Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home

Everyday Competence in Old and Very Old Age: An Inter-disciplinary Perspective

  • Margret M. Baltes (a1), Ulrich Mayr (a2), Markus Borchelt (a3), Ineke Maas (a2) and Hans-Ulrich Wilms (a1)...

Abstract

In the present paper the focus is on structural aspects of everyday competence and its relationship with various personal resources, such as health, social status, self concept and cognition. The findings support the hypothesis that two distinct, albeit intercorrelated, components of everyday competence are differentially related to the various resources examined in this paper. The two components are a basic level of competence (BaCo) which is defined mainly by self-care related activities, and an expanded level of competence (ExCo) associated mostly with leisure and social activities and advanced instrumental activities of daily living. In general, BaCo is more strongly related to health-related resources, and ExCo is more strongly associated with behavioural, psychological and social resources. 90.6% of the reliable variance in ExCo and 82.4% in BaCo are explained by these selected resources. Furthermore, all of the age-related variance in everyday competence is accounted for by these health-related and socio-behavioural resources.

Copyright

References

Hide All
Baltes, M. M., Wahl, H.-W. and Schmid-Furstoss, U. 1990. The daily life of elderly Germans: activity patterns, personal control, and functional health. Journal of Gerontology, 45, 173179.
Baltes, M. M. and Wilms, H. U. 1992. Der Einfluß von Demenz auf das Alltagsverhalten [The influence of dementia on everyday activities]. Paper presented at the German Association for Psychiatry and Neurology, Cologne.
Baltes, P. B. and Baltes, M. M. 1990. Psychological perspectives on successful aging: The model of selective optimization with compensation. In Baltes, P. B. and Baltes, M. M. (eds), Successful Aging: Perspectives from the Behavioral Sciences. Cambridge University Press, New York.
Baltes, P. B., Cornelius, S. W., Spiro, A. and Nesselroade, J. R. 1980. Integration vs. differentiation of fluid/crystallized intelligence in old age. Developmental Psychology, 14, 625635.
Baltes, P. B., Reese, H. W. and Nesselroade, J. R. 1977. Life-span Developmental Psychology: Introduction to Research Methods. Brooks/Cole, Monterey, California.
Bandura, A. 1977. Self-efficacy: Toward a unifying theory of behavioral change. Psychological Review, 84, 191215.
Bandura, A. 1989. Human agency in social cognitive theory. American Psychologist, 44, 11751184.
Bentler, P. M. 1989. EQS: Structural Equation Program Manual. BMP Statistical Software, Los Angeles.
Birren, J. E. 1959. Principles of research on aging. In Birren, J. E. (ed.), Handbook of Aging and the Individual. University of Chicago Press, Chicago.
Branch, L. G., Horowitz, A. and Carr, C. 1989. The implications for everyday life of incident self-reported visual decline among people over age 65 living in the community. Gerontologist, 29, 359365.
Costa, P. T. Jr., and McCrae, R. R. 1985. NEO: Five-Factor Personality Inventory. Psychological Assessment Resources Inc., Talahassee, Florida.
Csikszentmihalyi, M. and Csikszentmihalyi, I. 1988. Optimal Experience. Psychological Studies of Flow in Consciousness. Cambridge University Press, New York.
Cutler, S. J. and Hendricks, J. 1990. Leisure and time use across the life course. In Binstock, R. H. and George, L. (eds), Handbook of Aging and the Social Sciences, third edition. Academic Press, San Diego, California.
Degkwitz, R., Helmchen, H., Kockott, G. and Mombour, W. (eds). 1988. Diagnosenschlüssel und Glossar psychiatrischer Krankheiten. Deutsche Ausgabe der Internationalen Klassifikation der WHO (ICD), 9. Revision (German version of ICD). Kohlhammer, Cologne.
Duffy, M. E. and MacDonald, E. 1990. Determinants of functional health of older persons. Gerontologist, 30, 503509.
Ekstrom, R. B., French, J. W., Harman, M. M. and Derman, D. 1976. Manual for the Fit of Factor-referenced Cognitive Tests. Educational Testing Service, Princeton, New Jersey.
Engel, R. R. and Satzger, W. 1990. Kompendium alterssensitiver Leistungstests (Compendium of ageing-sensitive cognitive tests). Munich University Psychiatric Clinic, Munich.
Ferster, C. B. 1974. Behavioral approaches to depression. In Friedman, R. J. and Katz, M. M. (eds), The Psychology of Depression: Contemporary Theory and Research. Winston, Washington, D.C.
Fillenbaum, C. G. 1985. Screening the elderly: A brief instrumental activities of daily living measure. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 33, 698706.
Ford, M. E. 1985. The concept of competence. Themes and variations. In Marlowe, J. H. A. and Weinberg, R. B. (eds), Competence Development. Theory and Practice in Special Populations. Charles C. Thomas, Springfield, Illinois.
Galanos, A., Fillenbaum, G. G., Cohen, H. J. and Burchett, B. 1991. Limitations of functional health status in the comprehensive assessment of community-dwelling elderly. Unpublished manuscript, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina.
Gordon, C., Gaitz, C. M. and Scott, J. 1976. Leisure and lives: Personal expressivity across the life span. In Binstock, R. H. and Shanas, E. (eds), Handbook of Aging and the Social Sciences. Van Nostrand Reinhold, New York.
Hamilton, M. 1960. A rating scale for depression. Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery and Psychiatry, 23, 5662.
Hamilton, M. 1967. Development of a rating scale for primary depressive illness. British Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 6, 278296.
Harter, S. 1982. The perceived competence scale for children. Child Development, 53, 8797.
Hauser, R. and Semrau, P. 1989. Trends in Poverty and Low Income in the Federal Republic of Germany. Sfb-3 Working Paper No. 306, Universität Frankfurt, Frankfurt am Main.
Hauser, R. and Stubig, H.-J. 1985. Strukturen der personellen Verteilung von Nettoeinkommen und Wohlfahrtspositionen (Structures of the distribution of net income and social welfare). In Hauser, R. and Engel, B. (eds), Soziale Sicherung und Einkommensverteilung. Empirische Analysen für die Bundesrepublik Deutschland. Campus, Frankfurt am Main.
Heller, K., Gaedicke, A.-K. and Weinlander, M. 1976. Kognitiver Fähigkeits-Test (Cognitive ability test). Beltz, Weinheim.
Helmchen, H. and Linden, M. 1980. Depressive Erkrankungen. In Bock, H. E., Gerok, W. and Hartmann, F. (eds), Klinik der Gegenwart, Vol. 11. Urban und Schwarzenberg, Munich.
Helmchen, H. and Linden, M. 1993. The differentiation between depression and dementia in the very old. Ageing and Society, this issue.
Heyman, D. and Jeffers, F. C. 1970. The influence of race and socioeconomic status upon the activities and attitudes of the aged. In Palmore, E. (ed.), Normal Aging. Reports from the Duke Longitudinal Study, 1955–1969. Duke University Press, Durham, North Carolina.
Lawton, M. P. 1982. Competence, environmental press, and the adaptation of older people. In Lawton, M. P., Windley, P. G. and Byerts, T. O. (eds), Aging and the Environment: Theoretical Approaches. Springer, New York.
Lawton, M. P. 1983. Environment and other determinants of well-being in older people. Gerontologist, 23, 349357.
Lawton, M. P. 1987. Environment and the need satisfaction of the aging. In Carstensen, L. and Edelstein, B. A. (eds), Handbook of Clinical Gerontology. Pergamon Press, New York.
Lawton, M. P. and Brody, E. M. 1969. Assessment of older people: Self-maintaining and instrumental activities of daily living. Gerontologist, 9, 179185.
Lawton, M. P., Moss, M., Fulcomer, M. and Kleban, M. H. 1982. A research and service-oriented Multilevel Assessment Instrument. Journal of Gerontology, 37, 9199.
Lawton, M. P., Moss, M. and Fulcomer, M. 19861987. Objective and subjective uses of time by older people. International Journal of Aging and Human Development, 24, 171188.
Lazarus, R. S. and Folkman, S. 1984. Stress, Appraisal, and Coping. Springer, New York.
Lewinsohn, P. M. 1974. A behavioral approach to depression. In Friedman, R. J. and Katz, M. M. (eds), The Psychology of Depression: Contemporary Theory and Research, Winston, Washington, D.C.
Lindenberger, U., Mayr, U. and Kliegl, R. In press. Speed and intelligence in old age. Psychology and Aging.
Maas, I. and Clausen, G. 1991. Social participation of the very old: The importance of social and health factors. Paper presented at the 44th Annual Scientific Meetings of the Gerontological Society of America, San Francisco, California.
Mahoney, F. I. and Barthel, D. W. 1965. Functional evaluation: The Barthel Index. Maryland State Medical Journal, 14, 6165.
Mayer, K. U. and Wagner, M. 1993. Socio-economic resources and differential ageing. Ageing and Society, this issue.
Moss, M. and Lawton, M. P. 1982. Time budgets of older people: A window on four lifestyles. Journal of Gerontology, 37, 576582.
Radloff, L. S. 1977. The CES-D scale. A self-report depression scale for research in the general population. Applied Psychological Measurement, 1, 385401.
Staudinger, U., Smith, J. and Freund, A. 1992. The goal system: A facet of the resilient self in old age? Paper presented at the 25th International Congress of Psychology, Brussels.
Steinhagen-Thiessen, E. and Borchelt, M. 1993. Health differences in advanced old age. Ageing and Society, this issue.
Tinetti, M. E. 1986. A performance-oriented assessment of mobility problems in elderly patients. Journal of the American Geriatric Society, 34, 119126.
Wechsler, D. 1955. Der Hamburg Wechsler Intelligenztest für Erwachsene (HAWIE) (The Hamburg Wechsler intelligence test for adults). Huber, Berne.
Wegener, B. 1988. Kritik des Prestiges, Westdeutscher Verlag, Opladen, Germany.
White, R. W. 1959. Motivation reconsidered: The concept of competence. Psychological Review, 66, 297333.
Willis, S. L. 1987. Cognitive interventions in the elderly. In Schaie, W. K. (ed.), Annual Review of Gerontology and Geriatrics. Springer, New York.
Willis, S. L., Jay, G., Marsiske, M. and Diehl, M. 1991. Longitudinal change and everyday task performance in the elderly. Unpublished manuscript. Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania.
Willis, S. L. and Marsiske, M. 1991. Life span perspective on practical intelligence. In Tupper, D. E. and Cicerone, K. D. (eds), The Neuropsychology of Everyday Life: Issues on Development and Rehabilitation. Kluwer, Boston, Massachusetts.
Willis, S. L. and Schaie, K. W. 1986. Practical intelligence in later adulthood. In Sternberg, R. and Wagner, R. (eds), Practical Intelligence. Cambridge University Press, New York.

Related content

Powered by UNSILO

Everyday Competence in Old and Very Old Age: An Inter-disciplinary Perspective

  • Margret M. Baltes (a1), Ulrich Mayr (a2), Markus Borchelt (a3), Ineke Maas (a2) and Hans-Ulrich Wilms (a1)...

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed.