Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home

Product platform design and customization: Status and promise

  • TIMOTHY W. SIMPSON (a1)

Abstract

In an effort to improve customization for today's highly competitive global marketplace, many companies are utilizing product families and platform-based product development to increase variety, shorten lead times, and reduce costs. The key to a successful product family is the product platform from which it is derived either by adding, removing, or substituting one or more modules to the platform or by scaling the platform in one or more dimensions to target specific market niches. This nascent field of engineering design has matured rapidly in the past decade, and this paper provides a comprehensive review of the flurry of research activity that has occurred during that time to facilitate product family design and platform-based product development for mass customization. Techniques for identifying platform leveraging strategies within a product family are reviewed along with metrics for assessing the effectiveness of product platforms and product families. Special emphasis is placed on optimization approaches and artificial intelligence techniques to assist in the process of product family design and platform-based product development. Web-based systems for product platform customization are also discussed. Examples from both industry and academia are presented throughout the paper to highlight the benefits of product families and product platforms. The paper concludes with a discussion of potential areas of research to help bridge the gap between planning and managing families of products and designing and manufacturing them.

  • View HTML
    • Send article to Kindle

      To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

      Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

      Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

      Product platform design and customization: Status and promise
      Available formats
      ×

      Send article to Dropbox

      To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

      Product platform design and customization: Status and promise
      Available formats
      ×

      Send article to Google Drive

      To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

      Product platform design and customization: Status and promise
      Available formats
      ×

Copyright

Corresponding author

Reprint requests to: Timothy W. Simpson, 329 Leonhard Building, Penn State University, University Park, PA 16802. E-mail: tws8@psu.edu

References

Hide All

REFERENCES

Aboulafia, R. (2000). Airbus pulls closer to Boeing. Aerospace America 38(4), 1618.
Agarwal, M. & Cagan, J. (1997). Shape grammars and their languages—A methodology for product design and product representation. Proc. ASME Design Engineering Technology Conf., Paper No. DETC97/DTM-3867.
Agarwal, M. & Cagan, J. (2000). Shape grammar-base expert system for engineering design. In Artificial Intelligence in Design (Gero, J.S., Ed.), pp. 193202. Worcester, MA: Kluwer.
Alford, D., Sackett, P., & Nelder, G. (2000). Mass customisation—An automotive perspective. International Journal of Production Economics 65(1), 99110.
Allada, V. & Jiang, L. (2002). New modules launch planning for evolving modular product families. Proc. ASME Design Engineering Technology Conf., Paper No. DETC2002/DFM-34190.
Allada, V. & Rai, R. (2002). Module-based multiple product design. IIE Annual Conf. Orlando, FL: IIE.
Allen, K.R. & Carlson–Skalak, S. (1998). Defining product architecture during conceptual design. Proc. ASME Design Engineering Technology Conf., Paper No. DETC98/DTM-5650.
Anderson, D.M. & Pine, B.J., II. (1997). Agile Product Development for Mass Customization. Chicago: Irwin Publishers.
Azarm, S., Brelsford, A., Kannan, P.K., & Spencer, W. (2003). GOALI: Robust product design selection under uncertainty and for competitive advantage. Proc. 2003 NSF Design, Service and Manufacturing Grantees and Research Conf. (Reddy, R.G., Ed.), pp. 1418. Birmingham, AL: University of Alabama.
Baker, K.R., Magazine, M.J., & Nuttle, H.L.W. (1986). The effect of commonality on safety stock in a simple inventory model. Management Science 32(8), 982988.
Baldwin, C.Y. & Clark, K.B. (1997). Managing in an age of modularity. Harvard Business Review 75(5), 8493.
Baldwin, C.Y. & Clark, K.B. (2000). Design Rules: Volume 1. The Power of Modularity. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
Berti, S., Germani, M., Mandorli, F., & Otto, H.E. (2001). Design of product families—An example within a small and medium sized enterprise. 13th Int. Conf. Engineering Design (Culley, S., Duffy, A., McMahon, C. & Wallace, K., Eds.), Glasgow, UK, pp. 507514.
Blackenfelt, M. (2000a). Modularisation by relational matrices—A method for the consideration of strategic and functional aspects. 5th WDK Workshop on Product Structuring. Tampere, Finland: Tampere University of Technology.
Blackenfelt, M. (2000b). Profit maximisation while considering uncertainty by balancing commonality and variety using robust design—The redesign of a family of lift tables. Proc. ASME Design Engineering Technology Conf., Paper No. DETC2000/DFM-14013.
Blackenfelt, M. & Sellgren, U. (2000). Design of robust interfaces in modular products. Proc. ASME Design Engineering Technology Conf., Paper No. DETC00/DAC-14486.
Boothroyd, G., Dewhurst, P., & Knight, W. (2002). Product Design for Manufacture and Assembly. New York: Marcel Dekker.
Bralla, J.G. (1999). Design for Manufacturability Handbook. New York: McGraw–Hill.
Bremmer, R. (1999). Cutting-edge platforms. Financial Times Automotive World, Sept., 3038.
Caffrey, R.T., Simpson, T.W., Henderson, R., & Crawley, E. (2002a). The economic issues with implementing open avionics platforms for spacecraft. 20th AIAA Int. Communications Satellite Systems Conf. and Exhibit, Montreal, AIAA-2002-1870.
Caffrey, R.T., Simpson, T.W., Henderson, R., & Crawley, E. (2002b). The strategic issues with implementing open avionics platforms for spacecraft. IEEE Aerospace Conf., IEEE-434-02. Big Sky, MT: IEEE.
Caffrey, R.T., Simpson, T.W., Henderson, R., & Crawley, E. (2002c). The technical issues with implementing open avionics platforms for spacecraft. 40th AIAA Aerospace Sciences Meeting and Exhibit, Reno, NV, AIAA-2002-0319.
Cetin, O.L. & Saitou, K. (2003). Decomposition-based assembly synthesis for structural modularity. ASME Journal of Mechanical Design.
Chandler, C. & Williams, M. (1993). Strategic shift: A slump in car sales forces Nissan to start cutting swollen costs. Wall Street Journal, A1.
Chang, T.-S. & Ward, A.C. (1995). Design-in-modularity with conceptual robustness. Advances in Design Automation (Azarm, S., Dutta, D., Eschenauer, H., Gilmore, B., McCarthy, M. & Yoshimura, M., Eds.), Vol. 82-1, pp. 493500. New York: ASME.
Chen, K.D. & Hausman, W.H. (2000). Technical note: Mathematical properties of the optimal product line selection problem using choice-based conjoint analysis. Management Science 46(2), 327332.
Chen, W., Lewis, K.E., & Schmidt, L. (2000). Decision-based design: An emerging design perspective. Journal of Engineering Valuation & Cost Analysis 3(2/3), 5766.
Chen, Y.H., Wang, Y.Z., & Wong, M.H. (2001). A web-based fuzzy mass customization system. Journal of Manufacturing Systems 20(4), 280287.
Cheng, K., Hegge, H.M.H., Wortmann, J.C., & Goosenaerts, J.B.M. (2002). Explore the knowledge distribution for making a family of products in an extended enterprise. In Advances in Concurrent Engineering (Jardim–Gonçalves, R., Roy, R. & Steiger–Garção, A., Eds.), pp. 633643. Lisse: A.A. Balkema Publishers.
Child, P., Diederichs, R., Sanders, F.-H., & Wisniowski, S. (1991). The management of complexity. Sloan Management Review 33(1), 7380.
Chinnaiah, P.S.S., Kamarthi, S.V., & Cullinane, T.P. (1998). Characterization and analysis of mass-customized production systems. International Journal of Agile Manufacturing 2(1), 93118.
Choi, S.-Y. & Whinston, A.B. (1999). The future of the digital economy. In Handbook on Electronic Commerce (Shaw, M., Blanning, R., Strader, T. & Whinston, A., Eds.), pp. 2552. New York: Springer.
Christensen, C. & Verlinden, M. (2002). Disruption, disintegration, and the dissipation of differentiability. Industrial and Corporate Change 11(5), 955993.
Claesson, A., Johannesson, H., & Gedell, S. (2001). Platform product development: Product model—A system structure composed of configurable components. Proc. ASME Design Engineering Technology Conf., Paper No. DETC2001/DTM-21714.
Cohen, L. (1995). Quality Function Deployment: How to Make QFD Work for You. Reading, MA: Addison–Wesley.
Collier, D.A. (1981). The measurement and operating benefits of component part commonality. Decision Sciences 12(1), 8596.
Coulter, S.L., McIntosh, M.W., Bras, B., & Rosen, D.W. (1998). Identification of limiting factors for improving design modularity. Proc. ASME Design Engineering Technical Conferences, Paper No. DETC98/DFM-5659.
Cusumano, M.A. & Nobeoka, K. (1998). Thinking Beyond Lean. New York: Free Press.
Da Silveira, G., Borenstein, D., & Fogliatto, F.S. (2001). Mass customization: Literature review and research directions. International Journal of Production Economics 72(1), 113.
Dahmus, J.B., Gonzalez–Zugasti, J.P., & Otto, K.N. (2001). Modular product architecture. Design Studies 22(5), 409424.
Dahmus, J.B. & Otto, K.N. (2001). Incorporating lifecycle costs into product architecture decisions. Proc. ASME Design Engineering Technology Conf., Paper No. DETC2001/DAC-21110.
De Lit, P., L'Eglise, T., & Delchambre, A. (2001). Functional entities: A concept to support product family and assembly system design. Proc. IEEE Int. Symp. Assembly and Task Planning, Fukuoka, Japan, pp. 160165.
Desai, P., Kekre, S., Radhakrishnan, S., & Srinivasan, K. (2001). Product differentiation and commonality in design: Balancing revenue and cost drivers. Management Science 47(1), 3751.
de Weck, O., Suh, E.S., & Chang, D. (2003). Product family and platform portfolio optimization. Proc. ASME Design Engineering Technology Conf., Paper No. DETC2003/DAC-48721.
Dobson, G. & Kalish, S. (1993). Heuristics for pricing and positioning a product-line using conjoint analysis and cost data. Management Science 39(2), 160175.
D'Souza, B. & Simpson, T.W. (2003). A genetic algorithm based method for product family design optimization. Engineering Optimization 35(1), 118.
Du, X., Jiao, J., & Tseng, M.M. (2000). Architecture of product family for mass customization. Proc. 2000 IEEE International Conf. Management of Innovation and Technology, Singapore, Vol. 1, pp. 437443.
Du, X., Jiao, J., & Tseng, M.M. (2001a). Architecture of product family: Fundamentals and methodology. Concurrent Engineering: Research & Applications 9(4), 309325.
Du, X., Jiao, J., & Tseng, M.M. (2001b). Graph grammar based product variety modeling. Concurrent Engineering: Research & Applications 10(2), 113128.
Du, X., Jiao, J., & Tseng, M.M. (2002). Product family modeling and design support: An approach based on graph rewriting systems. Artificial Intelligence for Engineering Design, Analysis and Manufacturing 16(2), 103120.
Duray, R. & Milligan, G.W. (1999). Improving customer satisfaction through mass customization. Quality Progress 32(8), 6066.
Duray, R., Ward, P.T., Milligan, G.W., & Berry, W.L. (2000). Approaches to mass customization: Configurations and empirical validation. Journal of Operations Management 18(6), 605625.
Erens, F. (1997). Synthesis of variety: Developing product families. Ph.D. Dissertation. University of Technology, Eindhoven, The Netherlands.
Erens, F.J. & Hegge, H.M.H. (1994). Manufacturing and sales co-ordination for product variety. International Journal of Production Economics 37(1), 8399.
Erens, F.J., Hegge, H.M.H., & Van Veen, E.A. (1992). Generative bills-of-materials: An overview. Proc. IFIP WG 5.7 Working Conf. on Integration in Production Management Systems (Pels, H.J. & Wortmann, J.C., Eds.), p. 93. Amsterdam: Elsevier Science Publishers.
Ericsson, A. & Erixon, G. (1999). Controlling Design Variants: Modular Product Platforms. New York: ASME.
Erixon, G. (1996). Design for modularity. In Design for X—Concurrent Engineering Imperatives (Huang, G. Q., Ed.), pp. 356379. New York: Chapman & Hall.
Farrell, R. & Simpson, T.W. (2003). Product platform design to improve commonality in custom products. Journal of Intelligent Manufacturing.
Feitzinger, E. & Lee, H.L. (1997). Mass customization at Hewlett–Packard: The power of postponement. Harvard Business Review 75(1), 116121.
Felfernig, A., Friedrich, G., & Jannach, D. (2001). Conceptual modeling for configuration of mass-customizable products. Artificial Intelligence in Engineering 15(2), 165176.
Felfernig, A., Friedrich, G., Jannach, D., & Zanker, M. (2001). Intelligent support for interactive configuration of mass-customized products. Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence 2070, 746756.
Fellini, R., Papalambros, P., & Weber, T. (2000). Application of product platform design process to automotive powertrains. 8th AIAA/NASA/USAF/ISSMO Symposium on Multidisciplinary Analysis and Optimization, Long Beach, CA, AIAA-2000-4849.
Fellini, R., Kokkolaras, M., Michelena, N., Papalambros, P., Saitou, K., Perez–Duarte, A., & Fenyes, P.A. (2002). A sensitivity-based commonality strategy for family products of mild variation, with application to automotive body structures. 9th AIAA/ISSMO Symposium on Multidisciplinary Analysis and Optimization, Atlanta, GA, AIAA-2002-5610.
Fellini, R., Kokkolaras, M., Papalambros, P., & Perez–Duarte, A. (2002). Platform selection under performance loss constraints in optimal design of product families. Proc. ASME Design Engineering Technology Conf., Paper No. DETC2002/DAC-34099.
Fisher, M.L., Ramdas, K., & Ulrich, K.T. (1999). Component sharing in the management of product variety: A study of automotive braking systems. Management Science 45(3), 297315.
Flores, R., Jensen, C.G., & Shelley, J. (2002). A web enabled process for accessing customized parametric designs. Proc. ASME Design Engineering Technology Conf., Paper No. DETC2002/DAC-34078.
Fouda, P., Danloy, J., L'Eglise, T., De Lit, P., Rekiek, B., & Delchambre, A. (2001). A heuristic to generate a precedence graph between components for a product family. IEEE International Symposium on Assembly and Task Planning, pp. 4348. Fukuoka, Japan: IEEE.
Fujita, K. (2002). Product variety optimization under modular architecture. Computer-Aided Design 34(12), 953965.
Fujita, K. & Yoshida, H. (2001). Product variety optimization: Simultaneous optimization of module combination and module attributes. Proc. ASME Design Engineering Technology Conf., Paper No. DETC2001/DAC-21058.
Fujita, K., Akagi, S., Yoneda, T., & Ishikawa, M. (1998). Simultaneous optimization of product family sharing system structure and configuration. Proc. ASME Design Engineering Technology Conf., Paper No. DETC98/DFM-5722.
Fujita, K., Sakaguchi, H., & Akagi, S. (1999). Product variety deployment and its optimization under modular architecture and module commonalization. Proc. ASME Design Engineering Technology Conf., Paper No. DETC99/DFM-8923.
Galsworth, G.D. (1994). Smart, Simple Design: Using Variety Effectiveness to Reduce Total Cost and Maximize Customer Selection. Essex Junction, VT: Omneo.
Georgiopoulos, P., Fellini, R., Sasena, M., & Papalambros, P. (2002). Optimal design decisions in product portfolio valuation. Proc. ASME Design Engineering Technology Conf., Paper No. DETC2002/DAC-34097.
Gilmore, J.H. & Pine, J.B., II, Eds. (1999). Markets of One. Boston: Harvard Business School Press.
Gonzalez–Zugasti, J.P. & Otto, K.N. (2000). Modular platform-based product family design. Proc. ASME Design Engineering Technology Conf., Paper No. DETC-2000/DAC-14238.
Gonzalez–Zugasti, J.P., Otto, K.N., & Baker, J.D. (2000). A method for architecting product platforms. Research in Engineering Design 12(2), 6172.
Gonzalez–Zugasti, J.P., Otto, K.N., & Baker, J.D. (2001). Assessing value for platformed product family design. Research in Engineering Design 13(1), 3041.
Green, P.E. & Krieger, A.M. (1985). Models and heuristics for product line selection. Marketing Science 4(1), 119.
Green, P.E. & Srinivasan, V. (1990). Conjoint analysis in marketing: New developments with implications for research and practice. Journal of Marketing 54(4), 319.
Gu, X., Renaud, J.E., & Ashe, L.M. (2000). Decision-based collaborative optimization under uncertainty. Proc. ASME Design Engineering Technology Conf., Paper No. DETC2000/DAC-14297.
Guo, F. & Gershenson, J.K. (2003). Comparison of modular measurement methods based on consistency analysis and sensitivity analysis. Proc. ASME Design Engineering Technology Conf., Paper No. DETC2003/DTM-48634.
Gupta, S. & Krishnan, V. (1998a). Integrated component and supplier selection for a product family. Production and Operations Management 8(2), 163182.
Gupta, S. & Krishnan, V. (1998b). Product family-based assembly sequence design methodology. IIE Transactions 30(10), 933945.
Hazelrigg, G.A. (1996). Systems Engineering: An Approach to Information-based Design. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.
Hazelrigg, G.A. (1998). A framework for decision-based engineering design. ASME Journal of Mechanical Design 120(4), 653658.
He, D., Kusiak, A., & Tseng, T.-L. (1998). Delayed product differentiation: A design and manufacturing perspective. Computer-Aided Design 30(2), 105113.
Hegge, H.M.H. & Wortmann, J.C. (1991). Generic bill-of-material: A new product model. International Journal of Production Economics 23, 117128.
Hernandez, G., Simpson, T.W., Allen, J.K., Bascaran, E., Avila, L.F., & Salinas, F. (2001). Robust design of families of products with production modeling and evaluation. ASME Journal of Mechanical Design 123(2), 183190.
Hernandez, G., Allen, J.K., & Mistree, F. (2002). Design of hierarchic platforms for customizable products. Proc. ASME Design Engineering Technology Conf., Paper No. DETC2002/DAC-34095.
Hernandez, G., Allen, J.K., & Mistree, F. (2003). Platform design for customizable products as a problem of access in a geometric space. Engineering Optimization 35(3), 229254.
Ho, T.-H. & Tang, C.S., Eds. (1998). Product Variety Management: Research Advances. Boston: Kluwer Academic.
Holtta, K.M.M. & Salonen, M.P. (2003). Comparing three different modularity methods. Proc. ASME Design Engineering Technology Conf., Paper No. DETC2003/DTM-48649.
Huang, C.-C. & Kusiak, A. (1998). Modularity in design of products and systems. IEEE Transactions on Systems, Man and Cybernetics-Part A: Systems and Humans 28(1), 6677.
Huang, C.-C. & Kusiak, A. (1999). Synthesis of modular mechatronic products: A testability perspective. IEEE/ASME Transactions on Mechatronics 4(2), 119132.
Huang, G.Q., Huang, J., & Mak, K.L. (2000). Early supplier involvement in new product development on the Internet: Implementation perspectives. Concurrent Engineering: Research & Applications 8(1), 4049.
Huang, G.Q., Lee, S.W., & Mak, K.L. (2001). Synchronised web applications for product development in the 21st century. International Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology 18(8), 605613.
Huang, G.Q. & Mak, K.L. (1999). Design for manufacturing and assembly on the Internet. Computers in Industry 38(1), 1730.
Huang, G.Q. & Mak, K.L. (2000). Webid: A web-based framework to support early supplier involvement in new product development. Robotics and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing 16(2), 169179.
Huang, G.Q., Shen, B., & Mak, K.L. (2001). Web applications in the product introduction process. International Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology 17(10), 775782.
Huang, G.Q., Shi, J., & Mak, K.L. (2000). Synchronized system for “Design for X” guidelines over the WWW. Journal of Materials Processing Technology 107(1–3), 7178.
Huffman, C. & Kahn, B.E. (1998). Variety for sale: Mass customization or mass confusion. Journal of Retailing 74(4), 491513.
Ishii, K., Juengel, C., & Eubanks, C.F. (1995). Design for product variety: Key to product line structuring. Proc. ASME Design Engineering Technology Conf., Boston, MA, Vol. 83-2, pp. 499506.
Ishii, K., Lee, B.H., & Eubanks, C.F. (1995). Design for product retirement and modularity based on technology life-cycle. ASME Manufacturing Science and Engineering (Kannatey-Asibu, E., Ed.), San Francisco, CA, MED-Vol. 2-2/MH-Vol. 3-2, pp. 921933.
Jiang, L. & Allada, V. (2001). Design for robustness of modular product families for current and future markets. Proc. ASME Design Engineering Technology Conf., Paper No. DETC2001/DFM-21177.
Jiao, J. & Tseng, M.M. (1999). An information modeling framework for product families to support mass customization manufacturing. CIRP Annals 48(1), 9398.
Jiao, J. & Tseng, M.M. (2000). Understanding product family for mass customization by developing commonality indices. Journal of Engineering Design 11(3), 225243.
Jiao, J., Tseng, M.M., Ma, Q., & Zou, Y. (2000). Generic bill-of-materials-and-operations for high-variety production management. Concurrent Engineering: Research and Applications 8(4), 297321.
Kim, K. & Chhajed, D. (2000). Commonality in product design: Cost saving, valuation change and cannibalization. European Journal of Operational Research 125(3), 602621.
Kimberly, W. (1999). Back to the future. Automotive Engineer 24(5), 6264.
Kimura, F., Kato, S., Hata, T., & Masuda, T. (2001). Product modularization for parts reuse in inverse manufacturing. CIRP Annals 50(1), 8992.
Kobe, G. (1997). GM's seven platform global strategy. Automotive Industries 177, 50.
Kohli, R. & Sukumar, R. (1990). Heuristic for product line design using conjoint analysis. Management Science 36(12), 14641477.
Kokkolaras, M., Fellini, R., Kim, H.M., Michelena, N., & Papalambros, P. (2002). Extension of the target cascading formulation to the design of product families. Structural and Multidiscipilnary Optimization 24(4), 293301.
Kotha, S. (1995). Mass customization: Implementing the emerging paradigm for competitive advantage. Strategic Management Journal 16(3), 2142.
Kota, S., Sethuraman, K., & Miller, R. (2000). A metric for evaluating design commonality in product families. ASME Journal of Mechanical Design 122(4), 403410.
Krishnan, V. & Gupta, S. (2001). Appropriateness and impact of platform-based product development. Management Science 47(1), 5268.
Kulvatunyou, B., Simpson, T.W., Halberg, E., & Hodge, B. (2000). Parametric modeling approach for refiner plate design and production. AFS Transactions 108, 673683.
Kusiak, A. (2000). Computational Intelligence in Design and Manufacturing. New York: Wiley.
Kusiak, A. (2002). Integrated product and process design: A modularity perspective. Journal of Engineering Design 13(1), 223231.
Kusiak, A. & Huang, C.-C. (1997). Design of modular digital circuits for testability. IEEE Transactions on Components, Packaging, and Manufacturing Technology 20(1), 4857.
Lancaster, K. (1990). The economics of product variety. Marketing Science 9(3), 189206.
Lee, H.L. & Billington, C. (1994). Designing products and processes for postponement. In Management of Design: Engineering and Management Perspective (Dasu, S. & Eastman, C., Eds.), pp. 105122. Boston, MA: Kluwer Academic Publishers.
Lee, H.L. & Tang, C.S. (1997). Modeling the costs and benefits of delayed product differentiation. Management Science 43(1), 4053.
Lehnerd, A.P. (1987). Revitalizing the manufacture and design of mature global products. In Technology and Global Industry: Companies and Nations in the World Economy (Guile, B.R. & Brooks, H., Eds.), pp. 4964. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.
Li, H. & Azarm, S. (2000). Product design selection under uncertainty and with competitive advantage. ASME Journal of Mechanical Design 122(4), 411418.
Li, H. & Azarm, S. (2002). An approach for product line design selection under uncertainty and competition. ASME Journal of Mechanical Design 124(3), 385392.
Liang, W.-Y. & Huang, C.-C. (2002). Agent-based collaboration information system of product development. International Journal of Information Management 22(3), 211224.
Louviere, J.J. (1988). Conjoint analysis modeling of stated preferences: A review of theory, methods, recent developments, and external validity. Journal of Transport Economics and Policy 22, 9399.
Lutz, R.A. (1998). Guts: The Seven Laws of Business that Made Chrysler the World's Hottest Car Company. New York: Wiley.
Ma, S., Wang, W., & Liu, L. (2002). Commonality and postponement in multistage assembly systems. European Journal of Operational Research 142(3), 523538.
MacDuffie, J.P., Sethuraman, K., & Fisher, M.L. (1996). Product variety and manufacturing performance: Evidence from the international automotive assembly plant study. Management Science 42(3), 350369.
Maier, J.R.A. & Fadel, G. (2001). Strategic decisions in the early stages of product family design. Proc. ASME Design Engineering Technology Conf., Paper No. DETC2001/DFM-21200.
Martin, M. & Ishii, K. (1996). Design for variety: A methodology for understanding the costs of product proliferation. ASME Design Engineering Technology Conf., Paper No. 96-DETC/DTM-1610.
Martin, M.V. & Ishii, K. (1997). Design for variety: Development of complexity indices and design charts. Proc. ASME Design Engineering Technology Conf., Paper No. DETC97/DFM-4359.
Martin, M.V. & Ishii, K. (2002). Design for variety: Developing standardized and modularized product platform architectures. Research in Engineering Design 13(4), 213235.
Martinez, M.T., Favrel, J., & Ghodous, P. (2000). Product family manufacturing plan generation and classification. Concurrent Engineering: Research & Applications 8(1), 1223.
Martinez–Larrosa, J.A. & Siddique, Z. (2002). CAD support for product family design using parametrics, mating relationships, and modularity. In Advances in Concurrent Engineering (Jardim–Gonçalves, R., Roy, R. & Steiger–Garção, A., Eds.), pp. 535543. Lisse: A.A. Balkema Publishers.
Mather, H. (1995). Product variety—Friend or foe? 38th American Production & Inventory Control Society Int. Conf., Orlando, FL, pp. 378381.
Mattson, C.A. & Magleby, S.P. (2001). The influence of product modularity during concept selection of consumer products. Proc. ASME Design Engineering Technology Conf., Paper No. DETC2001/DTM-21712.
Maupin, A.J. & Stauffer, L.A. (2000). A design tool to help small manufacturers reengineer a product family. Proc. ASME Design Engineering Technology Conf., Paper No. DETC2000/DTM-14568.
McAdams, D.A., Stone, R.B., & Wood, K.L. (1999). Functional independence and product similarity based on customer needs. Research in Engineering Design 11(1), 119.
McAdams, D.A. & Wood, K.L. (2002). A quantitative similarity metric for design-by-analogy. ASME Journal of Mechanical Design 124(2), 173182.
McBride, R.D. & Zufryden, F.S. (1988). An integer programming approach to the optimal product line selection problem. Marketing Science 7(2), 126140.
McDermott, C.M. & Stock, G.N. (1994). The use of common parts and designs in high-tech industries: A strategic approach. Production & Inventory Management Journal 35(3), 6568.
McGrath, M.E. (1995). Product Strategy for High-Technology Companies. New York: Irwin Professional Publishing.
McKay, A., Erens, F., & Bloor, M.S. (1996). Relating product definition and product variety. Research in Engineering Design 8(2), 6380.
Messac, A., Martinez, M.P., & Simpson, T.W. (2002a). Effective product family design using physical programming. Engineering Optimization 34(3), 245261.
Messac, A., Martinez, M.P., & Simpson, T.W. (2002b). A penalty function for product family design using physical programming. ASME Journal of Mechanical Design 124(2), 164172.
Meyer, M.H. (1997). Revitalize your product lines through continuous platform renewal. Research Technology Management 40(2), 1728.
Meyer, M.H. & Dalal, D. (2002). Managing platform architectures and manufacturing processes for nonassembled products. Journal of Production Innovation Management 19(4), 277293.
Meyer, M.H. & DeTore, A. (2001). Perspective: Creating a platform-based approach for developing new services. Journal of Production Innovation Management 18(3), 188204.
Meyer, M.H. & Lehnerd, A.P. (1997). The Power of Product Platforms: Building Value and Cost Leadership. New York: Free Press.
Meyer, M.H. & Utterback, J.M. (1993). The product family and the dynamics of core capability. Sloan Management Review 34, 2947.
Meyer, M.H., Tertzakian, P., & Utterback, J.M. (1997). Metrics for managing research and development in the context of the product family. Management Science 43(1), 88111.
Moore, W.L., Louviere, J.J., & Verma, R. (1999). Using conjoint analysis to help design product platforms. Journal of Production and Innovation Management 16(1), 2739.
Muffatto, M. (1999). Introducing a platform strategy in product development. International Journal of Production Economics 60–61, 145153.
Naughton, K., Thornton, E., Kerwin, K., & Dawley, H. (1997). Can Honda build a world car? Business Week 100(7).
Nayak, R.U., Chen, W., & Simpson, T.W. (2002). A variation-based method for product family design. Engineering Optimization 34(1), 6581.
Nelson, S.A., II, Parkinson, M.B., & Papalambros, P.Y. (2001). Multicriteria optimization in product platform design. ASME Journal of Mechanical Design 123(2), 199204.
Newcomb, P.J., Bras, B., & Rosen, D.W. (1998). Implications of modularity on product design for the life cycle. ASME Journal of Mechanical Design 120(3), 483490.
O'Grady, P. (1999). The Age of Modularity. Iowa City, IA: Adams and Steele.
Ortega, R., Kalyan–Seshu, U., & Bras, B. (1999). A decision support model for the life-cycle design of a family of oil filters. Proc. ASME Design Engineering Technology Conf., Paper No. DETC99/DAC-8612.
Otto, K. (2001). A process of modularizing product families. 13th Int. Conf. Engineering Design (Culley, S., Duffy, A., McMahon, C. & Wallace, K., Eds.), Glasgow, UK, pp. 523530.
Otto, K.N. & Wood, K.L. (2001). Product Design: Techniques in Reverse Engineering and New Product Development. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.
Page, A.L. & Rosenbaum, H.F. (1987). Redesigning product lines with conjoint analysis: How Sunbeam does it. Journal of Production and Innovation Management 4(2), 120137.
Pahl, G. & Beitz, W. (1996). Engineering Design: A Systematic Approach, 2nd rev. ed. New York: Springer-Verlag.
Parametric Technologies Corporation. (2002). Using Windchill® DynamicDesignLinkTM to enable flexible and cost efficient mass customization through design to order, White Paper. Needham, MA: Parametric Technologies Corporation.
Pederson, P. (1999). Organisational impacts of platform based product development. 12th Int. Conf. on Engineering Design, Vol. 3, pp. 15071512.
Pessina, M.W. & Renner, J.R. (1998). Mass customization at Lutron Electronics—A total company process. Agility & Global Competition 2(2), 5057.
Pimmler, T.U. & Eppinger, S.D. (1994). Integration analysis of product decompositions. Proc. ASME Design Engineering Technology Conf., Vol. 68, pp. 343351.
Pine, J.B., II. (1993a). Mass Customization: The New Frontier in Business Competition. Boston: Harvard Business School Press.
Pine, J.B., II. (1993b). Standard modules allow mass customization at Bally Engineering Structures. Planning Review 21(4), 2022.
Rai, R. & Allada, V. (2002). Modular Product Family Design: Agent-Based Pareto-Optimization and Post Optimal Analysis, Working Paper. Rolla, MO: Engineering Management Department, University of Missouri–Rolla.
Riitahuta, A. & Andreasen, M.M. (1999). Modularisation support of life cycle management. Proc. First Int. Conf. on Environmentally Conscious Design and Inverse Manufacturing, pp. 316321. Tokyo: IEEE.
Robertson, D. & Ulrich, K. (1998). Planning product platforms. Sloan Management Review 39(4), 1931.
Rohm, T., III, Jones, C.L., Tucker, S.S., & Jensen, C.G. (2000). Parametric engineering design tools and applications. Proc. ASME Design Engineering Technology Conf., Paper No. DETC2000/DAC-14275.
Rosen, D.W. (1996). Design of modular product architectures in discrete design spaces subject to life cycle issues. Advances in Design Automation (Dutta, D., Ed.), Paper No. 96-DETC/DAC-1485.
Rothwell, R. & Gardiner, P. (1990). Robustness and product design families. In Design Management: A Handbook of Issues and Methods (Oakley, M., Ed.), pp. 279292. Cambridge, MA: Basil Blackwell Inc.
Rutenberg, D.P. (1969). Design commonality to reduce multi-item inventory: Optimal depth of a product line. Operations Research 19(2), 491509.
Sabbagh, K. (1996). Twenty-First Century Jet: The Making and Marketing of the Boeing 777. New York: Scribner.
Sabin, D. & Weigel, R. (1998). Product configuration frameworks—A survey. IEEE Intelligent Systems 13(4), 4249.
Sanchez, R. & Mahoney, J.T. (1996). Modularity, flexibility, and knowledge management in product organization design. Strategic Management Journal 17, 6376.
Sand, J.C., Gu, P., & Watson, G. (2002). Home: House of modular enhancement—A tool for modular product redesign. Concurrent Engineering: Research & Applications 10(2), 153164.
Sanderson, S.W. & Uzumeri, M. (1997). Managing Product Families. Chicago: Irwin.
Schellhammer, W. & Karandikar, H. (2001). Metrics for executing a product platform strategy. 13th Int. Conf. Engineering Design (Culley, S., Duffy, A., McMahon, C. & Wallace, K., Eds.), Glasgow, UK, pp. 531538.
Schilling, M.A. (2000). Toward a general modular systems theory and its applications to interfirm product modularity. Academy of Management Review 25(2), 312334.
Schuh, G. & Tanner, H.R. (1998). Mastering variant variety using the variant mode and effects analysis. Proc. ASME Design Engineering Technology Conf., Paper No. DETC98/DFM-5736.
Seepersad, C.C., Hernandez, G., & Allen, J.K. (2000). A quantitative approach to determining product platform extent. Proc. ASME Design Engineering Technology Conf., Paper No. DETC2000/DAC-14288.
Seepersad, C.C., Mistree, F., & Allen, J.K. (2002). A quantitative approach for designing multiple product platforms for an evolving portfolio of products. Proc. ASME Design Engineering Technology Conf., Paper No. DETC2002/DAC-34096.
Shah, J.J. & Wright, P.K. (2000). Developing theoretical foundations for DfM. Proc. ASME Design Engineering Technology Conf., Paper No. DETC2000/DFM-14015.
Sharman, D.M., Yassine, A.A., & Carlile, P. (2002). Characterising modular architectures. Proc. ASME Design Engineering Technology Conf., Paper No. DETC2002/DTM-34024.
Shen, W., Norrie, D.H., & Barthès, J.-P.A. (2001). Multi-Agent Systems for Concurrent Intelligent Design and Manufacturing. New York: Taylor & Francis.
Shimokawa, K., Jurgens, U., & Fujimoto, T., Eds. (1997). Transforming Automobile Assembly: Experience in Automation and Work Organization. New York: Springer.
Shirley, G.V. (1990). Models for managing the redesign and manufacture of product sets. Journal of Manufacturing and Operations Management 3(2), 85104.
Siddique, Z. (2001). Estimating reduction in development time for implementing a product platform approach. Proc. ASME Design Engineering Technology Conf., Paper No. DETC2001/CIE-21238.
Siddique, Z. & Repphun, B. (2001). Estimating cost savings when implementing a product platform approach. Concurrent Engineering: Research & Applications 9(4), 285294.
Siddique, Z. & Rosen, D.W. (1999). Product platform design: A graph grammar approach. Proc. ASME Design Engineering Technology Conf., Paper No. DETC99/DTM-8762.
Siddique, Z. & Rosen, D.W. (2000). Product family configuration reasoning using discrete design spaces. Proc. ASME Design Engineering Technology Conf., Paper No. DETC2000/DTM-14666.
Siddique, Z. & Rosen, D.W. (2001). On combinatorial design spaces for the configuration design of product families. Artificial Intelligence for Engineering Design, Analysis and Manufacturing 15(2), 91108.
Siddique, Z. & Shao, Z. (2001). A graph grammar based approach for development of an internet-based product family information system. Proc. ASME Design Engineering Technology Conf., Paper No. DETC2001/CIE-21280.
Siddique, Z. & Yanjiang, Z. (2002). Automatic generation of product family member CAD models supported by a platform using a template approach. Proc. ASME Design Engineering Technology Conf., Paper No. DETC2002/CIE-34407.
Siddique, Z., Rosen, D.W., & Wang, N. (1998). On the applicability of product variety design concepts to automotive platform commonality. Proc. ASME Design Engineering Technology Conf., Paper No. DETC98/DTM-5661.
Simpson, T.W. & D'Souza, B. (2002). Assessing variable levels of platform commonality within a product family using a multiobjective genetic algorithm. 9th AIAA/ISSMO Symposium on Multidisciplinary Analysis and Optimization, Atlanta, GA, Paper AIAA-2002-5427.
Simpson, T.W., Chen, W., Allen, J.K., & Mistree, F. (1999). Use of the robust concept exploration method to facilitate the design of a family of products. In Simultaneous Engineering: Methodologies & Applications (Roy, U., Usher, J.M. & Parsaei, H.R., Eds.), pp. 247278. Amsterdam: Gordon & Breach Science Publishers.
Simpson, T.W., Maier, J.R.A., & Mistree, F. (2001). Product platform design: Method and application. Research in Engineering Design 13(1), 222.
Simpson, T.W., Seepersad, C.C., & Mistree, F. (2001). Balancing commonality and performance within the concurrent design of multiple products in a product family. Concurrent Engineering: Research & Applications 9(3), 177190.
Simpson, T.W., Nanda, J., Halbe, S., Umapathy, K., & Hodge, B. (2003). Development of a framework for web-based product platform customization. ASME Journal of Computing and Information Science in Engineering 3(2), 119129.
Stadzisz, P.C. & Henrioud, J.M. (1995). Integrated design of product families and assembly systems. Proc. IEEE Int. Conf. Robotics & Automation, Nagoya, Japan, Vol. 2, pp. 12901295.
Stadzisz, P.C., Henrioud, J.M., & Bourjault, A. (1995). Concurrent development of product families and assembly systems. Proc. IEEE Int. Symp. Assembly & Task Planning, Pittsburgh, PA, pp. 327332.
Stake, R.B. & Blackenfelt, M. (2000). Modularisation by cluster analysis—Capturing both functional and strategic aspects. NordDesign Seminar, Copenhagen.
Stalk, G., Jr. & Webber, A.M. (1993). Japan's dark side of time. Harvard Business Review 71(4), 93102.
Stone, R.B., Wood, K.L., & Crawford, R.H. (2000a). A heuristic method to identify modules from a functional description of a product. Design Studies 21(1), 531.
Stone, R.B., Wood, K.L., & Crawford, R.H. (2000b). Using quantitative functional models to develop product architectures. Design Studies 21(3), 239260.
Sudjianto, A. & Otto, K.N. (2001). Modularization to support multiple brand platforms. Proc. ASME Design Engineering Technology Conf., Paper No. DETC2001/DTM-21695.
Suh, N.P. (1990). Principles of Design. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.
Sundgren, N. (1999). Introducing interface management in new product family development. Journal of Product Innovation Management 16(1), 4051.
Tatikonda, M.V. (1999). An empirical study of platform and derivative product development projects. Journal of Product Innovation Management 16(1), 326.
Thomas, L.D. (1992). Functional implications of component commonality in operational systems. IEEE Transactions on Systems, Man and Cybernetics 22(3), 548551.
Trelevan, M. & Wacker, J.G. (1987). The sources, measurements, and managerial implications of process commonality. Journal of Operations Management 7(1–2), 1125.
Tseng, M.M. & Du, X. (1998). Design by customers for mass customization products. CIRP Annals 47(1), 103106.
Tseng, M.M. & Jiao, J. (1997a). Case-based evolutionary design for mass customization. Computers in Industrial Engineering 33(1–2), 319323.
Tseng, M.M. & Jiao, J. (1997b). A module identification approach to the electrical design of electronic products by clustering analysis of the design matrix. Computers & Industrial Engineering 33(1–2), 229233.
Tseng, M.M. & Jiao, J. (1997c). A variant approach to product definition by recognizing functional requirement patterns. Journal of Engineering Design 8(4), 329340.
Tseng, M.M. & Jiao, J. (1998). Design for mass customization by developing product family architecture. Proc. ASME Design Engineering Technology Conf., Paper No. DETC98/DTM-5717.
Tseng, M.M., Jiao, J., & Merchant, M.E. (1996). Design for mass customization. CIRP Annals 45(1), 153156.
Tseng, M.M., Jiao, J., & Su, C.-J. (1997). A framework of virtual design for product customization. Proc. 6th Int. Conf. on Emerging Technologies and Factory Automation, pp. 714. Los Angeles: IEEE.
Ulrich, K. (1995). The role of product architecture in the manufacturing firm. Research Policy 24(3), 419440.
Ulrich, K.T. & Eppinger, S.D. (2000). Product Design and Development, 2nd ed. New York: McGraw–Hill.
Umeda, Y., Shimomura, Y., Yoshioka, M., & Tomiyama, T. (1999). A proposal of design methodology for upgradable products. Proc. ASME Design Engineering Technology Conf., Paper No. DETC99/DFM-8969.
Vakharia, A.J., Parmenter, D.A., & Sanchez, S.M. (1996). The operating impact of parts commonality. Journal of Operations Management 14(1), 318.
van Veen, E. (1992). Modeling Product Structures by Generic Bills-of-Materials. Amsterdam: Elsevier Science Publishers.
van Vliet, J.W., van Luttervelt, C.A., & Kals, H.J.J. (1999). State-of-the-art report on design for manufacturing. Proc. ASME Design Engineering Technology Conf., Paper No. DETC99/DFM-8970.
Wacker, J.G. & Trelevan, M. (1986). Component part standardization: An analysis of commonality sources and indices. Journal of Operations Management 6(2), 219244.
Ward, A., Liker, J.K., Cristiano, J.J., & Sobek, D.K. (1995). The second Toyota paradox: How delaying decisions can make better cars faster. Sloan Management Review 36(3), 4361.
Wassenaar, H.J. & Chen, W. (2001). An approach to decision-based design. Proc. ASME Design Engineering Technology Conf., Paper No. DETC2001/DTM-21683.
Wheelwright, S.C. & Clark, K.B. (1992). Creating project plans to focus product development. Harvard Business Review 70(2), 7082.
Wheelwright, S.C. & Clark, K.B. (1995). Leading Product Development. New York: Free Press.
Wheelwright, S.C. & Sasser, W.E., Jr. (1989). The new product development map. Harvard Business Review 67(3), 112125.
Whitney, D.E. (1993). Nippondenso Co. Ltd: A case study of strategic product design. Research in Engineering Design 5(1), 120.
Wilhelm, B. (1997). Platform and modular concepts at Volkswagen—Their effect on the assembly process. In Transforming Automobile Assembly: Experience in Automation and Work Organization (Shimokawa, K., Jürgens, U. & Fujimoto, T., Eds.), pp. 146156. New York: Springer.
Womack, J.P., Jones, D.T., & Roos, D. (1990). The Machine that Changed the World. New York: Rawson Associates.
Wortmann, J.C., Muntslag, D.R., & Timmermans, P.J.M., Eds. (1997). Customer-Driven Manufacturing. New York: Chapman & Hall.
Yigit, A.S., Ulsoy, A.G., & Allahverdi, A. (2002). Optimizing modular product design for reconfigurable manufacturing. Journal of Intelligent Manufacturing 13(4), 309316.
Yu, J.S., Gonzalez–Zugasti, J.P., & Otto, K.N. (1999). Product architecture definition based upon customer demand. ASME Journal of Mechanical Design 121(3), 329335.
Zamirowksi, E.J. & Otto, K.N. (1999). Identifying product portfolio architecture modularity using function and variety heuristics. Proc. ASME Design Engineering Technology Conf., Paper No. DETC99/DTM-8760.
Zha, X.F. & Lu, W.F. (2002). Knowledge intensive support for product family design. Proc. ASME Design Engineering Technology Conf., Paper No. DETC2002/DAC-34098.
Zhang, Y., Gershenson, J.K., & Allamneni, S. (2001). Determining relationships between modularity and cost in product retirement. Proc. ASME Design Engineering Technology Conf., Paper No. DETC2001/DTM-21686.
Zipkin, P. (2001). The limits of mass customization. Sloan Management Review 42(3), 8187.

Keywords

Related content

Powered by UNSILO

Product platform design and customization: Status and promise

  • TIMOTHY W. SIMPSON (a1)

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed.