in Laboratory Procedures and Results in Geoarchaeology. Geoarchaeology 4(4):347358.
Holmes, Charles E. 1986 Lake Minchumina Prehistory: An Archaeological Analysis. Alaska Anthropological Association Monograph Series, Aurora 2, Anchorage.
Holmes, Charles E. 2001 Tanana River Valley Archaeology Circa 14,000 to 9000 BP. Arctic Anthropology 38(2): 154170.
Kent, Susan 1991 The Relationship Between Mobility Strategies and Site Structure. In The Interpretation of Archaeological Spatial Patterning, edited by Ellen M. Kroll and T. Douglas Price, pp. 3360. Plenum Press, New York.
Koster, Eduard A. 1988 Ancient and Modern Cold-climate Aeolian Sand Deposition: A Review. Journal of Quaternary Science 3(1):6983.
Koster Eduard, A., and Dijkmans, Jos W. A. 1988 Niveo-aeolian Deposits and Denivation Forms, with Special Reference to the Great Kobuk Sand Dunes, North-western Alaska. Earth Surface Processes and Landforms 13(2):153170.
Lancaster, Judith 1986 Wind Action on Stone Artifacts: Experiment in Site Modification. Journal of Field Archaeology 13(3):359363.
Lancaster, Nicholas 1986 Dynamics of Deflation Hollows in the Elands Bay area, Cape Province, South Africa. Catena 13:139153.
MacNeish, Richard S. 1964 Investigations in Southwest Yukon: Archaeological Excavations, Comparisons, and Speculations. Papers of the Robert S. Peabody Foundation for Archaeology 6(2):199488.
Mann, Daniel H., Heiser, Patricia A., and Finney, Bruce P. 2002 Holocene History of the Great Kobuk Sand Dunes, Northwestern Alaska. Quaternary Science Reviews 21(4–6):709733.
Mason, Owen K., Bowers, Peter M., and Hopkins, David M. 2001 The Early Holocene Milankovitch Thermal Maximum and Humans: Adverse Conditions for the Denali Complex of Eastern Beringia. Quaternary Science Reviews 20(1–3):525548.
Mobley, Charles M. 1991 The Campus Site. University of Alaska Press, Fairbanks.
Odess, Daniel, and Rasic, Jeffery T. 2007 Toolkit Composition and Assemblage Variability: The Implications of Nogahabara I, Northern Alaska. American Antiquity 72:691717.
Potter, Ben A. 2005 Site Structure and Organization in Central Alaska: Archaeological Investigation at Gerstle River. Unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, Department of Anthropology, University of Alaska Fairbanks, Fairbanks.
Reimer, Paula J., Baillie, Mike G.L., Bard, Edouard, Bayliss, Alex, Warren Beck, J., Bertrand, Chanda, Blackwell, Paul G., Buck, Caitlin E., Burr, George, Cutler, Kirsten B., Damon, Paul E., Lawrence Edwards, R., Fairbanks, Richard G., Friedrich, Michaeil, Guilderson, Thomas P., Hogg, Alan G., Hughen, Konrad A., Kromer, Bernd, Gerry McCormac, F., Manning, Sturt, Ramsey, Christopher Bronk, Reimer, Ron W., Remmele, Sabine, Southon, John R., Stuiver, Minze, Talamo, Sahra, Taylor, F.W., Plicht, Johannes van der, and Weyhenmeyer, Constanza E. 2004 IntCal04 Terrestrial Radiocarbon Age Calibration, 26-0 ka BP. Radiocarbon 46:10291058.
Schoenberg, Kenneth M. 1985 The Archaeology of Kurupa Lake. National Park Service Research Report AR–10, U.S. Department of the Interior, National Park Service, Alaska Regional Office, Anchorage. Available from University of Alaska Anchorage, Consortium Library, Alaska Resources Library and Information Services.
Schoenberg, Kenneth M. 1995 The Post-Paleoarctic Interval in the Central Brooks Range. Arctic Anthropology 32(1):5161.
Seppälä, Matti 1971 Evolution of Eolian Relief of the Kaamasjoki-Kiellajoki River Basin in Finnish Lapland. Fennia 104.
Seppälä, Matti 2004 Wind as a Geomorphic Agent in Cold Climates. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge and New York.
Shackley, Myra L. 1974 Stream Abrasion of Flint Implements. Nature 248:501502.
Sheppard, William. L., Steffian, Amy F., Staley, David P., and Bigelow, Nancy H. 1991 Late Holocene Occupations at the Terrace Site, Tok, Alaska. Report prepared for the U.S. Air Force, Over-the-Horizon Backscatter Radar Program, HQ/Electronic Systems Division/AFSC. Arctic Information and Data Center, University of Alaska, Anchorage, Available from the University of Alaska Anchorage, Consortium Library, Alaska Resources Library and Information Services.
Stuiver, Minze, and Reimer, Paula J. 1993 Extended 14C Database and Revised CALIB radiocarbon calibration program. Radiocarbon 35:215230.
Thorson, Robert M. 1990 Geological Contexts of Archaeological Sites in Beringia. In Archaeological Geology of North America, edited by Norman P. Lasca and Jack Donahue, pp. 399420, Centennial Special Volume 4, Geological Society of America, Boulder.
Weber, Florence R., and Péwé, Troy L. 1970 Surficial and Engineering Geology of the Central Part of the Yukon-Koyukuk Lowland, Alaska. U. S. Geological Survey Miscellaneous Geologic Investigations Map 1-590, Scale 1:125,000, 2 Sheets. Available from University of Alaska Anchorage, Consortium Library, Alaska Resources Library and Information Services and online 626.
Whitelaw, Todd 1991 Some Dimensions of Variability in the Social Organization of Community Space Among Foragers. In Ethnoarchaeological Approaches to Mobile Campsites, edited by Clive S. Gamble, and W. A. Boismier, International Monographs in Prehistory, pp. 138188. Ethnoarchaeological Series 1, Ann Arbor.
Workman, William B. 1978 Prehistory of the Aishihik-Kluane Area, Southwest Yukon Territory. National Museum of Man Mercury Series, Archaeological Survey of Canada Paper No. 74. National Museum of Man, Ottawa.

Related content

Powered by UNSILO

Geological and Cultural Context of the Nogahabara I Site

  • Charles E. Holmes (a1), Ben A. Potter (a2), Joshua D. Reuther (a3), Owen K. Mason (a4), Robert M. Thorson (a5) and Peter M. Bowers (a6)...


Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed.