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The United Kingdom's contributions to the development of aeronautics. Part 3. The development of the streamlined monoplane (the 1920s-1 940s)

  • J. A. D. Ackroyd (a1)


The second part of this survey closed a little after the termination of the First World War. By then the utility of the aeroplane as an instrument of warfare had been amply demonstrated. Moreover, something of its future potential in civil use had been indicated by such British achievements as the first transatlantic flight by Alcock and Brown in 1919, albeit in a Vickers Vimy biplane of otherwise limited performance. It was also at this time that the new aerodynamic ideas of Kutta, Zhukovskii and Prandtl reached Britain. All such thinking pointed inevitably to the greater speed, efficiency and economy to be expected of the streamlined monoplane.



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In view of the large number of references to British Reports and Memoranda (R&M), the following abbreviations have been used: ACA = Advisory Committee for Aeronautics; ARC = the Advisory Committee's successor from 1920 to 1945, the Aeronautical Research Committee; subsequently the Aeronautical Research Council.

Numerous contributions to either the Obituary Notices, or the Biographical Memoirs, of Fellows of the Royal Society have been used to provide biographical material.

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46. Stanton, T.E., Marshall, D. and Bryant, C.N. On the conditions at the boundary of a fluid in turbulent motion, Proc Roy Soc A, 1920, 97, pp 413434.
47. The Cambridge University Aeronautics Laboratory The measure ment of profile drag by the pitot-traverse method, ARC, R&M No 1688,1936.
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49. Young, A.D. Note on a method of measuring profile drag by means of an integrating comb, ARC, R&M No 257, 1938
50. Falkner, .M. and Skan, S.W. Some approximate solutions of the boundary-layer equations, ARC, R&M No 1314, 1930.
51. Falkner, V.M. and Skan, S.W. Solutions of the boundary-layer equations, Phil Mag Ser 7, 1931, 12, pp 865896.
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53. Howarth, L. The theoretical determination of the lift coefficient of a thin elliptic cylinder, Proc Roy Soc A, 1935, 149, pp 558586.
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56. Schlichting, H. Boundary-Layer Theory (Sixth Edition), McGraw-Hill, New York, 1968.
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59. Sommerfeld, A. Ein Beitrag zur hydrodynamischen Erklärung der turbulenten Flüssigkeitsbewegungen, Atti del IV Congresso Internationale dei Matematici, Roma, 1908(Rome, 1909), 3, ppl 16124.
60. Schubauer, G.B. and Skramstad, H.K. Laminar boundary layer oscillations and transition on a flat plate, NACA, Rep No 909, 1947.
61. Taylor, G.I. The transport of vorticity and heat through fluids in turbulent motion, Proc Roy Soc A, 1932, 135, pp 685705.
62. Taylor, G.l. Statistical theory of turbulence. I, Proc Roy Soc A, 1935, 151, pp 421444.
63. Taylor, G.I. Statistical theory of turbulence. II, Proc Roy Soc A, 1935, 151, pp 445454.
64. Taylor, G.I. Statistical theory of turbulence. III. Distribution of dissipation of energy in a pipe over its cross-section, Proc Roy Soc A, 1935, 151, pp 455464.
65. Taylor, G.I. Statistical theory of turbulence. IV. Diffusion in a turbulent air stream, Proc Roy Soc A, 1935, 151, pp 465478.
66. Taylor, G.I. Statistical theory of turbulence. V. Effect of turbulence on boundary layer. Theoretical discussion of relationship between scale of turbulence and critical resistance of spheres, Proc Roy Soc A, 1936,156, pp 307317.
67. Taylor, G.I. Turbulence in a contracting stream, Zeit für angew MathundMech, 1932, 15, pp 9196.
68. Prandtl, L.M Mechanik der flüssigenundgasörmigenKörper; Lehrbuch der Physik I, II, pp 991-1188, Vieweg und Sohn, Braun schweig, 1929. [See also Prandtl, L. The Physics of Solids and Fluids, Blackie & Son, London, 1930].
69. Squire, H.B. On the stability for three dimensional disturbances of viscous fluid flow between parallel walls, Proc Roy Soc A, 1933, 142, pp 621628.
70. Squire, H.B. and Young, A.D. The calculation of the profile drag of aerofoils, ARC, R&M No 1838, 1937.
71. Young, A D. The calculation of the total and skin friction drags of bodies of revolution at zero incidence, ARC, R&M No 1874, 1939.
72. Anderson, J.D. A History of Aerodynamics, Cambridge University Press, 1997.
73. Relf, E.F. The compressed air wind tunnel of the National Physical Laboratory, Engineering, 1931, 132, (3428), pp 428433.
74. Collar, A.R. The NPL open jet wind tunnel, ARC, R&M No 1569, 1933.
75. Collar, A.R. Some experiments with cascades of aerofoils, ARC, R&M No 1768, 1936.
76. Collar, A.R. Effect of a gauze on the velocity distribution in a uniform duct, ARC, R&M No 1867, 1939.
77. Jennings, W.G., Terry, A. and Pearsall, P.J. Preliminary calibration of the 24-foot wind tunnel, RAE, with a short description of the tunnel, ARC, R&M No 1720, 1936.
78. Bradfield, F.B. The 5-ft open jet wind tunnel, RAE, ARC, R&M No 1364,1930.
79. Stephens, A.V. and Francis, R.H. Model spinning tests of an interceptor fighter, ARC, R&M No 1578, 1933.
80. Hall, A.A. Measurements of the intensity and scale of turbulence, ARC, R&M No 1842, 1938.
81. Hall, A.A. and Hislop, G.S. Experiments on the transition of the laminar boundary layer on a flat plate, ARC, R&M No 1843, 1938.
82. Jones, B.M. Flight experiments on the boundary layer, JAS, 1938, 5, pp 81101.
83. Squire, H.B. and Winter, K.G. The Royal Aircraft Establishment 4ft x 3ft experimental low turbulence wind tunnel. Part 1 – General flow characteristics, ARC, R&M No 2690, 1948.
84. Goldstein, S. LOW drag and suction aerofoils, JAS, 1948, 15, pp 189220.
85. Goldstein, S. Approximate two-dimensional aerofoil theory. Part I. Velocity distributions for symmetrical aerofoils (from ARC Rep 5804, 1942). ARC CP No 68, 1952.
86. Goldstein, S. Approximate two-dimensional aerofoil theory. Part II. Velocity distributions for cambered aerofoils (from ARC Rep 6156, 1942),ARC,CPNo69, 1952.
87. Goldstein, S. and Richards, E.J. Approximate two-dimensional aerofoil theory. Part III. Approximate designs of symmetrical aerofoils for specified pressure distributions (from ARC Rep 6225, 1942), ARC, CP No 70, 1952.
88. Goldstein, S. Approximate two-dimensional aerofoil theory. Part IV. The design of centre lines (from ARC Rep 8548, 1945), ARC, CP No 71, 1952.
89. Goldstein, S. Approximate two-dimensional aerofoil theory. Part V. The positions of maximum velocity and theoretical CL-ranges (from ARC Rep 8549,1945), ARC, CP No 72, 1952.
90. Goldstein, S. and Preston, J.H. Approximate two-dimensional aerofoil theory. Part VI. Aerofoils with hinged flaps (from ARC Rep 8877, 1945), ARC, CP No 73, 1952.
91. Lighthill, M.J. A new method of two-dimensionalaerodynamic design, ARC, R&M No 2112, 1945.
92. Glauert, M.B. The application of the exact method of aerofoil design, ARC, R&M No 2683, 1947.
93. Falkner, V.M. The calculation of the aerodynamic loading on surfaces of any shape, ARC, R&M No 1910, 1943.
94. Falkner, V.M. The solution of lifting plane problems by vortex lattice theory, ARC, R&M No 2591, 1947.
95. Rogers, E.W.E. Aerodynamics in retrospect and prospect, Aeronaut J, February 1982, 86, (852), pp 4367.
96. Sutton, O.G. The Science of Flight, Penguin Books, Harmondsworth, 1955.
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98. Karman, T. VON. Aerodynamics, Cornell University Press, 1954.
99. Hoerner, S.F. Fluid Dynamic Drag, Published by the author. Brick Town, 1958.
100. Hoerner, S.F. and Borst, H.V. Fluid Dynamic Lift, Published by the authors. Brick Town, 1975.
101. Case, J. and Gates, S.B. Tail loads in recovering from a vertical dive at terminal velocity, ARC, R&M No 756, 1921.
102. Gates, S. B. and Howard, H.B. On the maximum load in pulling out from vertical dives, ARC, R&M No 1232, 1929.
103. Gates, S.B. and Garner, H.M. A theory of the full scale determination of damping in roll, ARC, R&M No 938, 1924.
104. Garner, H.M. and Gates, S.B. The full scale determination of the lateral resistance derivatives of a Bristol Fighter aeroplane. ARC, R&M No 987, 1925.
105. Relf, E.F. and Lavender, T. A continuous rotation balance for the measurement of Lp at small rates of roll, ARC, R&M No 828, 1922.
106. Lavender, T. A continuous rotation balance for the measurement of pitching and yawing moments due to angular velocity of roll (Mp and Np), ARC, R&M No 936, 1925.
107. Jones, B.M. and Trevelyan, A. Step by step calculations upon the asymmetric movements of stalled aeroplanes, ARC, R&M No 999. 1925.
108. Jones, B.M. Control of stalled aeroplanes, JRAeS, 1926, 30, pp 345364.
109. Jones, B. M. and Maitland, C. E. Instrumental records of the lateral motions of a stalled Bristol Fighter aeroplane, ARC. R&M No 1181, 1928.
110. Jones, B.M. and Maitland, C.E. Records of the lateral motions of a stalled Bristol Fighter aeroplane with slots upon the upper wing tips, ARC, R&M No 1286,1929.
111. Jones, B.M. and Haslam, J.A.G. Airflow about aeroplanes shown by wool-tufts, ARC, R&M No 1494, 1932.
112. Jones, B.M. Stalling, JRAeS, 1934, 38, pp 747770.
113. Farren, W.S., Walker, P.B., Francis, R.H. and Cohen, J. Flow near a wing which starts suddenly from rest and then stalls, ARC, R&M No 1561, 1933.
114. Farren, W.S. Reaction on a wing whose angle of incidence is changing rapidly. Wind tunnel experiments with a short period recording balance, ARC, R&M No 1648, 1935.
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116. Young, A.D. A review of some stalling research, ARC, R&M No 2609, 1942.
117. Stephens, A.V. Fee-flight spinning investigations with several models, ARC, R&M No 1404, 1931.
118. Gates, S.B. and Bryant, L.W. The spinning of aeroplanes, ARC, R&M No 1001, 1926.
119. Bryant, L.W. and Gates, S.B. The spinning of aeroplanes. JRAeS. 1927, 31, pp 619688.
120. Gates, S.B. Spinning experiments on a single seater fighter. II. Full scale spinning tests. ARC. R&M No 1278, 1929.
121. Gates, S.B. Measured spins on aeroplane H, ARC, R&M No 1403, 1931.
122. Gates, S.B. Effect of centrifugal force on the controls in a spin, ARC, R&M No 1416, 1931.
123. Gates, S.B. and Francis, R.H. An analytical survey of the effect of mass distribution on spinning equilibrium, ARC, R&M No 1644, 1934.
124. Gates, S.B., Irving, H.B., Alston, R.P. and Stephens, A.V. Slots and interceptors in spins, ARC, R&M No 1660, 1934.
125. Gates, S.B. and Stephens, A.V. Air density effect in spinning. ARC. R&M No 1663, 1934.
126. Glauert, H. A nondimensional form of the stability equations of an aeroplane, ARC, R&M No 1093, 1927.
127. Gates, S.B. A survey of longitudinal stability below the stall, with an abstract for designers' use. ARC, R&M No 1118, 1927.
128. Bryant, L.W., Jones, I.M.W. and Pawsey, G.L. The lateral stability of an aeroplane beyond the stall, ARC, R&M No 1519, 1932.
129. Jones, B.M. Dynamics of the Airplane (Division N, Aerodynamic Theory, Vol V, Durand, W.F. (Ed)), Springer, Berlin, 1935.
130. Bryant, L.W. and Gates, S.B. Nomenclature for stability coefficients. ARC, R&M No 1801, 1937.
131. Gates, S.B. An analysis of static longitudinal stability in relation to trim and control force. I. Gliding; II. Engine on, ARC, R&M No 2132, 1939.
132. Gates, S.B. Proposal for an elevator manoeuvrability criterion, ARC, R&M No 2677, 1942.
133. Gates, S.B. Note on differential gearing as a means of aileron balance. ARC, R&M No 2526, 1940.
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146. Douglas, W.D. and Clegg, A.W. Methods employed at the Royal Aircraft Establishment for the experimental determination of the ultimate strength of aeroplane structures, ACA, R&M No 476, 1918.
147. Barnes, C.H. Shorts Aircraft since 1900, Putnam, London, 1989.
148. Francillon, R.J. Lockheed Aircraft since 1913, Putnam, London, 1982.
149. Wagner, H. Ebene Blechwandträger mit sehr dünnem Stegblech, Zeit für Flugtechnik und Motorluftschiffahrt, 1929, 20, pp 200207, 227- 233,256-262,279-284,306-314.
150. Wagner, H. Flat sheet metal girders with very thin metal webs, NACA, TM 604-606, 1931.
151. Kuhn, P. A summary of design formulas for beams having thin webs in diagonal tension, NACA TN 469, 1933.
152. Karman, T. VON, Sechler, E. E. and Donnell, L.H. The strength of thin plates in compression, Trans ASME, 1932, 54, pp 5357.
153. Cox, H.L. Summary of the present state of knowledge regarding sheet metal construction, ARC, R&M No 1553, 1933.
154. Cox, H.L. Buckling of thin plates in compression, ARC, R&M No 1554,1933.
155. Gerard, I.J. Monocoque construction, JRAeS, 1937, 41, pp 467492.
156. Williams, D. Behaviour in bending of thin-walled tubes and channels, ARC, R&M No 1669, 1935.
157. Williams, D. and B.V.S.C., Rae The flexural axis of thin-walled sections that have no plane of symmetry, ARC, R&M No 2939, 1943.
158. Williams, D. and Fairbank, D.W.G. A study of the flexural axis positions for certain box sections, ARC, R&M No 1751, 1936.
159. Williams, D., Starkey, R.D. and Taylor, R.H. Distribution of stress between spar flanges and stringers for a wing under distributed loading, ARC, R&M No 2098, 1939.
160. Williams, D. and Fine, M. Stress distribution in reinforced flat sheet, cylindrical shells and cambered box-beams under bending actions, ARC, R&M No 2099, 1940.
161. Fine, M. and Williams, D. Stress concentration due to four-point fixing at front end of monocoque fuselage, theoretical analysis, ARC, R&M No 2100, 1941.
162. Fine, M. and Hopkins, H.G. Stress diffusion adjacent to gaps in the inter-spar skin of a stressed-skin wing, ARC, R&M No 2618, 1942.
163. Hadji-Argyris, J. and Dunne, P.C. The general theory of cylindrical and conical tubes under torsion and bending loads. Parts I-IV, JRAeS, 1947, 51, pp 199269; Part V, 1947, 51, pp 757-784, 884-930; Part VI, 1949,53, pp 461-483, 558-620.
164. Southwell, R.V. Stress calculation in frameworks by the method of ‘systematic relaxation of constraints’. I and II, Proc Roy Soc A, 1935, 151, pp 5689,90-95; III, 153, pp 41-76.
165. Pugsley, A.G. A philosophy of aeroplane strength factors, ARC, R&M No 1906, 1942.
166. Pugsley, A.G. Modern experimental work on aeroplane structures, JRAeS, 1945, 49, pp 566598.
167. Pugsley, A.G. The behaviour of structures under repeated loads, JRAeS, 1947, 51, pp 715720.
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172. Hoff, N.J. Thin shells in aerospace structures, Astronautics and Aeronautics, 1967, 5, (2), pp 2645.
173. Garrick, I.E. and Reed, W.H. Historical development of aircraft flutter, J Aircr, 1981, 18, pp 897912.
174. Reissner, H. Neurere Probleme aus der Flugzeugstatik, Zeit für Flugtechnik und Motorluftschiffahrt, 1926, 17, pp 137146.
175. Frazer, R.A. An investigation of wing flutter, ARC, R&M No 1042, 1926.
176. Baumhauer, A.G. Von and Konig, C. On the stability of oscillations of an airplane wing, International Air Congress, London, 1923.
177. Frazer, R.A. and Duncan, W.J. The flutter of aeroplane wings, ARC, R&M No 1155, 1928.
178. Frazer, R.A. and Duncan, W.J. The flutter of monoplanes, biplanes and tail units, ARC, R&M No 1255, 1931.
179. Perring, W.G.A. Wing flutter experiments upon a model of a single seater biplane, ARC, R&M No 1197, 1928.
180. Duncan, W.J. and Collar, A.R. Present position of airscrew flutter, ARC, R&M No 1518, 1932.
181. Glauert, H. The force and moment on an oscillating aerofoil, ARC, R&M No 1242, 1929.
182. Duncan, W.J. and Collar, A.R. Calculation of the resistance derivatives of flutter theory, ARC, R&M No 1500, 1932.
183. Theodorsen, T. General theory of aerodynamic instability and the mechanism of flutter, NACA Rep No 496, 1935.
184. Cox, H. Roxbee A statistical method of investigating relations between elastic stiffness of aeroplane wings and wing-aileron flutter, ARC, R&M No 1505,1932.
185. Cox, H. Roxbee and Pugsley, A.G. Theory of loss of lateral control due to wing twisting, ARC, R&M No 1506, 1932.
186. Pugsley, A.G. and Brooke, G.R. The calculation by successive approximation of the critical reversal speed for an elastic wing, ARC, R&M No 1508, 1932.
187. Pugsley, A.G. The influence of wing density upon the flutter of aero plane wings, ARC, R&M No 1497, 1932.
188. Pugsley, A.G. The influence of wing elasticity upon the longitudinal stability of an aeroplane, ARC, R&M No 1548, 1933.
189. Pugsley, A.G. Aileron instability, with special reference to rolling-aileron motion and the influence of Frise type hinge moment curves, ARC, R&M No 1595, 1934.
190. Pugsley, A.G. and Cox, H. Roxbee The aileron power of a monoplane, ARC, R&M No 1640, April 1934.
191. Pugsley, A.G. The wing stiffness of monoplanes, ARC, R&M No 1742, 1936.
192. Pugsley, A.G. and Naylor, G.L. The divergence speed of an elastic wing, ARC, R&M No 1815, 1937.
193. Pugsley, A.G. Control surface and wing stability problems, JRAeS, 1937, 41, pp 975996.
194. Mason, F.K. Hawker Aircraft since 1920, Putnam, London, 1991.
195. Collar, A.R. and Grinsted, F. The effects of structural flexibility of tailplane, elevator and fuselage on longitudinal stability and control, ARC, R&M No 2010, 1942.
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The United Kingdom's contributions to the development of aeronautics. Part 3. The development of the streamlined monoplane (the 1920s-1 940s)

  • J. A. D. Ackroyd (a1)


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