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What's New About the Restoration?*

  • Tim Harris


When I first began my researches into later Stuart history as a graduate student back in 1980, the Restoration was a relatively underdeveloped field of inquiry. Although there were a number of scholars producing excellent work in this area, there was not the same depth of scholarship as characterized study of the first half of the seventeenth century: wide gaps in our knowledge existed, and for some of the most crucial episodes of the period we were dependent upon a limited range of studies and dated works. The best general entrée into the period was still David Ogg's classic two-volume England in the Reign of Charles II, first published in 1934! A suitable modern textbook did not emerge until 1978, with the publication of J. R. Jones's County and Court: England 1658–1714, a book that had neither Ogg's range nor lively analytical style. For our understanding of why the monarchy was restored we were reliant upon a study that had come out in 1955, which was supplemented only in 1980 by Austin Woolrych's book-length “Historical Introduction” to volume seven of the Yale edition of the Complete Prose Works of John Milton. On the Exclusion Crisis we had J. R. Jones's The First Whigs, which had appeared in 1961, although for the first Tories we still needed to use Sir Keith Feiling's 1924 History of the Tory Party. For the Glorious Revolution we had a book written by a man who tragically died (at a young age) before he could complete the work, and another self-consciously thought-provoking work designed to raise questions and suggest future avenues of research—both excellent studies in their own right, but hardly the plethora of monographs that we possessed for the mid-century revolution.



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I would like to thank Mark Goldie, Dick Greaves, and Mike Moore for their comments and criticisms on earlier drafts of this article. I also am indebted to the John Simon Guggenheim Memorial Foundation for the award of a fellowship for the academic year 1996–97, during which time this article was conceived and written.



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1 Davies, Godfrey, The Restoration of Charles II, 1658–60 (San Marino, 1955); Woolrych, Austin, “Historical Introduction,” to Complete Prose Works of John Milton, 8 vols. (New Haven, 19531982), 8: 1228.

2 Western, J. R., Monarchy and Revolution: The English State in the 1680s (London, 1972).

3 Jones, J. R., The Revolution of 1688 in England (London, 1972).

4 For the historiographical state of play in c. 1980, see Morrill, John, Seventeenth-Century Britain (Folkstone, 1980). Of those works to appear during the 1970s, the following deserve mention here: Green, I. M., The Re-establishment of the Church of England 1660–1663 (Oxford, 1978); Miller, John, Popery and Politics in England, 1660–1688 (Cambridge, 1973); Schwoerer, Lois G., “No Standing Armies!”: The Anti-Army Ideology in Seventeenth-Century England (Baltimore, 1974).

5 See also Glassey, Lionel, ed., The Reigns of Charles II and James VII and II (Basingstoke, 1997), which replaces Jones's, J. R. earlier volume, The Restored Monarchy 1660–1688 (London, 1979). A lively general survey of the Stuart century that also takes in Scotland and Ireland is Kishlansky, Mark, A Monarchy Transformed: Britain 1603–1714 (Harmondsworth, 1996).

6 See, for example, R. A. Beddard's review of recent scholarship on the Glorious Revolution, in Journal of Modern History 67 (1995): 407–10.

7 Scott, Jonathan, Algernon Sidney and the English Republic, 1623–1677 (Cambridge, 1988), and Algernon Sidney and the Restoration Crisis, 1677–1683 (Cambridge, 1991).

8 Cromartie, Alan, Sir Matthew Hale 1609–1676: Law, Religion, and Natural Philosophy (Cambridge, 1995).

9 Schwoerer, Lois G., Lady Rachel Russell: “One of the Best of Women” (Baltimore, 1988).

10 Miller, John, James II: A Study in Kingship (Hove, 1978; repr. London 1989), has value, but is beginning to appear dated.

11 Seaward, Paul, The Cavalier Parliament and the Reconstruction of the Old Regime, 1661–1667 (Cambridge, 1989).

12 Browning, Andrew, ed., English Historical Documents, 1660–1714 (Oxford, 1953), p. 61. Even the Quakers shared the view that the Restoration was wrought by the hand of God. See Greaves, Richard L., “Shattered Expectations? George Fox, the Quakers, and the Restoration State, 1660–1685,” Albion 24 (Summer, 1992): 237–59.

13 For the royalist conspiracies of the 1650s, see Underdown, David, Royalist Conspiracy in England 1649–1660 (New Haven, 1960). For Booth, in addition to Hutton, see Morrill, John, Cheshire, 1630–1660: County Government and Society during the English Revolution (Oxford, 1974).

14 Morley, George, A Sermon Preached at the Magnificent Coronation of … Charles the IId (London, 1661), p. 36; Seaward, , Cavalier Parliament, pp. 4448. See also Harris, Tim, Politics under the Later Stuarts (New York: 1993), pp. 3637.

15 As has often been the case with seventeenth-century studies, Christopher Hill led the way. See in particular his The Experience of Defeat: Milton and Some Contemporaries (London, 1984).

16 Greaves, Richard L., Deliver Us from Evil: The Radical Underground in Britain, 1660–1663 (Oxford, 1986); Enemies under His Feet: Radicals and Nonconformists in Britain, 1664–1677 (Stanford, 1990); Secrets of the Kingdom: British Radicals from the Popish Plot to the Revolution of 1688–89 (Stanford, 1992).

17 Greaves has least to say about the Monmouth rebellion of 1685, because that already had been the subject of a number of studies. See in particular Clifton, Robin, The Last Popular Rebellion: The Western Rising of 1685 (London, 1984); Earle, Peter, Monmouth's Rebels: The Road to Sedgemoor (London, 1977).

18 The interpretative problems were spelled out many years ago in an excellent unpublished thesis by Johnson, W. G., “Post Restoration Nonconformity and Plotting, 1660–1675” (M.A. thesis, University of Manchester, 1967).

19 Greaves, , Deliver Us From Evil, p. 21.

20 Marshall, Alan, Intelligence and Espionage in the Reign of Charles II, 1660–1685 (Cambridge, 1994).

21 De Krey, Gary S., “London Radicals and Revolutionary Politics, 1675–1683,” in The Politics of Religion in Restoration England, eds. Harris, Tim, Seaward, Paul, and Goldie, Mark (Oxford, 1990), pp. 133–62; The London Whigs and the Exclusion Crisis Reconsidered,” in The First Modern Society: Essays in English History in Honour of Lawrence Stone, eds. Beier, Lee, Cannadine, David, and Rosenheim, James (Cambridge, 1989), pp. 457–82; The First Restoration Crisis: Conscience and Coercion in London, 1667–73,” Albion 25 (Fall, 1993): 565–80; Rethinking the Restoration: Dissenting Cases for Conscience, 1667–1672,” Historical Journal 38 (1995): 5383; Reformation in the Restoration Crisis, 1679–82,” in Religion, Literature and Politics in Post-Reformation England, 1540–1688, eds. Hamilton, Donna and Strier, Richard (Cambridge, 1996), pp. 231–52; “Radicals, Reformers, and Republicans: Academic Language and Political Discourse in Restoration London,” in A Nation Transformed? eds. Alan Houston and Steven C. A. Pincus (forthcoming). We eagerly await the publication of De Krey's forthcoming book.

22 Harris, Tim, “‘Lives, Liberties and Estates’: Rhetorics of Liberty in the Reign of Charles II,” in Politics of Religion, pp. 217–41.

23 The classic older study is Cragg, G. R., Puritanism in the Period of the Great Persecution (Cambridge, 1957). For the political machinations of the Dissenters, Lacey's, Douglas R.Dissent and Parliamentary Politics in England, 1661–1689 (Rutgers, 1969) remains indispensable.

24 For the impact of persecution and how the penal laws were enforced, see in particular Fletcher, A. J., “The Enforcement of the Conventicle Acts 1664–1679,” in Persecution and Toleration ed. Sheils, W. J. (Studies in Church History, 21: Oxford, 1984), pp. 235–46; Harris, Tim, London Crowds in the Reign of Charles II: Propaganda and Politics from the Restoration until the Exclusion Crisis (Cambridge, 1987), ch. 4; Horle, Craig W., The Quakers and the English Legal System, 1660–1688 (Philadelphia, 1988). For nonconformist writing and the literary response to persecution in Restoration England see Keeble, N. H., The Literary Culture of Nonconformity in Seventeenth-Century England (Athens, Ga., 1987). The Quakers are the best studied of the sects. In addition to Horle's book, see: Ingle, H. Larry, First Among Friends: George Fox and the Creation of Quakerism (Oxford, 1994); Kunze, Bonnelyn, Margaret Fell and the Rise of Quakerism (Stanford, 1994). There also has been a recent renaissance in Bunyon studies. See especially Hill, Christopher, A Turbulent, Seditious and Factious People: John Bunyan and his Church, 1628–1688 (Oxford, 1988); Mullett, Michael, John Bunyan in Context (Keele, 1996).

25 Hurwich, J. J., “‘A Fanatick Town’: The Political Influence of Dissenters in Coventry, 1660–1720,” Midland History, 4 (1977): 15—47; Underdown, David, Fire from Heaven: Life in an English Town in the Seventeenth Century (New Haven, 1992).

26 Norrey, P. J., “The Restoration Regime in Action: The Relationship between Central and Local Government in Dorset, Somerset and Wiltshire,” Historical Journal 31 (1988): 789812; Coleby, Andrew M., Central Government and the Localities: Hampshire 1649–1689 (Cambridge, 1987), ch. 5; Key, Newton E., “Comprehension and the Breakdown of Consensus in Restoration Herefordshire,” in Politics of Religion, pp. 191215; Jonathan Barry, “The Politics of Religion in Restoration Bristol,” in ibid., pp. 163–89; Rosenheim, James M., “Party Organization at the Local Level: The Norfolk Sheriffs Subscription of 1676,” Historical Journal 29 (1986): 713–22.

27 The best published county study is Coleby, Hampshire. Also useful is Roberts, S. K., Recovery and Restoration in an English County: Devon Local Administration, 1646–1670 (Exeter, 1985), although it is not readily available in the United States. More accessible, therefore, are Roberts's, articles: “Initiative and Control: The Devon Quarter Sessions Grand Jury, 1649–1670,” Bulletin of the Institute of Historical Research 57 (1984): 165–77 and Public or Private? Revenge and Recovery at the Restoration of Charles II,” Bulletin of the Institute of Historical Research 59 (1986): 172–88. For a corporation, see Gauci, Perry, Politics and Society in Great Yarmouth 1660–1722 (Oxford, 1996). Michael Mullett has produced a slew of excellent local case studies in article form, although some appear in obscure publications not always held by libraries in North America. See in particular The Politics of Liverpool, 1660–88,” Transactions of the Historical Society of Lancashire and Cheshire 124 (1973): 3156; The Internal Politics of Bedford, 1660–1688,” The Bedfordshire Historical Record Society 59 (1980): 142; Conflict, Politics and Elections in Lancashire, 1660–1688,” Northern History 19 (1983): 6186; ‘Men of Knowne Loyalty’: The Politics of the Lancashire Borough of Clitheroe, 1660–1689,” Northern History, 21 (1985): 108–36. An excellent county study for Wales that contains invaluable material for the years between the Restoration and the Glorious Revolution is Jenkins, Philip, The Making of a Ruling Class; The Glamorgan Gentry 1640–1790 (Cambridge, 1983).

28 Dissertations particularly worthy of note (excluding those that focus exclusively on the 1680s) are: Davies, Evan, “The Enforcement of Religious Uniformity in England, 1668–1700, with Special Reference to the Dioceses of Chichester and Worcester” (University of Oxford, 1985); Galitz, Todd M., “The Challenge of Stability: Religion, Politics, and Social Order in Worcestershire, 1660–1720” (Brown University, 1997); Jackson, P. W., “Nonconformists and Society in Devon, 1660–1689” (University of Exeter, 1986); Key, Newton E., “Politics Beyond Parliament: Unity and Party in the Herefordshire Region during the Restoration Period” (Cornell University, 1989); Norrey, P. J., “The Relationship Between Central Government and Local Government in Dorset, Somerset and Wiltshire 1660–1688” (University of Bristol, 1988); Spaeth, Donald A., “Parson and Parishioners: Lay-Clerical Conflict and Popular Piety in Wiltshire Villages, 1660–1740” (Brown University, 1985).

29 Spurr, John, The Restoration Church of England, 1646–1689 (New Haven, 1991).

30 Spurr, John, “‘Latitudinarianism’ and the Restoration Church,” HistohcalJournal 31 (1988): 6182.

31 Spellman, W. M., The Latitudinarians and the Church of England, 1660–1700 (Athens, Ga., 1993). See also Reedy, Gerard S. J., The Bible and Reason: Anglicans and Scripture in late Seventeenth-Century England (Philadelphia, 1985).

32 Champion, J. A. I., The Pillars of Priestcraft Shaken: The Church of England and its Enemies, 1660–1730 (Cambridge, 1992). See also Goldie, Mark, “Priestcraft and the Birth of Whiggism,” in Political Discourse in Early Modern Britain, eds. Phillipson, N. and Skinner, Q. (Cambridge, 1993), pp. 209–31.

33 Insight into how one prominent lay Puritan (of sorts) adjusted to the changed political climate of the Restoration is provided in Cromartie, Hale, part II.

34 Whiteman, Anne, ed., The Compton Census of 1676: A Critical Edition (London, 1986).

35 Jones, , Charles I, p. 1. An emphasis on discontinuity looks like it is being revived with a vengeance. The question of what was new about the Restoration was the theme of a lively conference organized by Alan Houston and Steven Pincus at the Huntington Library in November 1996, under the title of A Nation Transformed? Its proceedings are to be published shortly.

36 Pincus, Steven C. A., “‘Coffee Politicians Does Create’: Coffeehouses and Restoration Political Culture,” Journal of Modern History 67 (1995): 807–34.

37 [Earl of Rochester], A Satire on Charles II,” in To Settle the Succession of the Stale: Literature and Politics, 1678–1750, Downie, J. A. (Basingstoke, 1994).

38 Weil, Rachel, “Sometimes a Scepter is Only a Scepter: Pornography and Politics in Restoration England,” in The Invention of Pornography: Obscenity and the Origins of Modernity, 1500–1800, ed. Hunt, Lynn (New York, 1993). On this theme, see also Weber, Harold, “The Monarch's Profane Body: ‘His Sceptre and His Prick Are of a Length,’” in his Paper Bullets: Print and Kingship under Charles II (Lexington, Ky., 1996), pp. 88127.

39 Pincus, Steven C. A., Protestantism and Patriotism: Ideologies and the Making of English Foreign Policy, 1650–1668 (Cambridge, 1996).

40 Pincus, Steven C. A., “From Butterboxes to Wooden Shoes: The Shift in English Popular Sentiment from Anti-Dutch to Anti-French in the 1670s,” Historical Journal 38 (1995): 333–61; Republicanism, Absolutism and Universal Monarchy: English Popular Sentiment during the Third Dutch War,” in Culture and Society in the Stuart Restoration, ed. MacLean, Gerald (Cambridge, 1995), pp. 241–66; The English Debate over Universal Monarchy,” in A Union for Empire: Political Thought and the British Union of 1707, ed. Robertson, John (Cambridge, 1995), pp. 3762.

41 Jones, J. R., The Anglo-Dutch Wars of the Seventeenth Century (London, 1996) appears thin in comparison, but has more to say about the logistics and strategy of naval warfare.

42 See, for example, Mercurius Reformatus, no. 29, 25 June 1690; O'Kelly, Charles, Macariae Excidium, ed. O'Callaghan, J. C. (Irish Archaeological Society, Dublin, 1853), pp. 170–71 (n7).

43 I am grateful for discussions with Blair Worden and Peter Lake on this point.

44 Scott, , Algernon Sidney and the Restoration Crisis, p. 6.

45 Hutton, , Charles II, p. 357.

46 Scott, Algernon Sidney and the Restoration Crisis, part one; Scott, “England's Troubles.”

47 Knights, Mark, Politics and Opinion in Crisis, 1678–81 (Cambridge, 1994).

48 For a fuller understanding of how parliamentary elections worked in Restoration England one needs to supplement Knights with Kishlansky, Mark, Parliamentary Selection: Social and Political Change in Early Modern England (Cambridge, 1986), which not only provides the broader seventeenth-century perspective, but also offers a more satisfactory account of many of the elections that Knights discusses.

49 See in particular my London Crowds, chs. 5–7; Politics under the Later Stuarts, chs. 3, 4; “Party Turns? Or, Whigs and Tories Get Off Scott Free,” and Sobering Thoughts, But the Party is Not Yet Over: A Reply,” Albion 25 (Fall, 1993): 581-90, 645–47.

50 Scott, , Sidney and the Restoration Crisis, p. 49.

51 Sir Robert Filmer: Patriarcha and Other Writings, ed. Sommerville, Johann P. (Cambridge, 1991); John Locke, Two Treatises of Government, ed. Laslett, Peter (Cambridge, 1988); Locke, John, Essay Concerning Human Understanding, ed. Goldie, Mark (London, 1993); Sidney, Algernon, Discourses Concerning Government, ed. West, Thomas G. (Liberty Fund, 1990); Sidney: Court Maxims, ed. Blom, Hans, Haitsma-Muller, Eco, and Janse, Ronald (Cambridge, 1996).

52 In addition to Ashcraft's monograph, see also his series of useful articles: Revolutionary Politics and Locke's Two Treatises of Government: Radicalism and Lockean Political Theory,” Political Theory 8 (1980): 429–88; The Two Treatises and the Exclusion Crisis: The Problem of Lockean Political Theory as Bourgeois Ideology,” Papers Read at the Clark Library Seminar, 10 December 1977 (Los Angeles, 1980); John Locke, Religious Dissent, and the Origins of Liberalism,” in Restoration, Ideology, and Revolution, ed. Schochet, Gordon (The Folger Institute Center for the History of Political Thought Proceedings, Vol. 4, 1990): 149–67; The Radical Dimensions of Locke's Political Thought: A Dialogic Essay on Some Problems of Interpretation,” History of Political Thought 13 (1992): 703–72. See also his more general study, Locke's Two Treatises of Government (London, 1987).

53 For Locke's concerns about Restoration Anglicanism, one must also read Goldie, Mark, “John Locke and Anglican Royalism,” Political Studies 31 (1983): 6185, reprinted in John Locke: Critical Assessments, 4 vols., ed. Ashcraft, Richard (London, 1991), 1: 151–80.

54 For the Restoration press in general, see Sutherland, James, The Restoration Newspaper and its Development (Cambridge, 1986). Two valuable unpublished dissertations are: Smith, Timothy, “Francis Smith and the Opposition Press in England, 1660–1688” (University of Cambridge, 1977); Hetet, John S. T., “A Literary Underground in Restoration England: Printers and Dissenters in the Context of Constraints” (University of Cambridge, 1987). Sommerville, C. John, The News Revolution in England: Cultural Dynamics of Daily Information (Oxford, 1996), which covers the century as a whole, is somewhat disappointing on the Restoration.

55 It should be emphasized that a belief in royal absolutism and a commitment to the rule of law were not necessarily antithetical. Absolute monarchs were supposed to rule in accordance with the law.

56 In a literal sense, this charge was accurate. For the argument that Calvinist resistance theory owed little to Calvinism and much to Catholic intellectual traditions—Conciliarist and Jesuit—see Skinner, Quentin, The Foundations of Modern Political Thought, 2 vols. (Cambridge, 1978).

57 Here I am summarizing largely my own views, but only to the extent that I believe they reflect the emerging historiographical consensus. See my London Crowds, chs. 5–7: Politics under the Later Stuarts, ch. 4; Tories and the Rule of Law in the Reign of Charles II,” Seventeenth Century 8 (1993): 927; The Parties and the People: The Press, the Crowd and Politics ‘Out-of-Doors’ in Restoration England,” in Reigns of Charles II and James VII and II, pp. 125–51. For the petitioning movements of the Exclusion era, one should also consult Knights, Politics and Opinion, chs. 8–10, and his various articles: Petitioning and Political Theorists: John Locke, Algernon Sidney and London's ‘Monster’ Petition of 1680,” Past and Present 138 (1993): 94111; London's ‘Monster’ Petition of 1680,” Historical Journal 36 (1993): 3967; London Petitions and Parliamentary Politics in 1679,” Parliamentary History 12 (1993): 2946. A useful assessment of the significance of public opinion is provided by Miller, John, “Public Opinion in Charles II's England,” History 80 (1995): 359–81. For an insightful local case study, see Beaver, Dan, “Conscience and Context: The Popish Plot and the Politics of Ritual, 1678–1682,” Historical Journal 34 (1991): 297327. Some of the best work on the ideological conflicts of the late 1670s and 1680s has been done by Mark Goldie in a series of highly penetrating articles. In addition to the pieces singled out for specific citation above and below, see in particular: “Danby, the Bishops and the Whigs,” in Politics of Religion, pp. 75–105; “Sir Peter Pett, Sceptical Toryism and the Science of Toleration in the 1680s,” in Persecution and Toleration, pp. 247–73; The Huguenot Experience and the Problem of Toleration in Restoration England,” in The Huguenots and Ireland, eds. Caldicott, C. E. J., Gough, H., and Pittion, J. P. (Dublin, 1987), pp. 175203; “Restoration Political Thought,” in Reigns of Charles II and James II and VII, pp. 12–35. We eagerly await the publication of Goldie's long-promised monograph, Tory Ideology: Politics, Religion and Ideas in Restoration England (Cambridge, forthcoming). For an excellent discussion of the place of Sir Robert Filmer in Restoration royalist thought, see Houston, Sidney, ch. 2. For an important earlier study that shows how both sides appealed to the law in constitutional debate and that argues that the real struggle was not so much over whether the rule of law would triumph, but who would control the law (king or Parliament), see Nenner, Howard, By Colour of Law: Legal Culture and Constitutional Politics in England, 1660–1689 (Chicago, 1977).

58 For the corporations, see the following unpublished dissertations: Pickavance, R. G., “The English Boroughs and the King's Government: A Study of the Tory Reaction of 1681–85” (University of Oxford, 1976); Sinner, R. J., “Charles II and Local Government: The Quo Warranto Proceedings, 1681–1685” (Rutgers University, 1976); Halliday, Paul D., “Partisan Conflict and the Law in the English Borough Corporation 1660–1727” (University of Chicago, 1993), which is due to be published in revised form by Cambridge University Press. A dissertation on the plight of nonconformists under James II is Marshall, P. N., “Protestant Dissent in England in the Reign of James II” (University of Hull, 1976). For the decade as a whole, see Margaret Child, Smillie, “Prelude to Revolution: The Structure of Politics in County Durhan, 1678–88” (University of Maryland, 1972). For the most useful recent work in print on these themes, see Miller, John, “The Crown and the Borough Charters in the Reign of Charles II,” English Historical Review 100 (1985): 5384; Coleby, Hamp-shire, part III; Harris, Tim, “Was the Tory Reaction Popular? Attitudes of Londoners towards the Persecution of Dissent, 1681—6,” London Journal 13 (1988): 106–20; Lee, Colin, “‘Fanatic Magistrates’: Religious and Political Conflict in Three Kent Boroughs,” Historical Journal 35 (1992): 4361; Goldie, Mark, “James II and the Dissenters' Revenge: The Commission of Enquiry of 1688,” Historical Research 66 (1992): 5388; Goldie, Mark, “John Locke's Circle and James II,” Historical Journal 35 (1992): 557–86; Goldie, Mark and Spurr, John, “Politics and the Restoration Parish: Edward Fowler and the Struggle for St. Giles Cripplegate,” English Historical Review 109 (1994): 572–96; Mark Knights, “Revising the ‘Church-State’ of Restoration England: The Impact and Ideology of James II's Declarations of Indulgence,” in Nation Transformed?

59 Brown, Mark N., The Works of George Savile, Marquis of Halifax, 3 vols. (Oxford, 1989), 1: 178249.

60 There was a time when only the Huntington Library Quarterly (HLQ) seemed interested in Trimmers. See Benson, D. R., “Halifax and the Trimmers,” HLQ 27 (19631964): 115–64; Faulkner, T. C., “Halifax's The Character of a Trimmer and L'Estrange's attack on Trimmers in The ObservatorHLQ 37 (19731974): 7181; Brown, Mark N., “Trimmers and Moderates in the Reign of Charles II,” HLQ 37 (19731974): 311–36; Roper, A., “Dryden, Sunderland, and the Metamorphoses of a Trimmer,” HLQ 54 (1991): 4372. For the renewed scholarly interest, see Smith, David L., Constitutional Royalism and the Search for Settlement, c. 1640–1649 (Cambridge, 1994), pp. 319–24; Goldie and Spurr, “Politics and the Restoration Parish”; Pincus, Steven C. A., “Shadwell's Dramatic Trimming,” in Religion, Literature and Politics in Post-Reformation England, pp 253—74.

61 Roger L'Estrange, The Observator, no. 240, 13 November 1682.

62 Ibid., no. 242, 16 November 1682.

63 Ibid., no. 240, 13 November 1682.

64 Ibid., no. 264, 27 December 1682.

65 Holdsworth, W. S., A History of English Law, 17 vols. (London, 19221972), 6: 509.

66 North, Roger, Lives of the Norths, 7 vols. (London, 1826), 2: 101–02.

67 Character of a Church-Trimmer (London, 1683).

68 An Account of the Design of the Late Narrative, Entituled, The Dissenters New Plot [London, 1690].

69 Cited in Harth, Phillip, Pen for a Party: Dryden's Tory Propaganda in Its Contexts (Princeton, 1993), p. 210.

70 Adee, Nicholas, A Plot for the Crown, In a Visitation-Sermon, At Cricklade, May the Fifteenth, 1682. Being a Parallel between the Heir and Husband-men in the Parable, and the Rightful Prince, and his Excluders in Parliament (London, 1685), p. 16.

71 Harris, “Was the Tory Reaction Popular?”; Goldie and Spurr, “Politics and the Restoration Parish”; Spurr, “‘Latitudinarianism’ and the Restoration Church.”

72 In London Crowds I made extensive use of the political poems of the period. Researchers should not rely on the published edition of Poems on Affairs of State by Yale University Press, because the editors made the unfortunate decision to include only those poems with some claim to literary merit; many of the most interesting poems, from a political point of view, were thereby excluded, for which we have to go back to the original manuscript collections (many of them are in the British Library, the Bodleian, and the Huntington).

73 Owen, Susan, Restoration Theatre and Crisis (Oxford, 1996). For the politics of the theater during the Exclusion Crisis, see also Owen, Susan J., “Interpreting the Politics of Restoration Drama,” The Seventeenth Century 8 (1993): 6797; Maguire, Nancy Klein, “Nahum Tate's King Lear. ‘The King's Blest Restoration,’” in The Appropriation of Shakespeare: Post-Renaissance Reconstructions of the Work and the Myth, ed. Marsden, Jean I. (London, 1991), pp. 2942. Other important literary works for the Restoration period include: Braverman, Richard, Plots and Counterplots: Sexual Politics and the Body Politic in English Literature, 1660–1730 (Cambridge, 1993); Maguire, Nancy Klein, Regicide and Restoration: English Tragicomedy, 1660–1671 (Cambridge, 1992), and the relevant essays in Culture and Society in the Stuart Restoration and Religion, Literature and Politics.

74 Zwicker, Steven N., Lines of Authority: Politics and English Literary Culture, 1649–1689 (Ithaca, 1993). See also his Politics and Language in Dryden's Poetry: The Arts of Disguise (Princeton, 1984) and (with Derek Hirst), Rhetoric and Disguise: Political Language and Political Argument in Absolam and Achitophel,” Journal of British Studies 21 (1981): 3955. For Andrew Marvell, see Stacker, Margarita, Apocalyptic Marvell: The Second Coming in Seventeenth-Century Poetry (Athens, Ohio, 1986).

75 The most important are (listed chronologically): Speck, W. A., Reluctant Revolutionaries: Englishmen and the Revolution of 1688 (Oxford, 1988); Cruickshanks, Eveline, ed., By Force or By Default? The Revolution of 1688–1689 (Edinburgh, 1989); Beddard, Robert A., ed., The Revolutions of 1688: The Andrew Browning Lectures of 1688 (Oxford, 1991); Ole Peter Grell, Jonathan I. Israel, and Tyacke, Nicholas, eds., From Persecution to Toleration: The Glorious Revolution and Religion in England (Oxford, 1991); Israel, Jonathan I., ed., The Anglo-Dutch Moment: Essays on the Glorious Revolution and its World Impact (Cambridge, 1991); Jones, J. R., ed., Liberty Secured? Britain Before and After 1688 (Stanford, 1992); Schwoerer, Lois G., ed., The Revolution of 1688-1689: Changing Perspectives (Cambridge, 1992); Hoak, Dale and Feingold, Mordechai, eds., The World of William and Mary: Anglo-Dutch Perspectives on the Revolution of 1688–89 (Stanford, 1996). We also have a new full-length study of the succession issue in seventeenth-century England that further enhances our understanding of the Glorious Revolution, in Howard Nenner's The Right to be King: The Succession to the Crown of England, 1603–1714 (Chapel Hill, 1995).

76 Black, Jeremy, A System of Ambition? British Foreign Policy 1660–1793 (London, 1991), p. 135.

77 Israel, , “General Introduction” to his Anglo-Dutch Moment, p. 5.

78 See Israel, Jonathan I., “The Dutch Role in the Glorious Revolution,” in Anglo-Dutch-Moment, pp. 105–62; Groenveld, Simon, “‘Jéquippe une flotte très considérable’: The Dutch Side of the Glorious Revolution,” in Revolutions of 1688, pp. 213–45; John Stoye, “Europe and the Revolutions of 1688,” in ibid., pp. 191–212; Haley, K. H. D., “The Dutch, the Invasion of England, and the Alliance of 1689,” in Revolution of 1688–1689, pp. 2134; John C. Rule, “France Caught between Two Balances: The Dilemma of 1688,” in ibid., pp. 35–51; Pincus, “The English Debate over Universal Monarchy.”

79 Goldie, Mark, “The Political Thought of the Anglican Revolution,” in Revolutions of 1688, pp. 102–36.

80 For the armed forces roles in the revolution, see Childs, John, The Army, James II and the Glorious Revolution (London, 1980) and Davies, J. D., Gentlemen and Tarpaulins: The Officers and Men of the Restoration Navy (Oxford, 1991), ch. 11. The lieutenancy's response is discussed in Stater, Noble Government, ch. 6. For popular responses, see Harris, “London Crowds and the Revolution of 1688,” in By Force or By Default?, pp. 44–64; Gary S. De Krey, “Revolution Redivivus: 1688–1689 and the Radical Tradition in Seventeenth-Century London Politics,” in Revolution of 1688-1689, pp. 198–217.

81 Beddard, , “The Unexpected Whig Revolution of 1688,” in his Revolutions of 1688, pp. 11101. See also his “The Dynastic Revolution of 1688,” which constitutes the introduction to his Kingdom Without a King: The Journal of the Provisional Government in the Revolution of 1688 (Oxford, 1988), pp. 965.

82 Beddard, , “Unexpected Whig Revolution,” p. 97.

83 Beddard, , “Dynastic Revolution,” p. 11.

84 For this argument, see Pincus, “The English Debate over Universal Monarchy.” Cf. [King, William], The State of the Protestants of Ireland Under the Late King James's Government (London, 1691), pp. 67.

85 Schwoerer, Declaration of Rights. Schwoerer has offered a restatement of her position without seeing the need to make any qualifications in the light of recent research in her “The Bill of Rights, 1689, Revisited,” in The World of William and Mary, pp. 42–58.

86 Speck, , Reluctant Revolutionaries, p. 141.

87 Goldie, Mark, “The Roots of True Whiggism, 1688–94,” History of Political Thought 1 (1980): 195236.

88 Miller, John, “Crown, Parliament, and People,” in Liberty Secured?, pp. 8183.

89 See Carter, Jennifer, “The Revolution and the Constitution,” in Britain After the Glorious Revolution, ed. Holmes, G. S. (London, 1969), pp. 3958.

90 Various of the essays cited in note 72 above deal with these questions. In addition, see Brewer, John, The Sinews of Power: War, Money and the English State, 1688–1783 (London, 1989); Pincus, Steven C. A., The Glorious Revolution and the Origins of Liberalism (Cambridge, forthcoming).

91 I am currently writing such a book under the title British Revolutions: The Emergence of the Modern State, 1660–1707 (Penguin, forthcoming).

92 See Harris, Tim, “The British Dimension and the Shaping of Political Identities during the Reign of Charles II,” in Chosen Peoples? Protestantism and National Identity, c. 1650–c. 1850, eds. Claydon, Tony and McBride, Ian (Cambridge, forthcoming).

93 Cowan, Ian B., “The Reluctant Revolutionaries: Scotland in 1688,” in By Force or By Default?, p. 65; Donaldson, Gordon, Scotland: James V to James VII (Edinburgh, 1965), p. 383; Mitchison, Rosalind, Lordship to Patronage: Scotland 1603–1745 (London, 1983), p. 116.

94 Harris, Tim, “Reluctant Revolutionaries? The Scots and the Revolution of 1688–9,” in Politics and the Political Imagination in Later Stuart Britain, ed. Nenner, Howard (Rochester, N.Y., forth-coming).

95 For a work that points to the value of pursuing a three-kingdoms approach into the late seventeenth century, see Ohlmeyer, Jane H., Civil War and the Restoration in the Three Stuart Kingdoms: The Career of Randal MacDonell, Marquis of Antrim, 1609–1683 (Cambridge, 1993). A superb general discussion is Barnard, Toby, “Scotland and Ireland in the later Stewart Monarchy,” in Conquest and Union: Fashioning a British State, 1485–1725, eds. Ellis, Steven G. and Barber, Sarah (London, 1995), pp. 250–75. Brown's, Keith M., Kingdom or Province? Scotland and the Regal Union, 1603–1715 (London, 1992) is an excellent survey that contains a useful bibliography. Goldie's, MarkDivergence and Union: Scotland and England, 1660–1707,” in The British Problem, c. 1534–1707, eds. Bradshaw, Brendan and Morrill, John (Basingstoke, 1996), pp. 220–45, has much to say about the logic of writing British history for the late seventeenth century, although it focuses on the period after 1689. For essays on Scotland and Ireland in the recent collections on the Glorious Revolution, see Cowan, , “Reluctant Revolutionaries,” in By Force or By Default?, pp. 6581; Bruce P. Lenman, “The Scottish Nobility and the Revolution of 1688-1690,” and Kelly, Patrick, “Ireland and the Glorious Revolution: From Kingdom to Colony,” in Revolutions of 1688, pp. 137–62, 163–90; Ian B. Cowan, “Church and State Reformed? The Revolution of 1688-9 in Scotland,” and Hayton, D. W., “The Williamite Revolution in Ireland, 1688–91” in Anglo-Dutch Moment, pp. 163–83, 185213; Karl S. Bottigheimer “The Glorious Revolution in Ireland,” and Lenman, Bruce P., “The Poverty of Political Theory in the Scottish Revolution of 1688–1690,” in Revolution of 1688–1689, pp. 234–43, 244–59. Two recent books dealing with nonconformists in Ireland are Kilroy, Phil, Protestant Dissent and Controversy in Ireland, 1660–1714 (Cork, 1996); Greaves, Richard L., God's Other Children: Protestant Nonconformists and the Emergence of Denominational Churches in Ireland, 1660–1700 (Stanford, 1997).

* I would like to thank Mark Goldie, Dick Greaves, and Mike Moore for their comments and criticisms on earlier drafts of this article. I also am indebted to the John Simon Guggenheim Memorial Foundation for the award of a fellowship for the academic year 1996–97, during which time this article was conceived and written.


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