Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home

General/Specific, Local/Global: Comparing the Beginnings of Agriculture in the Horn of Africa (Ethiopia/Eritrea) and Southwest Arabia (Yemen)

  • Michael J. Harrower (a1), Joy McCorriston (a2) and A. Catherine D’Andrea (a3)

Abstract

The Horn of Africa and Southwest Arabia are less than 30 km apart, yet the timing and nature of transitions to agriculture along the margins of the southern Red Sea differ substantially. This paper compares and contrasts the beginnings of agriculture in highland Ethiopia/Eritrea and Yemen. We evaluate the applicability of general models, emphasize social circumstances and particularities, and highlight the importance of differing spatiotemporal scales from interregional perspectives that address millennia-long changes across continents to local choices during human lifetimes. We consider why agriculture appears so much later than it does throughout the eastern Mediterranean and argue that the traditionally rigid distinction between the "origins" and "spread" of agriculture oversimplifies transitions along the southern Red Sea in which agriculture in some ways diffused to, and in other ways, uniquely originated in Southwest Arabia and the Horn of Africa. We concordantly maintain that, particularly when agriculture is considered a societal transformation, regions where agriculture appears comparatively later are as important to understanding transitions to agriculture as regions where agriculture appears earliest.

Resumen

Hay menos de 30 km de distancia entre el Cuerno de África y el Suroeste de Arabia, sin embargo, cuándo y cómo ocurrieron las transiciones a la agricultura a lo largo de las márgenes sur del Mar Rojo es sustancialmente diferente. Este documento compara y contrasta los inicios de la agricultura en las altiplancies de Etiopía y Eritrea y Yemen. Se evalúa la aplicabilidad de los modelos generales, haciendo hincapié en las circunstancias sociales y sus peculiaridades, y se destaca la importancia de las diferentes escalas espacio-temporales desde una perspectiva inter-regional, abarcando los cambios en los dos continentes a lo largo de milenios, así como también las selecciones locales durante la vida de los asentamientos humanos. Consideramos por qué la agricultura aparece mucho más tarde de lo que lo hace en el resto del Mediterráneo oriental, y sostenemos que la tradicional, y rígida, distinción entre los "orígenes" y el " extendimiento " de la agricultura simplifica demasiado las transiciones a lo largo del sur del Mar Rojo, donde la agricultura, en ciertas maneras, se propagó, y en otras, se originó de una forma única en el suroeste de Arabia y el Cuerno de África. También sostenemos que, sobre todo cuando la agricultura se considera una transformación social, las regiones donde la agricultura aparece comparativamente más tarde son tan importantes para entender la transición a la agricultura que las regiones donde la agricultura aparece más temprano.

Copyright

References

Hide All
Allaby, R. G., Fuller, D. Q., and Brown, T. A. 2008 The Genetic Expectations of a Protracted Model for the Origins of Domesticated Crops. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 105(37):1398213986.
Alvard, M. S., and Kuznar, L. 2001 Deferred Harvests: The Transition From Hunting to Animal Husbandry. American Anthropologist 103:295311.
Anderson, J. M. 2007 Climatic and Structural Controls on the Geomorphology of Wadi Sana, Highland Southern Yemen. Unpublished M.Sc. thesis, Department of Geology, University of South Florida.
Arkell, A. 1954 Four Occupation Sites at Agordat. Kush 2:3362.
Arriola, P. E., and Ellstrand, N. C. 1997 Fitness of Interspecific Hybrids in the Genus Sorghum: Persistence of Crop Genes in Wild Populations. Ecological Applications 7(2):512518.
Bar-Yosef, O. 1996 The Impact of Late Pleistocene-Early Holocene Climatic Changes on Humans in Southwest Asia. In Humans at the End of the Ice Age: The Archaeology of the Pleistocene-Holocene Transition, edited by L. G. Straus, B. V. Eriksen, J. M. Erlandson, and D. R. Yesner, pp. 6178. Plenum Press, London.
Bar-Yosef, O. 1998 The Natufian Culture in the Levant: Threshold to the Origins of Agriculture. Evolutionary Anthropology: Issues, News and Review 6(5):159177.
Bar-Yosef, O. 2002 The Role of the Younger Dryas in the Origin of Agriculture in West Asia. In The Origins of Pottery and Agriculture, edited by Y. Yasuda, pp. 3954. Roli Books, New Delhi.
Barakat, H. N. 2002 Regional Pathways to Agriculture in Northeast Africa. In Droughts, Food, and Culture: Ecological Change and Food Security in Africa’s later Prehistory, edited by F. Hassan, pp. 111122. Kluwer/Plenum, New York.
Bard, K. A., Coltorti, M., DiBlasi, M. C., Dramis, F., and Fattovich, R. 2000 The Environmental History of Tigray (Northern Ethiopia) in the Middle and Late Holocene: A Preliminary Outline. African Archaeological Review 17(2):6586.
Bard, K. A., Fattovich, R., Manzo, A., and Perlingieri, C. 1997 Archaeological Investigations at Bieta Giyorgis (Aksum), Ethiopia: 1993–1995 Field Seasons. Journal of Field Archaeology 24(4): 387403.
Barker, G. 2006 The Agricultural Revolution in Prehistory: Why did Foragers Become Farmers? Oxford University Press, Oxford.
Barnett, T. 1999 The Emergence of Food Production in Ethiopia. BAR International Series 763. Archaeopress, Oxford.
Bellwood, P. 2004 First Farmers: The Origins of Agricultural Societies. Blackwell, Oxford.
Bellwood, P., and Renfrew, C. (editors) 2002 Examining the Farming/Language Dispersal Hypothesis. McDonald Institute for Archaeological Research, University of Cambridge, Cambridge.
Bender, B. 1978 Gatherer-Hunter to Farmer: a Social Perspective. World Archaeology 10(2):204222.
Binford, L. R. 2001 Constructing Frames of Reference: An Analytical Method for Archaeological Theory Building Using Hunter-Gatherer and Environmental Data Sets. University of California Press, Berkeley.
Blench, R. 2006 Archaeology, Language, and the African Past. AltaMira, Lanham, Maryland.
Blumler, M. A. 1996 Ecology, Evolutionary Theory and Agricultural Origins. In The Origins and Spread of Agriculture and Pastoralism in Eurasia, edited by D. R. Harris, pp. 2550. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, D.C.
