Ben-Shlomo, Y and Kuh, D (2002) A life course approach to chronic disease epidemiology: conceptual models, empirical challenges and interdisciplinary perspectives. International Journal of Epidemiology 31, 285–293.10.1093/ije/31.2.285
Bowlby, J (1979) The Making and Breaking of Affectional Bonds. London: Tavistock Publications.
Browne, CJ and Shlosberg, E (2006) Attachment theory, ageing and dementia: a review of the literature. Aging and Mental Health 10, 134–142.10.1080/13607860500312118
Cable, N (2014) Life course approach in social epidemiology: an overview, application and future implications. Journal of Epidemiology 24, 347–352.10.2188/jea.JE20140045
Cacioppo, J and Patrick, W (2008) Loneliness: Human Nature and the Need for Social Connection. New York, NY: W.W. Norton and Company.
Caspi, A, Harrington, H, Moffitt, TE, Milne, BJ and Poulton, R (2006) Socially isolated children 20 years later: risk of cardiovascular disease. Archives of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine 160, 805–811.10.1001/archpedi.160.8.805
Danese, A and McEwen, BS (2012) Adverse childhood experiences, allostasis, allostatic load, and age-related disease. Physiology and Behavior 106, 29–39.10.1016/j.physbeh.2011.08.019
De Jong Gierveld, J (1987) Developing and testing a model of loneliness. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 53, 119–128.10.1037/0022-3518.104.22.168
Dickens, AP, Richards, SH, Greaves, CJ and Campbell, JL (2011) Interventions targeting social isolation in older people: a systematic review. BMC Public Health 11, 647.10.1186/1471-2458-11-647
Dohrenwend, BP (2006) Inventorying stressful life events as risk factors for psychopathology: toward resolution of the problem of intracategory variability. Psychological Bulletin 132, 477–495.10.1037/0033-2909.132.3.477
Dube, SR, Felitti, VJ, Dong, M, Giles, WH and Anda, RF (2003) The impact of adverse childhood experiences on health problems: evidence from four birth cohorts dating back to 1900. Preventive Medicine 37, 268–277.10.1016/S0091-7435(03)00123-3
Dykstra, PA (2009) Older adult loneliness: myths and realities. European Journal of Ageing 6, 91–100.10.1007/s10433-009-0110-3
Dykstra, PA and de Jong Gierveld, J (2004) Gender and marital-history differences in emotional and social loneliness among Dutch older adults. Canadian Journal on Aging/La Revue Canadienne du Vieillissement 23, 141–155.10.1353/cja.2004.0018
Ejlskov, L, Wulff, J, Bøggild, H, Kuh, D and Stafford, M (2017) Assessing the relative importance of correlates of loneliness in later life. Gaining insight using recursive partitioning. Aging and Mental Health 22, 1486–1493.10.1080/13607863.2017.1370690
Fraley, RC (2002) Attachment stability from infancy to adulthood: meta-analysis and dynamic modeling of developmental mechanisms. Personality and Social Psychology Review 6, 123–151.10.1207/S15327957PSPR0602_03
Goldberg, LR, John, OP, Kaiser, H, Lanning, K and Peabody, D (1990) An alternative ‘description of personality’: the big-five factor structure. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 59, 1216–1229.10.1037/0022-3522.214.171.1246
Hawkley, L (2015) Loneliness and social embeddedness in old age. In: Pachana, N. (ed) Encyclopedia of Geropsychology. Singapore: Springer.
Hawkley, L and Cacioppo, J (2010) Loneliness matters: a theoretical and empirical review of consequences and mechanisms. Annals of Behavioral Medicine 40, 218–227.10.1007/s12160-010-9210-8
Hughes, ME, Waite, LJ, Hawkley, L and Cacioppo, J (2004) A short scale for measuring loneliness in large surveys: results from two population-based studies. Research on Aging 26, 655–672.10.1177/0164027504268574
Jonsson, F, Sebastian, MS, Strömsten, LMJ, Hammarström, A and Gustafsson, PE (2016) Life course pathways of adversities linking adolescent socioeconomic circumstances and functional somatic symptoms in mid-adulthood: a path analysis study. PLOS ONE 11, e0155963.10.1371/journal.pone.0155963
Katz, SJ, Conway, CC, Hammen, CL, Brennan, PA and Najman, JM (2011) Childhood social withdrawal, interpersonal impairment, and young adult depression: a mediational model. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology 39, 1227–1238.10.1007/s10802-011-9537-z
Kuh, D, Ben-Shlomo, Y, Lynch, J, Hallqvist, J and Power, C (2003) Life course epidemiology. Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health 57, 778–783.10.1136/jech.57.10.778
Kuh, D, Wong, A, Shah, I, Moore, A, Popham, M, Curran, P, Davis, D, Sharma, N, Richards, M, Stafford, M, Hardy, R and Cooper, R (2016) The MRC National Survey of Health and Development reaches age 70: maintaining participation at older ages in a birth cohort study. European Journal of Epidemiology 31, 1135–1147.10.1007/s10654-016-0217-8
Matthews, KA, Gallo, LC and Taylor, SE (2010) Are psychosocial factors mediators of socioeconomic status and health connections? Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 1186, 146–173.10.1111/j.1749-6632.2009.05332.x
Masi, C, Chen, H, Hawkley, L and Cacioppo, J (2011) A meta-analysis of interventions to reduce loneliness Personality and Social Psychology Review 15, 219–266.10.1177/1088868310377394
Newall, NE, Chipperfield, JG, Clifton, RA, Perry, RP, Swift, AU and Ruthig, JC (2009) Causal beliefs, social participation, and loneliness among older adults: a longitudinal study. Journal of Social and Personal Relationships 26, 273–290.10.1177/0265407509106718
Nurius, PS, Green, S, Logan-Greene, P and Borja, S (2015) Life course pathways of adverse childhood experiences toward adult psychological well-being: a stress process analysis. Child Abuse and Neglect 45, 143–153.10.1016/j.chiabu.2015.03.008
Peplau, LA and Perlman, D (1982) Perspectives on loneliness. In Peplau, LA and Perlman, D (eds), Loneliness: A Sourcebook of Current Theory, Research and Therapy. New York, NY: Wiley, pp. 1–18.
Perlman, D and Peplau, L (1981) Toward a social psychology of loneliness. Personal Relationships 3, 6, 31–55.
Peters, A and Liefbroer, A (1997) Beyond marital status: partner history and well-being in old age. Journal of Marriage and the Family 59, 687–699.10.2307/353954
Pikhartova, J, Bowling, A and Victor, C (2016) Is loneliness in later life a self-fulfilling prophecy? Aging and Mental Health 20, 543–549.10.1080/13607863.2015.1023767
R Core Team (2017) R: A Language and Environment for Statistical Computing. Vienna: R Foundation for Statistical Computing.
Rubin, DB (1987) Multiple Imputation for Nonresponse in Surveys. New York, NY: John Wiley and Sons.10.1002/9780470316696
Saito, T, Kai, I and Takizawa, A (2012) Effects of a program to prevent social isolation on loneliness, depression, and subjective well-being of older adults: a randomized trial among older migrants in Japan. Archives of Gerontology and Geriatrics 55, 539–547.10.1016/j.archger.2012.04.002
Savla, JT, Roberto, KA, Jaramillo-Sierra, AL, Gambrel, LE, Karimi, H and Butner, LM (2013) Childhood abuse affects emotional closeness with family in mid- and later life. Child Abuse and Neglect 37, 388–399.10.1016/j.chiabu.2012.12.009
Stansfeld, S and Marmot, M (1992) Deriving a survey measure of social support: the reliability and validity of the Close Persons Questionnaire. Social Science and Medicine 35, 1027–1035.10.1016/0277-9536(92)90242-I
Stafford, M, Gardner, M, Kumari, M, Kuh, D and Ben-Shlomo, Y (2013) Social isolation and diurnal cortisol patterns in an ageing cohort. Psychoneuroendocrinology 38, 2737–2745.10.1016/j.psyneuen.2013.07.002
Steptoe, A, Shankar, A, Demakakos, P and Wardle, J (2013) Social isolation, loneliness, and all-cause mortality in older men and women. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 110, 5797–5801.10.1073/pnas.1219686110
Thoits, PA (2011) Mechanisms linking social ties and support to physical and mental health. Journal of Health and Social Behavior 52, 145–161.10.1177/0022146510395592
Umberson, D, Williams, K, Thomas, PA, Liu, H and Thomeer, MB (2014) Race, gender, and chains of disadvantage: childhood adversity, social relationships, and health. Journal of Health and Social Behavior 55, 20–38.10.1177/0022146514521426
Victor, C and Bowling, A (2012) A longitudinal analysis of loneliness among older people in Great Britain. Journal of Psychology 146, 313–331.10.1080/00223980.2011.609572
Weiss, RS (1973) Loneliness: The Experience of Emotional and Social Isolation. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
Wulff, J and Ejlskov, L (2017) Multiple imputation by chained equations in praxis: guidelines and review. Electronic Journal of Business Research Methods 15, 41–56.