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Predicting design induced pilot error using HET (human error template) – A new formal human error identification method for flight decks

  • N. A. Stanton (a1), D. Harris (a2), P. M. Salmon (a1), J. M. Demagalski (a2), A. Marshall (a3), M. S. Young (a1), S. W. A. Dekker (a4) and T. Waldmann (a5)...


Human factors certification criteria are being developed for large civil aircraft with the objective of reducing the incidence of design-induced error on the flight deck. Many formal error identification techniques currently exist which have been developed in non-aviation contexts but none have been validated for use to this end. This paper describes a new human error identification technique (HET – human error template) designed specifically as a diagnostic tool for the identification of design-induced error on the flight deck. HET is benchmarked against three existing techniques (SHERPA – systematic human error reduction and prediction approach; human error HAZOP – hazard and operability study; and HEIST – human error In systems tool). HET outperforms all three existing techniques in a validation study comparing predicted errors to actual errors reported during an approach and landing task in a modern, highly automated commercial aircraft. It is concluded that HET should provide a useful tool as a adjunct to the proposed human factors certification process.



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