Boardman, S. 1999 The Agricultural Foundation of the Aksumite Empire, Ethiopia: An Interim Report. In The Exploitation of Plant Resources in Ancient Africa, edited by M. van der Veen, pp. 137148. Kluwer/Plenum, New York.
Boardman, S. 2000 Archaeobotany. In Archaeology at Aksum, Ethiopia 1993–7, Vol. 2, edited by D. W. Phillipson, pp. 468170. British Institute in Eastern Africa, London.
Bower, J. 1991 The Pastoral Neolithic of East Africa. Journal of World Prehistory 5(1):4982.
Bower, J. 1995 Early Food Production in Africa. Evolutionary Anthropology 4(4):130159.
Braemer, F., Steimer-Herbet, T., Buchet, L., Saliège, J.-F., and Guy, H. 2001 Le bronze ancien du Ramlat as-Sabatayn (Yémen): Deuz nécropoles de la prèmiere moitié du IIIe millénaire à’la bordure du désert: Jebel Jidran et Jebel Ruwaiq. Paléorient 27(1):2144.
Brandt, S. A. 1982 A Late Quaternary Cultural/Environmental Sequence from Lake Besaka, Southern Afar, Ethiopia. Ph.D. dissertation, Department of Anthropology, University of California, Berkeley.
Brandt, S. A. 1984 New Perspectives on the Origins of Food Production in Ethiopia. In From Hunters to Farmers: The Causes and Consequences of Food Production in Africa, edited by J. D. Clark and S. A. Brandt, pp. 173190. University of California Press, Berkeley.
Brandt, S. A. 1986 The Upper Pleistocene and Early Holocene Prehistory of the Horn of Africa. African Archaeological Review 4:4182.
Brandt, S. A. 1988 Early Holocene Mortuary Practices and Hunter-Gatherer Adaptations in Southern Somalia. World Archaeology 20(1):4056.
Brandt, S. A., and Carder, N. 1987 Pastoral Rock Art in the Horn of Africa: Making Sense of Udder Chaos. World Archaeology 19(2):194213.
Brandt, S. A., Manzo, A., and Perlingieri, C. 2008 Linking the Highlands and Lowlands: Implications of a Test Excavation at Kokan Rockshelter, Agordat, Eritrea. In The Archaeology of Ancient Eritrea, edited by P. R. Schmidt, M. C. Curtis, and Z. Teka, pp. 3348. Red Sea Press, Trenton, New Jersey.
Buffa, V. 2002 The Sabir Cultural Sequence in the frame of the Archaeology of Coastal Yemen and Northeast African Bronze Age: A Provisional View. Vestnik drevnei istorii 3:175183.
Buffa, V., and Vogt, B. 1999 Sabir—Cultural Identity between Saba and Africa. In Migration and Kulturtransfer, edited by C. Metzner-Nebelsick, pp. 437450. Deutsches Archaologisches Institut, Berlin.
Butler, A. 2002 Sustainable Agriculture in a Harsh Environment: An Ethiopian Perspective. In Droughts, Food and Culture: Ecological Change and Food Security in Africa’s later Prehistory, edited by F. Hassan, pp. 171187. Kluwer/Plenum, New York.
Byrd, B. F. 2005 Reassessing the Emergence of Village Life in the Near East. Journal of Archaeological Research 13(3):231290.
Cattani, M., and Bokonyi, S. 2002 Ash-Shumah: An Early Holocene Settlement of Desert Hunters and Mangrove Foragers in the Yemeni Tihamah. In Essays on the Late Prehistory of the Arabian Peninsula, edited by S. Cleuziou, M. Tosi, and J. Zarins, pp. 353. Institute Italiano per l'Africa e l’Oriente, Rome, Italy.
Cauvin, J. 2000 The Birth of the Gods and the Origins of Agriculture. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
Chami, F. 2007 Diffusion in the Studies of the African Past: Reflections From New Archaeological Findings. African Archaeological Review 24:114.
Clark, J. D. 1976 The Domestication Process in sub-Saharan Africa With Special Reference to Ethiopia. In Origins of African Plant Domestication, edited by J. R. Harlan, J. M. J. De Wet, and A. B. L. Stemler, pp. 67105. Mouton, The Hague, the Netherlands.
Clark, J. D. 1988 A Review of the Archaeological Evidence for the Origins of Food Production in Ethiopia. Proceedings of the 8th International Conference of Ethiopian Studies, Addis Ababa 1:5569.
Clark, J. D., and Brandt, S. A. (editors) 1984 From Hunters to Farmers: The Causes and Consequences of Food Production in Africa. University of California Press, Berkeley.
Clark, J. D., and Prince, G. R. 1978 Use-Wear on Later Stone Age Microliths from Laga Oda, Haraghi, Ethiopia and Possible Functional Interpretations. Azania 13:101110.
Clark, J. D., and Williams, M. A. J. 1978 Recent Archaeological Research in Southeastern Ethiopia. Annates d’éthiopie 11:1942.
Cleuziou, S. 2005 Pourquoi Si Tard? Nous Avons Pris Un Autre Chemin: L’Arabie de chasseurs-cueilleurs de l’Holocène au début de l’Age du Bronze. In Aux Marges Des Grands Foyers Du Néolithique: Périphéries débitrices ou créatrices?, edited by J. Guilaine, pp. 123148. Editions Errance, Paris.
Close, A. E., and Wendorf, F. 1992 The Beginnings of Food Production in the Eastern Sahara. In Transitions to Agriculture in Prehistory, edited by A. B. Gebauer and D. T. Price, pp. 6372. Prehistory Press, Madison, Wisconsin.
Cohen, M. N. 1977 The Food Crisis in Prehistory: Overpopulation and the Origins of Agriculture. Yale University Press, New Haven, Connecticut.
Colledge, S. M., Conolly, J., and Shennan, S. 2005 The Evolution of Neolithic Farming from SW Asian Origins to NW European Limits. European Journal of Archaeology 8(2): 137156.
Costantini, L. 1986 Plant impressions in Bronze Age pottery from Yemen Arab Republic. East and West 34(1–3):107115.
Costantini, L. 1990 Ecology and Farming of the Protohistoric Communities in the CentralYemeni Highlands. In The Bronze Age Culture of Hawlan At-Tiyal and Al-Hada (Republic of Yemen), edited by A. de Maigret, pp. 187204. Ismeo, Rome.
Costantini, L., and Biasini, L. C. 1985 Palaeoethnobotanical Investigations in the Middle East and Arabian Peninsula. East and West 35(4):331336.
Curtis, M. 2004 Ancient Interaction Across the Southern Red Sea: New Suggestions for Investigating Cultural Exchange and Complex Societies During the First Millennium BC. In Trade and Travel in the Red Sea Region: Proceedings of the Red Sea Project, Vol. I, edited by P. Lunde and A. Porter, pp. 5770. Archaeopress, Oxford.
Curtis, M. C. 2008 New Perspectives for Examining Change and Complexity in the Northern Horn of Africa during the First Millennium BCE. In The Archaeology of Ancient Eritrea, edited by P. R. Schmidt, M. C. Curtis, and Z. Teka, pp. 329348. Red Sea Press, Trenton, New Jersey.
D’Andrea, A. C. 2008 T’ef (Eragrostis tef) in Ancient Agricultural Systems of Highland Ethiopia. Economic Botany 62(4):547566.
D’Andrea, A. C., Lyons, D., Haile, M., and Butler, A. 1999 Ethnoarchaeological Approaches to the Study of Prehistoric Agriculture in the Highlands of Ethiopia. In The Exploitation of Plant Resources in Ancient Africa, edited by M. van der Veen, pp. 101122. Springer, New York.
D’Andrea, A. C., Manzo, A., Harrower, M., and Hawkins, A. 2008a The Pre-Aksumite and Aksumite Settlement of Northeastern Tigrai, Ethiopia. Journal of Field Archaeology 33(2):151176.
D’Andrea, A. C, Schmidt, P., and Curtis, M. 2008b Paleobotanical Analysis and Agricultural Economy in Early First Millennium BCE Sites around Asmara. In The Archaeology of Ancient Eritrea, edited by P. Schmidt, M. Curtis, and Z. Teka, pp. 207216. Red Sea Press, Trenton, New Jersey.
Dansgaard, W., Johnsen, S. J., Clausen, H. B., Dahl-Jensen, D., Gundestrup, N. S., Hammer, C. U., Hvidberg, C. S., Steffensen, J. P., Sveinbjornsdottir, A. E., Jouzel, J. and Bond, G. 1993 Evidence for General Instability of Past Climate From a 250-kyr Ice-Core Record. Nature 364:218220.
Darbyshire, I., Lamb, H., and Umer, M. 2003 Forest Clearance and Regrowth in Northern Ethiopia During the Last 3000 years. The Holocene 13:537546.
de Maigret, A. 1990 The Bronze Age Culture of Hawlan At-Tiyal and Al-Hada (Republic of Yemen). Ismeo, Rome.
de Maigret, A. 2002 Arabia Felix: An Exploration of the Archaeological History of Yemen. Stacey International, London.
de Menocal, P., Ortiz, J., Guilderson, T., Adkins, J., Sarnthein, M., Baker, L., and Yarusinsky, M. 2000 Abrupt Onset and Termination of the African Humid Period: Rapid Climate Responses to Gradual Insolation Forcing. Quaternary Science Reviews 19:347361.
de Moulins, D., Phillips, C. S., and Durrani, N. 2003 The Archaeobotanical Record of Yemen and the Question of Afro-Asiatic Contacts. In Food, Fuel, and Fields: Progress in African Archaeobotany, edited by K. Neumann, A. Butler, and S. Kahlheber, pp. 213228. Heinrich Barth Institut, Cologne, Germany.
Diamond, J. 1997 Guns, Germs, and Steel: The Fates of Human Societies. W. W. Norton, New York.
Diamond, J., and Bellwood, P. 2003 Farmers and Their Languages: The First Expansions. Science 300:597603.
Djè, Y, Heuertz, M., Ater, M., Lefèbvre, C., and Vekemans, X. 2004 In Situ Estimation of Outcrossing Rate in Sorghum Landraces Using Microsatellite Markers. Euphytica 138:205212.
Dombroski, J. C. 1970 Preliminary Report on Excavations in Lalibela and Natchabiet Caves, Begemeder. Annales d’Ethiopie 8:2129.
Dombroski, J. C. 1971 Excavations in Ethiopia: Lalibela and Natchabiet Caves. Ph.D. dissertation, Department of Anthropology, Boston University, Boston.
Dowson, T. A. 1994 Reading Art, Writing History: Rock Art and Social Change in Southern Africa. World Archaeology 25(3):332345.
Dramis, F., Umer, M., Calderoni, G., and Haile, M. 2003 Holocene Climate Phases From Buried Soils in Tigray (northern Ethiopia): Comparison With Lake Level Fluctuations in the Main Ethiopian Rift. Quaternary Research 60(3):274283.
Dresch, P. 1984 The Position of Shaykhs Among the Northern Tribes of Yemen. Man 19(1):3149.
Dresch, P. 1986 The Significance of the Course Events Take in Segmentary Systems. American Ethnologist 13(2):309324.
Durrani, N. 2005 The Tihamah Coastal Plain of South-West Arabia in its Regional Context, c.6000 BC–AD 600. Archaeopress, Oxford.
Edens, C. 2005 Exploring Early Agriculture in the Highlands of Yemen. In Sabaean Studies: Archaeological, Epigraphical, and Historical Studies in Honour ofYusufM. Abdullah, Alessandro de Maigret, and Christian Robin on the Occasion of Their 60th Birthdays, edited by A. M. Sholan, S. Antonini, and M. Arbach. Yemeni-Italian Center for Archaeological Researches, Sana’a, Yemen, and Naples, Italy.
Edens, C, and Wilkinson, T. 1998 Southwest Arabia During the Holocene: Recent Archaeological Developments. Journal of World Prehistory 12(1):55119.
Ehret, C., Keita, S., and Newman, P. 2004 The Origins of Afroasiatic. Science 306:16801681.
Ekstrom, H., and Edens, C. 2003 Prehistoric Agriculture in Highland Yemen: New Results from Dhamar. Yemen Update: Bulletin of the American Institute for Yemeni Studies 45:2335.
El-Mahi, A. T. 2001 The Traditional Pastoral Groups of Dhofar, Oman: A Parallel for Ancient Cultural Ecology. Proceedings of the Seminar for Arabian Studies 31:131143.
Engels, J. M., Hawkes, J. G., and Worede, M. 1991 Plant Genetic Resources of Ethiopia. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
Evans-Pritchard, E. E. 1940 The Nuer: A Description of the Modes of Livelihood and Political Institutions of a Nilotic People. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
Fattovich, R. 1988 Remarks on the Late Prehistory and Early History of Northern Ethiopia. In Proceedings of the 8th International Conference on Ethiopian Studies, 1984, edited by T. Beyene, pp. 85104. Institute of Ethiopian Studies, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.
Fattovich, R. 1990 Remarks on the pre-Aksumite Period in Northern Ethiopia. Journal of Ethiopian Studies 23:133.
Fattovich, R. 1993 The Gash Group of the Eastern Sudan. In Environmental Change and Human Culture in the Nile Basin and Northern Africa until the Second Millennium BC, edited by L. Krzyzaniak, J. Kobusiewicz, and J. Alexander, pp. 439448. Poznan Archaeological Museum, Poznan, Poland.
Fattovich, R. 2005a The Archaeology of the Horn of Africa. In Afrikas Horn, edited by W. Raunig and S. Wenig, pp. 329. Harrassowitz Verlag, Wiesbaden, Germany.
Fattovich, R. 2005b Marsa Gawasis: A Pharaonic Coastal Settlement by the Red Sea in Egypt. In People of the Red Sea: Proceedings of Red Sea Project II, edited by J. Starkey, pp. 1522. BAR International Series 1395. Archaeopress, Oxford.
Fattovich, R., Marks, A. E., and Mohammed-Ali, A. 1984 The Archaeology of the Eastern Sahel, Sudan: Preliminary Results. African Archaeological Review 2:173188.
Fedele, F. G. 1990 Man, Land and Climate: Emerging Interactions From the Holocene of the Yemen Highlands. In Man’s Role in Shaping of the Eastern Mediterranean Landscape, edited by S. Bottema, G. Entjes-Neiborg, and W. van Zeist, pp. 3142. Balkema, Rotterdam, the Netherlands.
Fedele, F. G. 1992 Zooarchaeology in Mesopotamia and Yemen, a Comparative History. Origini 16:4993.
Fedele, F. G. 2008 Wadi at-Tayyilah 3, a Neolithic and Pre-Neolithic Occupation on the Eastern Yemen Plateau, and its Archaeofaunal Information. Proceedings of the Seminar for Arabian Studies 38:153172.
Fedele, F. G., and Zaccara, D. 2005 Wadi al-Tayyila 3: A Mid-Holocene Site on the Yemen Plateau and its Lithic Collection. In Sabaean Studies: Archaeological, Epigraphical, and Historical Studies in Honour of Yusuf M. Abdallah, Alessandro de Maigret, and Christian J. Robin on the Occasion of Their 60th Birthdays, edited by A. M. Sholan, S. Antonini, and M. Arbach, pp. 213245. Yemeni-Italian Center for Archaeological Researches, Sana’a, Yemen, and Naples, Italy.
Finneran, N. J. 2000a Excavations at Baahti Nebait, Aksum, Northern Ethiopia, 1997. Azania 35:5373.
Finneran, N. J. 2000b New Perspectives on the Late Stone Age of Northern Ethiopia, Excavations at Anqqer Baahti, Aksum, 1996. Azania 35:2151.
Finneran, N. J. 2007 The Archaeology of Ethiopia. Routledge, London.
Finneran, N. J., and Phillips, J. 2003 The Shire Region Archaeological Landscape Survey, 2001: A Preliminary Report. Azania 38:139147.
Finneran, N. J., Phillips, J., Desie, A., Cain, C., Harlow, M., and Hagos, T. 2005 The Archaeological Landscape of the Shire Region, Western Tigrai, Ethiopia. Annales d’éthiopie 21:729.
Fuller, D. 2002 Fifty Years of Archaeobotanical Studies in India: Laying a Solid Foundation. In Indian Archaeology in Retrospect: 3. Archaeology and Interactive Disciplines, edited by S. Settar and R. Korisettar, pp. 247364. Manohar Publishers, New Delhi.
Fuller, D. 2003 African Crops in Prehistoric South Asia: A Critical Review. In Food, Fuel and Fields: Progress in African Archaeobotany, edited by K. Neumann, A. Butler, and S. Kahlheber, pp. 239271. Heinrich Barth Institut, Cologne, Germany.
Fuller, D. 2004 Early Kushite Agriculture: Archaeobotanical Evidence from Kawa. Sudan and Nubia: The Sudan Archaeological Research Society Bulletin 8:7074.
Fuller, D. 2006 Agricultural Origins and Frontiers in South Asia: A Working Synthesis. Journal of World Prehistory 20:186.
Fuller, D. 2007 Contrasting Patterns in Crop Domestication and Domestication Rates: Recent Archaeobotanical Insights from the Old World. Annals of Botany 100:903924.
Fuller, D. Q., and Harvey, E. L. 2006 The Archaeobotany of Indian Pulses: Identification, Processing and Evidence for Cultivation. Environmental Archaeology 11(2):219246.
Garcea, E. A. 2006 Semi-Permanent Foragers in Semi-Arid Environments of North Africa. World Archaeology 38(2): 197219.
Gasse, F. 2000 Hydrological Changes in the African Tropics Since the Last Glacial Maximum. Quaternary Science Reviews 19:189211.
Gautier, A. 2002 The Evidence for the Earliest Livestock in North Africa: Or Adventures with Large Bovids, Ovicaprids, Dogs and Pigs. In Droughts, Food and Culture. Ecological Change and Food Security in Africa’s Later Prehistory, edited by F. Hassan, pp. 195208. Kluwer/Plenum, New York.
Gifford-Gonzalez, D. 1998 Early Pastoralists in East Africa: Ecological and Social Dimensions. Journal of Anthropological Archaeology 17:166200.
Giumlia-Mair, A., Keall, E. J., Shugar, A. N., and Stock, S. 2002 Investigation of a Copper-Based Hoard from the Megalithic Site of al-Midamman, Yemen: an Interdisciplinary Approach. Journal of Archaeological Science 29:195209.
Guerin, C., and Faure, M. 1996 Chasse au chacal et domestication du boeuf dans le site Neolithique d’Asa Koma (Republique de Djibouti). Journal des Africanistes 66:299311.
Gutherz, X., Joussaume, R., Amlard, S., and Mohamed, G. 1996 Le site d’Asa Koma (Republique de Djibouti) et les premiers producteurs dans la Corne de l’Afrique. Journal des africanistes 66(1–2):255297.
Haaland, R. 1995 Sedentism, Cultivation, and Plant Domestication in the Holocene Middle Nile Region. Journal of Field Archaeology 22:157174.
Haaland, R. 1999 The Puzzle of the Late Emergence of Domesticated Sorghum in the Nile valley. In The Prehistory of Food: Appetites for Change, edited by C. Gosden and J. Hather, pp. 397418. Routledge, London.
Harlan, J. R. 1992 Indigenous African agriculture. In The Origins of Agriculture: An International Perspective, edited by C. Cowen and P. J. Watson, pp. 5970. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, D.C.
Harlan, J. R., de Wet, J. M. J., and Stemler, A. B. L. 1976 Origins of African Plant Domestication. Mouton, The Hague, the Netherlands.
Harris, D. R. 1989 An Evolutionary Continuum of People-Plant Interaction. In Foraging and Farming: The Evolution of Plant Exploitation, edited by D. R. Harris and G. C. Hillman, pp. 1126. Unwin Hyman, London.
Harrower, M. 2008a Hydrology, Ideology, and the Origins of Irrigation in Ancient Southwest Arabia (Yemen). Current Anthropology 49(3):497510.
Harrower, M. 2008b Mapping and Dating Incipient Irrigation in Wadi Sana, Hadramawt (Yemen). Proceedings of the Seminar for Arabian Studies 38:187202.
Hassan, F. 1997 Holocene Palaeoclimates of Africa. African Archaeological Review 14(4):213230.
Hassan, F. 2002 Holocene Environmental Change and the Transition to Agriculture in South-West Asia and North-East Africa. In The Origins of Pottery and Agriculture, edited by Y. Yasuda, pp. 5568. Roli Books, New Delhi.
Hayden, B. 1995 A New Overview of Domestication. In Last Hunters, First Farmers: New Perspectives on the Prehistoric Transition to Agriculture, edited by D. T. Price and A. Birgitte Gebauer, pp. 273301. School of American Research Press, Santa Fe, New Mexico.
Hayden, B. 2001 Richman, Poorman, Beggarman, Chief: The Dynamics of Social Inequality. In Archaeology at the Millennium, edited by G. M. Feinman and D. T. Price, pp. 231272. Kluwer/Plenum, New York.
Hayden, B. 2003 Were Luxury Foods the First Domesticates? Ethnoarchaeological Perspectives From Southeast Asia. World Archaeology 34(3):458469.
Hildebrand, E. 2003 Motives and Opportunities for Domestication: An Efhnoarchaeological Study in Southwest Ethiopia. Journal of Anthropological Archaeology 22:358375.
Hillman, G. C. 1996 Late Pleistocene Changes to Wild Plant-Foods Avail able to Hunter-Gatherers of the Northern Fertile Crescent: Possible Preludes to Cereal Cultivation. In The Origins and Spread of Agriculture and Pastoralism in Eurasia, edited by D. R. Harris, pp. 159204. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, D.C.
Hillman, G. C., and Davies, M. S. 1990 Measured Domestication Rates in Wild Wheats and Barley Under Primitive Cultivation and Their Archaeological Implications. Journal of World Prehistory 4(2): 157222.
Hodder, I. 1990 The Domestication of Europe: Structure and Contingency in Neolithic Societies. Blackwell, Oxford.
Janzen, J. 1986 Nomads in the Sultanate of Oman: Tradition and Development in Dhofar. Westview Press, Boulder, Colorado.
Kallweit, H. 1996 Neolithische und Bronzezeitliche Besiedlung im Wadi Dhahr, Republik Yemen. Ph.D. dissertation, Albert-Ludwigs-Universitat, Freiburg, Germany.
Keall, E. I. 1998 Encountering Megaliths on the Tihamah Coastal Plain of Yemen. Proceedings of the Seminar for Arabian Studies 28:139148.
Kennett, D., and Winterhalder, B. (editors) 2006 Behavioral Ecology and the Transition to Agriculture. University of California Press, Berkeley.
Khalidi, L. 2007 The Formation of a Southern Red Sea Seascape in the Late Prehistoric Period: Tracing Cross-Red Sea Culture-Contact, Interaction, and Maritime Communities Along the Tihamah Coastal Plain, Yemen, in the Third to First Millennium BC. In Natural Resources and Cultural Connections of the Red Sea, edited by J. Starkey, P. Starkey, and T. J. Wilkinson, pp. 3543. Archaeopress, Oxford.
Kitchen, K. A. 1993 The Land of Punt. In The Archaeology of Africa: Food, Metals, and Towns, edited by T. Shaw, pp. 587608. Routledge, London.
Kitchen, K. A. 2004 The Elusive Land of Punt Revisited. In Trade and Travel in the Red Sea Region: Proceedings of Red Sea Project I Held in the British Museum October 2002, edited by P. Lunde and A. Porter, pp. 2532. Archaeopress, Oxford.
Krom, M. D., Stanley, J. D., Cliff, R. A., and Woodward, J. C. 2002 Nile River Sediment Fluctuations Over the Past 7000 yr and Their Key Role in Sapropel Development. Geology 30(1):7174.
Krzyzaniak, L. 1991 Early Farming in the Middle Nile Basin: Recent Discoveries at Kadero (Central Sudan). Antiquity 65:515532.
Kuijt, I. (editor) 2000 Life in Neolithic Farming Communities: Social Organization, Identity, and Differentiation. Kluwer-Plenum, New York.
Lesur, J. 2004 Exploitation de al Diversite Faunique et Debut du Pastoralisme dans la Corne de 1’Afrique a l’Holocene. Ph.D. dissertation, Histoire de 1’Art et d’Archeologie, Universite de Paris I, Paris.
Lunde, P., and Porter, A. (editors) 2004 Trade and Travel in the Red Sea Region: Proceedings of the Red Sea Project I. Archaeopress, Oxford.
Lyons, D., and D’Andrea, C. 2003 Griddles, Ovens, and Agricultural Origins: An Ethnoarchaeological Study of Bread Baking in Highland Ethiopia. American Anthropologist 105(3):515530.
MacDonald, K. 2000 The Origins of African livestock: Indigenous or Imported? In The Origins and Development of African Livestock: Archaeology, Genetics, Linguistics and Ethnography, edited by R. Blench and K. MacDonald, pp. 217. Routledge, London.
Machado, M. J., Perez-Gonzalez, A., and Benito, G. 1998 Paleoenvironmental Changes During the Last 4000 yr in the Tigray, Northern Ethiopia. Quaternary Research 49:312321.
Magid, A. A. 1989 Exploitation of Plants in the Eastern Sahel (Sudan), 5,000–2,000 BC. In Late Prehistory of the Nile Basin in the Sahara, edited by L. Krzyzaniak and M. Kobusiewicz, pp. 459468. Poznan Archaeological Museum, Poznan, Poland.
Magid, A. A. 1991 The Explanation of the Late Date of Domestication of the African Cereals Reconsidered. In Understanding and History in Arts and Sciences, edited by R. Skarsten, E. J. Kleppe, and R. B. Finnestad, pp. 145157. Solum Forlag, Oslo.
Magid, A. A., and Caneva, I. 1998 Exploitation of Food Plants in the Early Holocene Central Sudan: A Reconsideration. In Before Food Production in North Africa, edited by S. di Lernia and G. Manzi, pp. 7989. Abaco Edizioni, Forlí, Italy.
Marks, A. E. 1987 Terminal Pleistocene and Holocene Hunters and Gatherers in the Eastern Sudan. African Archaeological Review 5:7992.
Marshall, F. 2000 The Origins and Spread of Domestic Animals in East Africa. In The Origins and Development of African Livestock: Archaeology, Genetics, Linguistics, and Ethnography, edited by R. Blench and K.MacDonald, pp. 191221. Routledge, London.
Marshall, F, and Hildebrand, E. 2002 Cattle Before Crops: The Beginnings of Food Production in Africa. Journal of World Prehistory 16(2):99142.
Marshall, E, Steward, K., and Barthelme, J. 1984 Early Domestic Stock at Dongodien in Northern Kenya. Azania 19:120127.
Martin, L., McComston, J., and Crassard, R. 2009 Early Arabian Pastoralism at Manayzah in Wadi Sana, Hadramawt. Proceedings of the Seminar for Arabian Studies 39:285296.
McCann, J. C. 1995 People and the Plow: An Agricultural History of Ethiopia 1800–1900. University of Wisconsin Press, Madison, Wisconsin.
McCorriston, J. 2006 Breaking the Rain Barrier and the Tropical Spread of Near Eastern Agriculture into Southern Arabia. In Behavioral Ecology and the Transition to Agriculture, edited by D. Kennett and B. Winterhalder, pp. 217236. University of California Press, Berkeley.
McCorriston, J., Harrower, M. J., Oches, E. A., and Bin ‘Aqil, A. 2005a Foraging Economies and Population in the Middle Holocene Highlands of Southern Yemen. Proceedings of the Seminar for Arabian Studies 35:143154.
McCorriston, J., Heyne, C., Harrower, M., Patel, N., Steimer-Herbet, T., al-Amary, I., Barakany, A., Sinnah, M., Ladeh, R., Oches, E. A., Crassard, R., and Martin, L. 2005b Roots of Agriculture (RASA) Project 2005: A Season of Excavation and Survey in Wadi Sana, Hadramawt. Yemen Update: Bulletin of the American Institute for Yemeni Studies 47:2328.
McCorriston, J., and Martin, L. 2009 Southern Arabia’s Early Pastoral Population History: Some Recent Evidence. In The Evolution of Human Populations in Arabia: Paleoenvironments, Prehistory and Genetics, edited by M. D. Petraglia and J. Rose, Pp. 237250. Springer, Dordrecht, the Netherlands.
McCorriston, J., Oches, E. A., Walter, D., and Cole, K. L. 2002 Holocene Paleoecology and Prehistory in Highland Southern Arabia. Paleorient 28(1):6188.
Meeks, D. 2003 Locating Punt. In Mysterious Lands, edited by D. O’Connor and S. Quirke, pp. 5380. UCL, London.
Michels, J. W. 2005 Changing Settlement Patterns in the Aksum-Yeha Region of Ethiopia: 700 BC–AD 850. BAR International Series 1446. Archaeopress, Oxford.
Mitchell, P. 2005 African Connections: Archaeological Perspectives on Africa and the Wider World. AltaMira Press, Lanham, Maryland.
Moore, A. M. T., and Hillman, G. C. 1992 The Pleistocene to Holocene Transition and Human Economy in Southwest Asia: The Impact of the Younger Dryas. American Antiquity 57(3):482494.
Munro-Hay, S. 1991 Aksum: An African Civilisation of Late Antiquity. Edinburgh University Press, Edinburgh.
Muzzolini, A. 1993 The Emergence of a Food-Producing Economy in the Sahara. In The Archaeology of Africa: Food, Metals and Towns, edited by T. Shaw, pp. 227239. Routledge, London.
Negash, A. 1997 Preliminary Results of an Archaeological Reconnaissance of Tigrai, Northern Ethiopia. Nyame Akuma 47:2732.
Neumann, K. 2003 The Late Emergence of Agriculture in Sub-Saharan Africa: Archaeobotanical Evidence and Ecological Considerations. In Food, Fuel and Fields. Progress in African Archaeobotany, edited by K. Neumann, A. Butler, and S. Kahlheber, pp. 7192. Heinrich Barth Institut, Cologne, Germany.
Neumann, K. 2005 The Romance of Farming: Plant Cultivation and Domestication in Africa. In African Archaeology: A Critical Introduction, edited by A. B. Stahl, pp. 249275. Blackwell, Oxford.
Newton, C., Theibault, S., el-Hadji, I., Gutherz, X., Lesur, J., and Sordoillet, D. 2008 Fuel and Vegetation at Asa Koma (Repubic of Djibouti) During the Second Millennium BC. Journal of African Archaeology 6(1):87102.
Oches, E. A., McCorriston, J., Harrower, M., and Devogel, S. 2001 Middle Holocene Human-Environment Interactions in Southern Arabia. Geological Society of America Abstracts With Programs, Vol. 33, No. A295. Geological Society of America, Boulder, Colorado.
Pachur, H.-J., and Hoelzmann, P. 2000 Late Quaternary Palaeoecology and Palaeoclimates of the Eastern Sahara. Journal of African Earth Sciences 30(4):929939.
Pelling, R. 2005 Garamantean Agriculture and Its Significance in a Wider North Africa Context: The Evidence of Plant Remains from the Fazzan Project. Journal of North African Studies 10(3–4):397411.
Peters, J., Helmer, D., Von Den Driesch, A., and Sana Seguf, M. 1999 Early Animal Husbandry in the Northern Levant. Paleorient 25:2747.
Phillips, J. 1997 Punt and Aksum: Egypt and the Horn of Africa. Journal of African History 38:423457.
Phillipson, D. W. 1977 The Excavation of Gobedra Rock Shelter, Axum: An Early Occurrence of Cultivated Finger-Millet in Northern Ethiopia. Azania 12:5382.
Phillipson, D. W. 1993 The Antiquity of Cultivation and Herding in Ethiopia. In The Archaeology of Africa: Foods, Metals, and Towns, edited by T. Shaw, pp. 344357. Routledge, London.
Phillipson, D. W. 1998 Ancient Ethiopia: Aksum, Its Antecedents and Successors. British Museum Press, London.
Phillipson, D. W. 2000 Archaeology at Aksum, Ethiopia, 1993–7, Vol. 1. British Institute in Eastern Africa, London.
Price, D. T. 2000 Lessons in the Transition to Agriculture. In Europe’s First Farmers, edited by D. T. Price, pp. 301318. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
Redding, R. 1988 A General Explanation of Subsistence Change: From Hunting and Gathering to Food Production. Journal of Anthropological Archaeology 7:5697.
Richerson, P., Boyd, R., and Bettinger, R. 2001 Was Agriculture Impossible During the Pleistocene but Mandatory During the Holocene? A Climate Change Hypothesis. American Antiquity 66:387413.
Rindos, D. 1980 Symbiosis, Instability, and the Origins and Spread of Agriculture: A New Model. Current Anthropology 21(6):751772.
Rindos, D. 1984 The Origins of Agriculture: An Evolutionary Perspective. Academic Press, Orlando.
Rindos, D. 1989 Darwinism and Its Role in the Explanation of Domestication. In Foraging and Farming: The Evolution of Plant Exploitation, edited by D. R. Harris and G. C. Hillman, pp. 2741, Unwin Hyman, London.
Rocek, T. R., and Bar-Yosef, O. (editors) 1998 Seasonality and Sedentism: Archaeological Perspectives from Old and New World Sites. Peabody Museum of Archaeology and Ethnology, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts.
Rosenberg, M. 1990 The Mother of Invention: Evolutionary Theory, Territoriality, and the Origins of Agriculture. American Anthropologist 92:399415.
Rosenberg, M. 1998 Cheating at Musical Chairs: Territoriality and Sedentism in an Evolutionary Context. Current Anthropology 39(5):653681.
Rossignol-Strick, M. 1999 The Holocene Climatic Optimum and Pollen Records of Sapropel 1 in the Eastern Mediterranean, 9000–6000 BP. Quaternary Science Reviews 18:515530.
Rowley-Conwy, P. 2004 How the West Was Lost: A Reconsideration of Agricultural Origins in Britain, Ireland, and Southern Scandinavia. Current Anthropology 45:S83S113.
Russell, N., Martin, L., and Buitenhuis, H. 2005 Cattle Domestication at Catalhoyuk Revisited. Current Anthropology 46:S101S108.
Sadr, K. 1991 The Development of Nomadism in Ancient Northeast Africa. University of Pennsylvania Press, Philadelphia.
Sauer, C. 1952 Agricultural Origins and Dispersals. American Geographical Society, New York.
Schmidt, M., and Bothma, G. 2006 Risk Assessment for Transgenic Sorghum in Africa: Crop-to-Crop Gene Flow in Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench. Crop Science 46(2):790798.
Schmidt, P. R., and Curtis, M. C. 2001 Urban Precursors in the Horn: Early 1 si-Millennium BC Communities in Eritrea. Antiquity 75:849859.
Schmidt, P. R., Curtis, M. C., and Teka, Z. 2008a The Archaeology of Ancient Eritrea. Red Sea Press, Trenton, New Jersey.
Schmidt, P. R., Curtis, M. C., and Teka, Z. 2008b The Ancient Ona Communities of the First Millennium BCE: Urban Precursors and Independent Development on the Asmara Plateau. In The Archaeology of Ancient Eritrea, edited by P. R. Schmidt, M. C. Curtis, and Z. Teka, pp. 109161. Red Sea Press, Trenton, New Jersey.
Schmidt, P. R., and Naty, A. 2008 Bulls’Heads and Enigmas: Strong Inference and Interpretive Puzzles in Eritrea. In The Archaeology of Ancient Eritrea, edited by P. R. Schmidt, M. C. Curtis, and Z. Teka, pp. 235246. Red Sea Press, Trenton, New Jersey.
Shinnie, P. L., and Anderson, J. (editors) 2004 The Capital of Kush 2: Meroe Excavations 1973–1984. Harrassowitz Verlag, Wiesbaden, Germany.
Shirai, N. 2006 Supra-Regional Concepts in Near Eastern Neolithisation From a Viewpoint of Egyptian Neolithic research. Paléorient 32(2):722.
Shoshani, J., Ghebregiorgis, M., and Schmidt, P. 2008 Interpretations of Faunal Remains from Archaeological Sites on the Asmara Plateau of Eritrea. In The Archaeology of Ancient Eritrea, edited by P. Schmidt, M. Curtis, and Z. Teka, pp. 217234. Red Sea Press, Trenton, New Jersey.
Shryock, A. J. 1990 Rise of Nasir al-Nims: A Tribal Commentary on Being and Becoming a Shaykh. Journal of Anthropological Research 46(2): 153176.
Smith, A. B. 1984 Origins of the Neolithic of the Sahara. In From Hunters to Farmers: Causes and Consequences of Food Production in Africa, edited by J. D. Clark and S. A. Brandt, pp. 8492. University of California Press, Berkeley.
Smith, A. B. 1998 Keeping People on the Periphery: The Ideology of Social Hierarchies Between Hunters and Herders. Journal of Anthropological Archaeology 17:201215.
Smith, B. 2001 Low-Level Food Production. Journal of Archaeological Research 9:143.
Stahl, A. B. 1984 A History and Critique of Investigations into Early African Agriculture. In From Hunters to Farmers: The Causes and Consequences of Food Production in Africa, edited by J. D. Clark and S. A. Brandt, pp. 921. University of California Press, Berkeley.
Starkey, J. (editor) 2005 People of the Red Sea. Archaeopress, Oxford.
Starkey, J., Starkey, P., and Wilkinson, T. J. (editors) 2007 Natural Resources and Cultural Connections of the Red Sea. Archaeopress, Oxford.
Steimer-Herbet, T. 2004 Classification des sépultures à superstructure lithique dans le Levant et l'Arable occidentale. BAR International Series 1246. Archaeopress, Oxford.
Steimer-Herbet, T., Saliege, J.-F., Sagory, T., and Lavigne, O. 2007 Open Sanctuary and Anthropomorphic Statuettes at Rawk during the Fourth Millennium BC (Wadi ߢIdim, Yemen). Antiquity 81(312):online. Electronic document, http://antiquity.ac.uk/projgall/steimer/index.html, Accessed June 7, 2010
Tengberg, M. 2003 Archaeobotany in the Oman Peninsula and the Role of Eastern Arabia in the Spread of African Crops. In Food, Fuel and Fields: Progress in African Archaeobotany, edited by K. Neumann, A. Butler, and S. Kahlheber, pp. 229238. Heinrich-Barth Institut, Cologne, Germany.
Tosi, M. 1986 The Emerging Picture of Prehistoric Arabia. Annual Review of Anthropology 15:461490.
Uerpmann, M., and Uerpmann, H. P. 1996 ‘Ubaid Pottery in the Eastern Gulf—New Evidence From Umm al-Qaiwain (U.A.E.). Arabian Archaeology and Epigraphy 7:125139.
Uerpmann, M., and Uerpmann, H. P. 2000 Faunal Remains of Al-Buhais 18 an Aceramic Neolithic Site in the Emirate of Sharjah (SE-Arabia)—Excavations 1995–1998. In Archaeozoology of the Near East IV-B, edited by A. M. Maskour, A. M. Choyke, H. Buitenhuis, and F. Poplin, pp. 4049. ARC, Groningen, the Netherlands.
Uerpmann, M., Uerpmann, H. P., and Jasim, S. A. 2000 Stone Age Nomadism in SE-Arabia: Palaeo-Economic Considerations on the Neolithic Site of Al-Buhais 18 in the Emirate of Sharjah, U.A.E. Proceedings of the Seminar for Arabian Studies 30:229234.
Varisco, D. M., and Adra, N. 1984 Affluence and the Concept of the Tribe in the Central Highlands of the Yemen Arab Republic. In Affluence and Cultural Survival: 1981 Proceedings of the American Ethnological Society, edited by R. Salisbury and E. Tooker, pp. 134149. American Ethnological Society, Washington, D.C.
Vavilov, N. I. 1951 The Origin, Variation, Immunity, and Breeding of Cultivated Plants: Selected Writings. Chronica Botanica, Waltham, Massachusetts.
Verhoeven, M. 2004 Beyond Boundaries: Nature, Culture and a Holistic Approach to Domestication in the Levant. Journal of World Prehistory 18(3): 179282.
Vogt, B., and Sedov, A.V. 1998 The Sabir Culture and Coastal Yemen During the Second Millennium BC—The Present State of Discussion. Proceedings of the Seminar for Arabian Studies 28:261270.
Wendorf, R, and Schild, R. 1998 Nabta Playa and its Role in Northeastern African Prehistory. Journal of Anthropological Archaeology 17:97123.
Wetterstrom, W. 1993 Foraging and Farming in Egypt: The Transition From Hunting and Gathering to Horticulture in the Nile Valley. In The Archaeology of Africa: Foods, Metals, and Towns, edited by T. Shaw, P. Sinclair, B. Andah, and A. Okpoko, pp. 165226. Routledge, London.
Wetterstrom, W. 1998 The Origins of Agriculture in Africa: With Particular Reference to Sorghum and Pearl Millet. Review of Archaeology 19(2):3046.
Wilkinson, T. J. 2003 The Organization of Settlement in Highland Yemen During the Bronze and Iron Ages. Proceedings of the Seminar for Arabian Studies 33:157168.
Wilkinson, T. J. 2005 Landscape Dynamics in SW Arabia and the Fertile Crescent: Integrating Settlement, Geoarchaeology and Climate Change. Geoarchaeology 20(2):169192.
Wilkinson, T. J. 2006 From Highland to Desert: The Organization of Landscape and Irrigation in Southern Arabia. In Agricultural Strategies, edited by J. Marcus and C. Stanish, pp. 3870. Cotsen Insitute of Archaeology, University of California, Los Angeles, California.
Wills, W. H. 1995 Archaic Foraging and the Beginning of Food Production in the American Southwest. In Last Hunters-First Farmers: New Perspectives on the Prehistoric Transition to Agriculture, edited by D. T. Price and A. B. Gebauer, pp. 215242. SAR Press, Santa Fe, New Mexico.
Winterhalder, B., and Goland, C. 1997 An Evolutionary Ecology Perspective on Diet Choice, Risk, and Plant Domestication. In People, Plants, and Landscapes: Studies in Paleoethnobotany, edited by K. J. Gremillion, pp. 123161. University of Alabama Press, London.
Young, R., and Thompson, G. 1999 Missing Plant Foods? Where is the Archaeobotanical Evidence for Sorghum and Finger Millet in East Africa? In The Exploitation of Plant Resources in Ancient Africa, edited by M. Van Der Veen, pp. 6372. Kluwer/Plenum, New York.
Zarins, J. 1990 Obsidian and the Red Sea Trade: Prehistoric Aspects. In South Asian Archaeology 1987, edited by M. Taddei and P. Callieri, pp. 507541. IsMEO, Rome.
Zarins, J. 1992 Archaeological and Chronological Problems Within the Greater Southwest Asian Arid Zone, 8500–1850 B.C. In Chronologies in Old World Archaeology, Vol. 1, 3rd ed., edited by R. W. Ehrich, pp. 4276. University of Chicago Press, Chicago.
Zarins, J. 1996 Obsidian in the Larger Context of Predynastic/Archaic Egyptian Rea Sea Trade. In The Indian Ocean in Antiquity, edited by J. Reade, pp. 89106. Kegan Paul International, London.
Zarins, J. 1998 View from the South: The Greater Arabian Peninsula. In The Prehistoric Archaeology of Jordan, edited by D. O. Henry, pp. 179194. BAR International Series 705. Archaeopress, Oxford.
Zeder, M. A. 2006 Central Questions in the Domestication of Plants and Animals. Evolutionary Anthropology 15:105117.
Zeder, M. A., Emshwiller, E., Smith, B. D., and Bradley, D. G. 2006 Documenting Domestication: The Intersection of Genetics and Archaeology. TRENDS in Genetics 22:139155.
Zvelebil, M., and Lillie, M. 2000 Transition to Agriculture in Eastern Europe. In Europe’s First Farmers, edited by D. T. Price, pp. 5792. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

Related content

Powered by UNSILO

General/Specific, Local/Global: Comparing the Beginnings of Agriculture in the Horn of Africa (Ethiopia/Eritrea) and Southwest Arabia (Yemen)

  • Michael J. Harrower (a1), Joy McCorriston (a2) and A. Catherine D’Andrea (a3)

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed.