Abohela, I, Hamza, N and Dudek, S (2013) Effect of roof shape, wind direction, building height and urban configuration on the energy yield and positioning of roof mounted wind turbines. Renewable Energy 50, 1106–1118.
Ahmad, NE, Abo-Serie, EF and Gaylard, A (2010) Mesh optimization for ground vehicle aerodynamics. CFD Letters 2, 54–65.
Ansys, I (2016) .
Axerio-Cilies, J and Iaccarino, G (2012) An aerodynamic investigation of an isolated rotating Formula 1 wheel assembly. Journal of Fluids Engineering 134, 121101.
Axerio-Cilies, J, Issakhanian, E, Jimenez, J and Iaccarino, G (2012) An aerodynamic investigation of an isolated stationary formula 1 wheel assembly. Journal of Fluids Engineering 134, 021101.
Axon, L, Garry, K and Howell, J (1998) .
Barberousse, A, Franceschelli, S and Imbert, C (2009) Computer simulations as experiments. Synthese 169, 557–574.
Blocken, B and Toparlar, Y (2015) A following car influences cyclist drag: CFD simulations and wind tunnel measurements. Journal of Wind Engineering and Industrial Aerodynamics 145, 178–186.
Çengel, YA (2010) Fluid Mechanics. New Delhi, India: Tata McGraw Hill Education Private.
Collin, C, Indinger, T and Müller, J (2017) Moving ground simulation for high performance race cars in an automotive wind tunnel. International Journal of Automotive Engineering 8, 15–21.
Dang, TP, Gu, Z and Chen, Z (2015) Numerical simulation of flow field around the race car in case: stationary wheel and rotating wheels. International Journal of Numerical Methods for Heat & Fluid Flow 25, 1896–1911.
Das, P, Tsubokura, M, Matsuuki, T, Oshima, N and Kitoh, K (2013) Large eddy simulation of the flow-field around a full-scale heavy-duty truck. Procedia Engineering 56, 521–530.
Defraeye, T, Blocken, B, Koninckx, E, Hespel, P and Carmeliet, J (2010) Computational fluid dynamics analysis of cyclist aerodynamics: performance of different turbulence-modelling and boundary-layer modelling approaches. Journal of Biomechanics 43, 2281–2287.
Diasinos, S, Doig, G and Barber, T (2014) On the interaction of a racing car front wing and exposed wheel. The Aeronautical Journal 118, 1385–1407.
Diasinos, S, Barber, TJ and Doig, G (2015) The effects of simplifications on isolated wheel aerodynamics. Journal of Wind Engineering and Industrial Aerodynamics 146, 90–101.
Diasinos, S, Barber, TJ and Doig, G (2017) The influence of wing span and angle of attack on racing car wing/wheel interaction aerodynamics. Journal of Fluids Engineering 139, 061102.
Doig, G and Barber, TJ (2011) Considerations for numerical modeling of inverted wings in ground effect. AIAA Journal 49, 2330–2333.
European Parliament and Council (2014) European Parliament and Council Regulation (EU) no 540/2014 on the sound level of motor vehicles and of replacement silencing systems and amending directive 2007/46/EC and repealing directive 70/157/EEC. Official Journal of the European Union, pp. 131–195.
Fackrell, JE (1974) .
Fackrell, JE and Harvey, JK (1973) .
Fackrell, JE and Harvey, JK (1975) , pp. 119–125.
Gérardin, F, Gentric, C and Midoux, N (2014) Particle dispersion in the near-wake of an isolated rotating wheel: experimental and CFD study. Journal of Aerosol Science 76, 56–71.
Grabowski, L, Baier, A, Buchacz, A, Majzner, M and Sobek, M (2015) Application of CAD/CAE class systems to aerodynamic analysis of electric race cars. IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering 95, 012044.
Haag, L, Blacha, T and Indinger, T (2017) Experimental investigation on the aerodynamics of isolated rotating wheels and evaluation of wheel rotation models using unsteady CFD. International Journal of Automotive Engineering 8, 7–14.
Heo, H, Ju, J, Kim, DM and Kim, H (2014) A computational study of the flow around an isolated Non-pneumatic tire. SAE International Journal of Passenger Cars–Mechanical Systems 7, 405–412.
Hobeika, T, Sebben, S and Landstrom, C (2013) Investigation of the influence of tyre geometry on the aerodynamics of passenger cars. SAE International Journal of Passenger Cars–Mechanical Systems 6, 316–325.
Holder, JM, Malla, B and Gutmark, EJ (2018) , p. 1099.
Hughes, RI (1999) The Ising model, computer simulation, and universal physics. Ideas In Context 52, 97–145.
Issakhanian, E, Elkins, CJ, Lo, KP and Eaton, JK (2010) An experimental study of the flow around a formula one racing car tire. Journal of Fluids Engineering 132, 071103.
Kellar, WP, Pearse, SR and Savill, AM (1999) Formula 1 car wheel aerodynamics. Sports Engineering 2, 203–212.
Knowles, RD (2005) Mnoposto Racecar Wheel Aerodynamic: Investigation of Near-Wake Structure and Supporting Sting-Interference (Phd). Cranfield University.
Knowles, R, Saddington, A and Knowles, K (2002) .
Landström, C, Löfdahl, L and Walker, T (2009) Detailed flow studies in close proximity of rotating wheels on a passenger car. SAE International Journal of Passenger Cars–Mechanical Systems 2, 861–874.
Landström, C, Sebben, S and Löfdahl, L (2010) Effects of wheel orientation on predicted flow field and forces when modelling rotating wheels using CFD. 8th MIRA International Vehicle Aerodynamics Conference, Vol. 1, pp. 457–470.
Landström, C, Josefsson, L, Walker, T and Löfdahl, L (2011) An experimental investigation of wheel design parameters with respect to aerodynamic drag. Progress in Vehicle Aerodynamics and Thermal Management 8th FKFS Conference, pp. 121–136.
Landstrom, C, Josefsson, L, Walker, T and Lofdahl, L (2012) Aerodynamic effects of different tire models on a sedan type passenger car. SAE International Journal of Passenger Cars–Mechanical Systems 5, 136–151.
Leśniewicz, P, Kulak, M and Karczewski, M (2014) Aerodynamic analysis of an isolated vehicle wheel. Journal of Physics: Conference Series 530, 012064.
Leśniewicz, P, Kulak, M and Karczewski, M (2016) Vehicle wheel drag coefficient in relation to travelling velocity – CFD analysis. Journal of Physics: Conference Series 760, 012014.
Lew, C, Gopalaswamy, N, Shock, R, Duncan, B and Hoch, J (2017) .
Liang, J and Du, R (2007) Model-based fault detection and diagnosis of HVAC systems using support vector machine method. International Journal of Refrigeration 30, 1104–1114.
Mcmanus, J and Zhang, X (2005) A computational study of the flow around an isolated wheel in contact with the ground. ASME. Journal of Fluids Engineering 128, 520–530.
Mears, AP, Dominy, RG and Sims-Williams, DB (2002) .
Modlinger, F, Demuth, R and Adams, N (2008) , p. 15–16.
Saddington, AJ, Knowles, R and Knowles, K (2007) Laser Doppler anemometry measurements in the near-wake of an isolated Formula One wheel. Experiments in Fluids 42, 671.
Schütz, T (2013) .
Sebben, S and Landström, C (2011) Prediction of Aerodynamic Drag for Different Rim Designs Using Varied Wheel Modelling in CFD. Progress in Vehicle Aerodynamics and Thermal Management 8th FKFS Conference, pp. 1–14.
Shih, T-H, Liou, WW, Shabbir, A, Yang, Z and Zhu, J (1995) A new k-ϵ eddy viscosity model for high Reynolds number turbulent flows. Computers & Fluids 24, 227–238.
Strumolo, GS and Babu, V and Ford Global Technologies LLC (2000) .
Tsanas, A and Xifara, A (2012) Accurate quantitative estimation of energy performance of residential buildings using statistical machine learning tools. Energy and Buildings 49, 560–567.
Uddin, GM, Ziemer, KS, Sun, B, Zeid, A and Kamarthi, S (2013) Monte Carlo study of the high temperature hydrogen cleaning process of 6H-silicon carbide for subsequent growth of nano scale metal oxide films. International Journal of Nanomanufacturing 9, 407–430.
Uddin, GM, Ziemer, KS, Zeid, A and Kamarthi, S (2015 a) Monte Carlo study of the molecular beam epitaxy process for manufacturing magnesium oxide nano-scale films. IIE Transactions 47, 125–140.
Uddin, GM, Ziemer, KS, Zeid, A and Kamarthi, S (2015 b) Process model-based analysis of highly crystalline and chemically pure molecular beam epitaxy of MgO (111) nano-thin films on 6H-SiC (0001) substrates. International Journal of Nanomanufacturing 11, 25–45.
Van Den Berg, M and Zhang, X (2009) The aerodynamic interaction between an inverted wing and a rotating wheel. Journal of Fluids Engineering 131, 101104.
Vdovin, A (2015) Numerical and Experimental Investigations on Aerodynamic and Thermal Aspects of Rotating Wheels. Gothenburg, Sweden: Chalmers University of Technology.
Vdovin, A, Bonitz, S, Landstrom, C and Lofdahl, L (2013) Investigation of wheel ventilation-drag using a modular wheel design concept. SAE International Journal of Passenger Cars–Mechanical Systems 6, 308–315.
Wang, S, Burton, D, Herbst, AH, Sheridan, J and Thompson, MC (2018) The effect of the ground condition on high-speed train slipstream. Journal of Wind Engineering and Industrial Aerodynamics 172, 230–243.
Watkins, S, Saunders, JW and Hoffmann, PH (1995) Turbulence experienced by moving vehicles. Part I. Introduction and turbulence intensity. Journal of Wind Engineering and Industrial Aerodynamics 57, 1–17.
Wickern, G, Zwicker, K and Pfadenhauer, M (1997) .
Zhou, H, Soh, YC and Wu, X (2015) Integrated analysis of CFD data with K-means clustering algorithm and extreme learning machine for localized HVAC control. Applied Thermal Engineering 76, 98–104.